AP Inter 1st Year Accountancy Important Questions Chapter Wise Pdf | Jr Inter Accountancy Important Questions

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AP Intermediate 1st Year Accountancy Important Questions with Answers Chapter Wise

Intermediate 1st Year Accountancy Important Questions Chapter Wise

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The questions given in the AP Inter 1st Year Accountancy Important Questions Chapter Wise Pdf are designed and laid out chronologically and as per the syllabus. Students can expect that these AP Intermediate 1st Year Accountancy Important Questions with Answers Chapter Wise might be covered in the final exam paper.

AP Inter 1st Year Commerce Important Questions Chapter Wise Pdf | Jr Inter Commerce Important Questions

AP Intermediate 1st Year Commerce Important Questions Chapter Wise 2022: Here we have created a list of Andhra Pradesh BIEAP AP Intermediate Jr Inter 1st Year Commerce Important Questions Chapter Wise with Answers 2022-2023 Pdf Download just for you. Those who are preparing for Inter exams should practice the AP Intermediate 1st Year Commerce Important Questions Pdf to solve different types of questions in the exam.

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AP Intermediate 1st Year Commerce Important Questions with Answers Chapter Wise

Intermediate 1st Year Commerce Important Questions Chapter Wise

  • Chapter 1 Concept of Business Important Questions
  • Chapter 2 Business Activities Important Questions
  • Chapter 3 Forms of Business Organization Important Questions
  • Chapter 4 Joint Hindu Family Business & Co-operative Society Important Questions
  • Chapter 5 Partnership Important Questions
  • Chapter 6 Joint Stock Company – Formation Important Questions
  • Chapter 7 Formation of a Company Important Questions
  • Chapter 8 Sources of Business Finance-I Important Questions
  • Chapter 9 Sources of Business Finance-II Important Questions
  • Chapter 10 Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises (MSMEs) Important Questions
  • Chapter 11 Multi National Corporations (MNCs) Important Questions
  • Chapter 12 Emerging Trends in Business Important Questions

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The questions given in the AP Inter 1st Year Commerce Important Questions Chapter Wise Pdf are designed and laid out chronologically and as per the syllabus. Students can expect that these AP Intermediate 1st Year Commerce Important Questions with Answers Chapter Wise might be covered in the final exam paper.

AP Inter 2nd Year Accountancy Important Questions Chapter Wise Pdf | Sr Inter Accountancy Important Questions

AP Intermediate 2nd Year Accountancy Important Questions Chapter Wise 2022: Here we have created a list of Andhra Pradesh BIEAP AP Intermediate Jr Inter 2nd Year Accountancy Important Questions Chapter Wise with Answers 2022-2023 Pdf Download just for you. Those who are preparing for Inter exams should practice the AP Intermediate 2nd Year Accountancy Important Questions Pdf to solve different types of questions in the exam.

Students can also read AP Inter 2nd Year Accountancy Study Material for exam preparation. Students can also go through AP Inter 2nd Year Accountancy Notes to understand and remember the concepts easily.

AP Intermediate 2nd Year Accountancy Important Questions with Answers Chapter Wise

Intermediate 2nd Year Accountancy Important Questions Chapter Wise

TS AP Inter 2nd Year Accountancy Weightage Blue Print

The questions given in the AP Inter 2nd Year Accountancy Important Questions Chapter Wise Pdf are designed and laid out chronologically and as per the syllabus. Students can expect that these AP Intermediate 2nd Year Accountancy Important Questions with Answers Chapter Wise might be covered in the final exam paper.

AP Inter 2nd Year Commerce Important Questions Chapter Wise Pdf | Sr Inter Commerce Important Questions

AP Intermediate 2nd Year Commerce Important Questions Chapter Wise 2022: Here we have created a list of Andhra Pradesh BIEAP AP Intermediate Jr Inter 2nd Year Commerce Important Questions Chapter Wise with Answers 2022-2023 Pdf Download just for you. Those who are preparing for Inter exams should practice the AP Intermediate 2nd Year Commerce Important Questions Pdf to solve different types of questions in the exam.

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AP Intermediate 2nd Year Commerce Important Questions with Answers Chapter Wise

Intermediate 2nd Year Commerce Important Questions Chapter Wise

  • Chapter 1 Entrepreneurship Important Questions
  • Chapter 2 Domestic and International Trade Important Questions
  • Chapter 3 Business Services Important Questions
  • Chapter 4 Financial Markets Important Questions
  • Chapter 5 Consumer Protections Important Questions

TS AP Inter 2nd Year Commerce Weightage Blue Print

The questions given in the AP Inter 2nd Year Commerce Important Questions Chapter Wise Pdf are designed and laid out chronologically and as per the syllabus. Students can expect that these AP Intermediate 2nd Year Commerce Important Questions with Answers Chapter Wise might be covered in the final exam paper.

AP Inter 2nd Year Economics Important Questions Chapter Wise Pdf | Sr Inter Economics Important Questions

AP Intermediate 2nd Year Economics Important Questions Chapter Wise 2022: Here we have created a list of Andhra Pradesh BIEAP AP Intermediate Jr Inter 2nd Year Economics Important Questions Chapter Wise with Answers 2022-2023 Pdf Download just for you. Those who are preparing for Inter exams should practice the AP Intermediate 2nd Year Economics Important Questions Pdf to solve different types of questions in the exam.

Students can also read AP Inter 2nd Year Economics Study Material for exam preparation. Students can also go through AP Inter 2nd Year Economics Notes to understand and remember the concepts easily.

AP Intermediate 2nd Year Economics Important Questions with Answers Chapter Wise

Intermediate 2nd Year Economics Important Questions Chapter Wise

TS AP Inter 2nd Year Economics Weightage Blue PrintThe questions given in the AP Inter 2nd Year Economics Important Questions Chapter Wise Pdf are designed and laid out chronologically and as per the syllabus. Students can expect that these AP Intermediate 2nd Year Economics Important Questions with Answers Chapter Wise might be covered in the final exam paper.

AP Inter 2nd Year Civics Important Questions Chapter Wise Pdf | Sr Inter Civics Important Questions

AP Intermediate 2nd Year Civics Important Questions Chapter Wise 2022: Here we have created a list of Andhra Pradesh BIEAP AP Intermediate Jr Inter 2nd Year Civics Important Questions Chapter Wise with Answers 2022-2023 Pdf Download just for you. Those who are preparing for Inter exams should practice the AP Intermediate 2nd Year Civics Important Questions Pdf to solve different types of questions in the exam.

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AP Intermediate 2nd Year Civics Important Questions with Answers Chapter Wise

Intermediate 2nd Year Civics Important Questions Chapter Wise

TS AP Inter 2nd Year Civics Weightage Blue Print

The questions given in the AP Inter 2nd Year Civics Important Questions Chapter Wise Pdf are designed and laid out chronologically and as per the syllabus. Students can expect that these AP Intermediate 2nd Year Civics Important Questions with Answers Chapter Wise might be covered in the final exam paper.

AP Inter 2nd Year Civics Study Material Pdf | Intermediate 2nd Year Civics Textbook Solutions

Andhra Pradesh BIEAP AP Intermediate Inter 2nd Year Civics Study Material Textbook Solutions Guide PDF Free Download, AP Inter 2nd Year Civics Blue Print Weightage 2022-2023, Telugu Academy Intermediate 2nd Year Civics Textbook Pdf Download, Questions and Answers Solutions in English Medium and Telugu Medium are part of AP Inter 2nd Year Study Material Pdf.

Students can also read AP Inter 2nd Year Civics Syllabus & AP Inter 2nd Year Civics Important Questions for exam preparation. Students can also go through AP Inter 2nd Year Civics Notes to understand and remember the concepts easily.

AP Intermediate 2nd Year Civics Study Material Pdf Download | Sr Inter 2nd Year Civics Textbook Solutions

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AP Inter 2nd Year Civics Weightage 2022-2023 | AP Inter 2nd Year Civics Blue Print 2022

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Intermediate 2nd Year Civics Syllabus

AP Inter 2nd Year Civics Syllabus

Chapter 1 The Constitution of India
The Constitution, Elements of a Constitution, Indian Constitution — Its Historical background, Making of the Constitution, Sources of the Constitution, Preamble of the Constitution, Salient features of Indian Constitution.

Chapter 2 Fundamental Rights and Directive Principles of State Policy
Fundamental Rights, Evolution of Fundamental Rights, Characteristic Features of Fundamental Rights, Analysis of Fundamental Rights, Restrictions on Fundamental Rights, Significance of Fundamental Rights, Directive Principles of State Policy, Evolution of Directive Principles, Characteristic Features of Directive Principles of State Policy, Types of Directive Principles of State Policy, Significance of Directive Principles of State Policy, Differences between Fundamental Rights and Directive Principles of State Policy, Changing Relationship between Fundamental Rights and Directive Principles, Implementation of Directive Principles of State Policy, Fundamental Duties, Relevance of Fundamental Duties, Significance of Fundamental Duties.

Chapter 3 Union Executive
Union Executive, The President of India, The Vice-President of India, Prime Minister of India, Union Council of Ministers, Role of Union Cabinet, Collective Responsibility.

Chapter 4 Union Legislature
Union Legislature (Parliament), Unique Features of Union Legislature, Lok Sabha, The speaker of the Lok Sabha, Rajya Sabha, Chairman of Rajya Sabha, Powers and Functions of Union Legislature (Indian Parliament), Types of bills in Parliament, Law making procedure in Parliament, Important matters in Parliament, Parliamentary Committees, Amendment Procedure of Indian Constitution, Significance of Union Legislature (Parliament).

Chapter 5 Union Judiciary
The Supreme Court of India, Powers, and Functions of the Supreme Court, Judicial Review, Public Interest Litigation (PIL), Independence of Judiciary, The Attorney General of India.

Chapter 6 State Executive
State Executive, The Governor, Powers and Functions, The Chief Minister, Powers and Functions of the Chief Minister, Relationship of the Chief Minister with Governor, Position, and Significance of the Chief Minister, The State Council of Ministers, Powers and Functions of State Council of Ministers, Position of the State Council of Ministers, Relationship between the Governor and the State Council of Ministers.

Chapter 7 State Legislature
Legislative Assembly, Powers, and Functions of State Legislative Assembly, State Legislative Council, Powers and Functions of State Legislative Council, Supremacy of Legislative Assembly over the Legislative Council, Position of the State Legislature, Brief history of Andhra Pradesh Legislature, Legislative Committees.

Chapter 8 State Judiciary
High Court, Powers, and Functions, District Level Judiciary, State Advocate General.

Chapter 9 Union-State Relations
Union – State Relations, Legislative Relations, Administrative Relations, Financial Relations, Finance Commission, Planning Commission or NITI Aayog, National Development Council, National Integration Council, Inter-State Council, Sarkaria Commission, Punchchi Commission, Tension Areas in Union State Relations, Trends In Union-State Relations.

Chapter 10 Local Governments in India
Local Governments in India, Historical Background, Rural Local Governments in India, Constitution (73rd Amendment) Act 1992, Types of Rural Local Governments (Panchayat Raj Institutions), Urban Local Governments in India, Constitution (74th Amendment) Act 1992, Types of Urban Local Government, District Collector.

Chapter 11 Elections and Representation
Elections and Democracy, Electoral Functions, Election System in India, Features of Indian Electoral System, Methods of Election, ElectIon Process, Corrupt Practices in Elections, Electoral Offences, Breach of Official Duty, Representation, Election Commission of India, Powers and Functions of the Election Commission, Role of the Commission, Electoral Reforms.

Chapter 12 Political Parties
Meaning and Definitions, Characteristics of Political Parties, Types of Political Parties, Functions of Political Parties, Party System, Types of Party System, Party System in India, Characteristics of Indian Party System, Major National Political Parties in India, One Party Dominance, Major Regional Political Parties In India, Types of Regional Political Parties, Significance of Regional Parties in Indian Politics.

Chapter 13 Recent Developments in Andhra Pradesh and India
Re-Organization of States, The Birth of Andhra State, Emergence of Andhra Pradesh, Political Crisis in 1969 and1972, Bifurcation of Andhra Pradesh, National Human Rights Commission, State Human Rights Commissions, Right to Information Act 2005.

We hope that this Telangana & Andhra Pradesh BIEAP AP Intermediate Inter 2nd Year Civics Study Material Textbook Solutions Guide PDF Free Download 2022-2023 in English Medium and Telugu Medium helps the student to come out successful with flying colors in this examination. This Sr Inter 2nd Year Civics Study Material will help students to gain the right knowledge to tackle any type of questions that can be asked during the exams.

AP Inter 1st Year Economics Important Questions Chapter 1 Introduction to Economics

Students must practice these AP Inter 1st Year Economics Important Questions 1st Lesson Introduction to Economics to boost their exam preparation.

AP Inter 1st Year Economics Important Questions 1st Lesson Introduction to Economics

Long Answer Questions

Question 1.
Discuss Wealth definition. [May 2017]
Answer:
The first definition of Economics was given by the famous classical Economist Adam Smith, in 1776 in his famous book “Wealth of Nations”. He defined Economics as “an enquiry into the nature and causes of the wealth of nations.” According to Adam Smith and his supporters, “Economics is basically a study of wealth”. It studies how wealth is produced (acquired), accumulated, consumed and distributed.

Important features:

  • Economics is the study of wealth in which all human activity is directed towards the acquisition and accumulation of wealth.
  • Wealth refers to only material things that include tangible goods but not services.
  • Human beings are motivated or guided by self-interest in which their sole objective is to earn and accumulate more and more wealth.

Criticisms: The following are criticisms of wealth definition.

1. Carlyle and Ruskin criticised that wealth definition makes Economics as a dismal (useless) science. They argue that a separate type of selfish man is created namely the ‘Economic man’ whose main objective is wealth acquisition.

2. Marshall criticises that in wealth definition primary importance is given to wealth and secondary importance to man and welfare. He feels that wealth is only a means to end but not an end itself. .

3. It is criticised that this definition covers material wealth, that is, wealth in the form of goods. By not covering non – material wealth in the form of services, wealth definition makes the scope of Economics narrow or limited.

4. It is criticised that the wealth definition deals only with the acquisition (earning) and accumulation (increase) of wealth but not with the distribution of wealth for the welfare of society.

AP Inter 1st Year Economics Important Questions Chapter 1 Introduction to Economics

Question 2.
Explain the Welfare definition.
Answer:
Alfred Marshall has given a new definition to Economics in his book “Principles of Economics” in 1890.
In the words of Marshall “Political Economy or Economics is a study of mankind in the ordinary business of life; it examines that part of individual and social action which is most closely connected with the attainment and with the use of material requisites of well- being. Thus it is on the one side, a study of wealth and more important side, a part of the study of man and his welfare”.

Important features:

  • This definition gives primary importance to man and his welfare and secondary importance to wealth.
  • It studies all actions of human beings, both individual action and social action, that promote material welfare.
  • It deeds with the activities of people in organised societies.
  • It studies only the economic aspects of human life and has no concern (not related to) with the social, political and religious aspects of human life.

Criticisms:
1. Economics is a social science that deals with the economic behaviour of (society) human beings. Since the fundamental laws of Economics apply to all human beings, critics argue that Economics should be treated as a human science rather than a social science.

2. It is argued by Prof. Robbins that by considering only material welfare obtained from tangible (material goods), Marshall made this definition incomplete.

3. Critics argue that welfare is subjective and measuring welfare in quantitative terms is not possible. Welfare changes from person to person, place to place and time to time.

4. It is argued that Marshall’s definition covers those goods/activities which promote human welfare. It is pointed by critics that goods like alcohol and drugs which do not promote human welfare are also a part of economic activity and part of Economics.

5. It is argued by Robbins that the welfare definition does not consider the scarcity of resources, the root cause of the economic problems.

Question 3.
Explain how Robbins’ definition is superior to the Welfare definition.
Answer:
Lionel Robbins in his book “An Essay on the Nature and Significance of Economic Science” has given a scientific definition to Economics.

In the words of Robbins, “Economics is the science which studies human behaviour as a relationship between ends and scarce means which have alternative uses”. Robbins’ definition is an appropriate definition of Economics because it recognises that means are scarce have alternatives uses, wants are unlimited and the need for choice-making.

Superiority over Welfare definition :

  • By covering both material and non-material things, activities of human beings living in civilised and non-civilised societies, this definition makes the scope of Economics very broad.
  • For the first time, Economics was given the status of science.
  • Robbins’ definition is universally acceptable because it recognises scarcity of economic resources, the need for choice making and coverage of ail types of societies.
  • Robbins’ definition is superior in the sense that it makes Economics a positive science. It remains neutral between ends and does not pass any value judgements.

Question 4.
Define Prof. Samuelson’s growth definition.
Answer:
Prof. Paul A. Samuelson has given a modern definition which emphasises on growth. “Economics is a study of how people and society choose, with or without the use of money, to employ scarce productive resources which could have alternative uses, to produce various commodities overtime and distribute them for consumption, now and in the future among various people and groups in the society. Economics analyses the costs and benefits of improving the patterns of resource use”. – Paul A.

Samuelson Samuelson’s definition is a better definition because it emphasises on the following aspects:
1.This definition takes note of the fact that scarce resource can be used for the satisfaction of unlimited wants. Scarce resources have alternative uses also.

2. Dynamism: This definition is more dynamic because it covers both present and future needs of production and consumption.

3. Wide scope: The scope of this definition is very wide because it recognises that the problem of choice is important both in the present monetary economy and the erstwhile barter economy. In addition, it covers the welfare of society.

4. Economic growth: This definition is having more importance because it emphasises On the productive use of limited resources for rapid growth.

AP Inter 1st Year Economics Important Questions Chapter 1 Introduction to Economics

Question 5.
Distinguish between “Micro” and “Macro” Economics. [May 2016]
Answer:
The subject matter of Economics is broadly divided into two part., namely, Micro Economics and Macro Economics.

Micro – Economics: The term micro means small. Micro Economics is the study of the smallest part of the economy like an an-individual household or individual business firm. According to K.E. Bouldi’ng, Micro – Economics is the study of particular firms, particular households, individual prices, wages, incomes, individual industries and particular commodities.

Macro – Economics: The term macro means big. Macro Economics the study of the economic system as a whole. It does not’ study individual units like an individual consumer, or individual firm but the economic system as a whole.

“Macro Economics studies National Income, not individual income, general price level instead of individual prices and national output instead of individual output.”
– K.E. Boulding

Differences between Micro & Macro Economics

Micro Economics Macro – Economics
1) The word Micro is derived from the Greek word “mikros” which means “small”. 1) The word Macro is derived from the Greek word “makros” which means “large.”
2) Micro Economics is the study of individual units or parts of the economy. 2) Macro Economics is the study of the economy as a whole as a single unit.
3) Micro Economics is also known as Price theory. 3) Macro Economics is also known as Income and Employment theory.
4) Micro Economics deals with price determination in the product (commodity) and factor markets. 4) Macro Economics deals with variables like National Income, Aggregate or Total employment, Aggregate Savings, Aggregate Investment, General Price level and Economic growth.
5) Micro Economics is based on price mechanisms, profit motive, and on forces of demand and supply. 5) Macro Economics is based on variables like Aggregate demand and supply.

Short Answer Questions

Question 1.
Free goods and Economic goods. [May-2019-AP]
Answer:
Free goods: Free goods are the gifts of nature. E.g: Air, sunshine. They are not man-made. They have no cost of production. They have no price. Their supply is permanently more than their demand. They have only value in use and no value in exchange. Since they do not have monetary value, their value is not included/ shown in the national income. Economic goods: They are man-made goods. E.g: Pens, books, cars, etc. They have cost of production. For using their price is to be paid. Their supply is less than their demand. They have both values in use and value in exchange. As they have price and money value, their value is included in the calculation of national income.

Differences between Free goods and Economic goods

Free goods Economic goods
1) They are free gifts of nature and have no cost of production. 1) They are man-made goods and have cost of production.
2) Supply is unlimited or greater than their demand. 2) Supply is less when compared to their demand.
3) They have no price, as they are gifts of nature. 3) As they are man-made, they have price.
4) They have only value in use. 4) They have value in use and also value in exchange.
5) As they have’ no money value, their value is not shown in national income. 5) Since they have monetary value, they are included in the calculation of national income.

Question 2.
Characteristics of Wants. [May, March – 2018. 2017; May 2016]
Answer:
The starting point of all economic activities in an economy is unsatisfied human wants.

Characteristics of wants:
1. Wants are unlimited: When one want is satisfied another want arises in its place.

2. A particular want is satiable: This means though it is not possible to satisfy all our unlimited wants, a single want can be fully satisfied.

3. Wants are competitive: Wants are unlimited but resources are limited. So the unlimited wants compete with each for being satisfied with limited money.

4. Wants are complementary: This means that the satisfaction of some wants requires the use of two or more goods. E.g: The desire or want of writing can be satisfied only when we have pen, ink and paper.

5. Wants are substitutable: That means a want can be satisfied by either with one good or some other alternative good. Thirst can be satisfied either with water or cool drink.

6. Wants recur: Most of the wants recur. That means they arise again and again even though they are already satisfied.

7. Wants change into habits: When a want is satisfied regularly, it becomes a habit.

8. Wants differ in urgency: All wants are not alike. Some wants are more urgent, while some are less important and can be postponed.

9. Wants vary (change) from time to time, place to place and person to person: E.g: Car is necessity for doctor while it is a luxury to a student.

AP Inter 1st Year Economics Important Questions Chapter 1 Introduction to Economics

Question 3.
Various types of Utility. [May-2019-TS]
Answer:
The utility can be defined as the want satisfying power or capacity of a good or service. In Economics, satisfaction and welfare are also known as Utility.

Types of Utility: The following are some types of utility.
a) Form Utility: It is the additional utility or additional value created for a good by changing its present form into a new form. E.g: Conversion of raw wood into tables and chairs to increase the value of raw wood.

b) Place Utility: The utility/additional utility or value created for a good by transporting it from the place of production or less demand to the place of consumption or high demand is known as place utility. E.g: Transportation of apples from Simla to different places of India.

c) Time Utility: The utility / additional utility or value created for a good by storing it from the time of production till the time of consumption or sale in future is known as time utility.
E.g: Storing of new paddy from December till April/May next year to make them to become old paddy, with a higher value.

d) Service Utility: The utility which the services of professionals possess is known as service utility. E.g: Services of doctors, engineers, teachers, etc.

Question 4.
Jacob Viner’s definition. [May, March – 2018. 2017 ; May 2016]
Answer:
Prof* Jacob Viner, an American Economist has given a completely new definition of Economics, in view of the increasing scope of Economics.
According to Jacob Viner “Economics is what Economists do”.

The above definition states that, nowadays Economics is basically concerned with providing solutions to various economic and social problems faced by society. It is true that basic economic problem in any society is a scarcity of economic resources. As per the above definition, Economics is / Economists are supposed to find solutions and answers to the following issues.

The basic economic problems in any society are:

  1. What type of goods are to be produced and in what quantities?
  2. How to produce such goods?
  3. For whom to produce such goods and services?
  4. Efficient and rational use of productive resources.
  5. Fuller utilization of available resources.
  6. Making the economy vibrant by achieving reasonable growth in the economy.

In this way, Economics, According to Jacob Viner, offers solutions to various economic problems faced by modern societies.

Question 5.
Various methods of Economic Investigation.
Answer:
Economics is a social science that deals with the rational, productive and optimum utilization of scarce economic resources for optimizing net social gain. Economics is the study of the never-ending efforts of man to satisfy his endless wants with limited resources.

Economists have devised two methods to analyze or study the subject matter of Economics. They are:
a) Deductive Method: it is a method of Economic investigation in which particular (conclusions) Laws of Economics are deduced/derived from general human behavior and nature. In other words, under the deductive method “We start from general and arrive at particular”.
E.g: Laws of Diminishing Marginal Utility.
The deductive method is supported by classical Economists’and is also known as the abstract, analytical and prior methods.

b) Inductive method: Inductive Method is such method of economic investigation or analysis in which generalizations are made based on particular cases or observed facts. In other words, under the inductive method, “We start from particular (cases) and arrive at general (conclusions).” E.g: Law of Diminishing Marginal Returns. The inductive method is al ‘o known as the statistical and historical method.

AP Inter 1st Year Economics Important Questions Chapter 1 Introduction to Economics

Very Short Answer Questions

Question 1. [May 2017]
Economic goods.
Answer:
They are man-made goods. They are not gifts of nature. As they are man-made goods, they have cost of production. For using them, price is to be paid. Their supply is less than their demand. They have both value in use and value in exchange. Their value is included in the calculation of national income. E.g : Books, fans, etc.

Question 2.
Capital goods.
Answer:
Capital goods are those goods which are used in the production of consumer goods. They are also known as producer goods. They will not satisfy the wants of the consumers directly. They provide income to their owners. E.g: Tractor, baking oven, etc.

Question 3.
Intermediary goods. [Mar. ’19 (TS); May ’18 ’16; May. ‘2017]
Answer:
They are half finished or semi-finished goods. They are not yet finished and are in the process of production between the stage of raw materials and final goods. They cannot be used by the consumers directly in their present form. The value of such goods is not shown / included in the calculation of national income.

Question 4. [Mar. ’19 (AP); Mar. 18. May 2016]
Wealth.
Answer:
Generally the term ‘Wealth’ means money arid different assets held by the people. But in Economics, all economic goods are considered as wealth. If economic goods are to be considered as wealth, they should have utility, scarcity, exchange value and transferability.

Question 5.
Income.
Answer:
The term income refers to the amount received by the people and factors of production by their efforts and through the sale of their services. Income is a flow which originates from wealth. In other words, income is a flow whereas wealth is stock.

Question 6. [May 2018]
Utility.
Answer:
The want satisfying capacity of a good/ service is generally known as utility. However, in Economics, the term utility also refers to the satisfaction, welfare, in addition to want satisfying power.

Question 7.
Exchange value.
Answer:
There are two types of values, namely, “Value use” and “Value in exchange”. In Economics, “value” means value in exchange. Value in exchange means, the quantities of other goods that can be received in exchange of this good.

Question 8. [May, March – 2018, 2017]
Price
Answer:
The value of a commodity expressed in terms of money or rupees is known as price. But in Economics, how much price a good commands in the market depends upon its value in exchange. Higher the exchange value of a good, higher the price and vice versa.

Question 9.
Choice problem. [May-2019 (AP)]
Answer:
In the society economic resources are limited. They are having alternative uses. But wants are unlimited. So, the individuals, firms and government have to decide how to use scarce economic resources for the satisfaction of unlimited wants or among alternative uses. Such decision making is known as choice problem.

Question 10.
Alternative uses.
Answer:
Wants are unlimited. But the economic resources are limited. The term alternative uses means or refers to the different uses for which the limited resources can be used.

AP Inter 1st Year Economics Important Questions Chapter 1 Introduction to Economics

Question 11.
Consumer goods.
Answer:
The goods which satisfy the wants of the consumers directly are known as consumer goods. E.g : Apples, pen, milk, etc.
They are divided into two types. They are a) consumer perishables b) consumer durables.

Question 12.
Economic agents.
Answer:
The term “Economic agents” refers to the consumers (individuals or buyers), producers (or sellers) and government and other middle men and factors of production who participate in economic activities. They try to satisfy unlimited wants with limited means which have alternative uses.

Question 13.
Micro Economics.
Answer:
The term “Micro” means a millionth part. It is the study of smallest part in the economy like a single or individual consumer, an individual business firm, etc. It studies how rational economic decisions are made by an individual consumer or an individual business firm to get maximum utility or to earn maximum profits. It is also known as Price theory.

Question 14.
Macro Economics.
Answer:
“Macro” means big. “Macro Economics” is also known as “Aggregative Economics”. It is the study of economic system as whole. It is the study of aggregates like changes in national income, general price level, aggregate employment, aggregate savings, aggregate investments, etc.

AP Inter 1st Year Economics Important Questions Chapter Wise Pdf | Jr Inter Economics Important Questions

AP Intermediate 1st Year Economics Important Questions Chapter Wise 2022: Here we have created a list of Andhra Pradesh BIEAP AP Intermediate Jr Inter 1st Year Economics Important Questions Chapter Wise with Answers 2022-2023 Pdf Download just for you. Those who are preparing for Inter exams should practice the AP Intermediate 1st Year Economics Important Questions Pdf to solve different types of questions in the exam.

Students can also read AP Inter 1st Year Economics Study Material for exam preparation. Students can also go through AP Inter 1st Year Economics Notes to understand and remember the concepts easily.

AP Intermediate 1st Year Economics Important Questions with Answers Chapter Wise

Intermediate 1st Year Economics Important Questions Chapter Wise

AP Inter 1st Year Economics Weightage Blue Print

The questions given in the AP Inter 1st Year Economics Important Questions Chapter Wise Pdf are designed and laid out chronologically and as per the syllabus. Students can expect that these AP Intermediate 1st Year Economics Important Questions with Answers Chapter Wise might be covered in the final exam paper.

AP Inter 1st Year Civics Important Questions Chapter 1 Scope and Significance of Political Science

Students must practice these AP Inter 1st Year Civics Important Questions 1st Lesson Scope and Significance of Political Science to boost their exam preparation.

AP Inter 1st Year Civics Important Questions 1st Lesson Scope and Significance of Political Science

Long Answer Questions

Question 1.
Define Political Science and explain its scope. [May 2022, Sep 2021, Mar. 2020, 18, 16; May 17, 16; Mar. 17 -T.S: Mar. ’15-T.S& A.P]
Answer:
Meaning: Man is a social animal. Social life is a blend of different institutions and associations which include political, economic, cultural and social, etc. Political science studies about the political institutions like the State, the Government, the political parties, etc. The development of political science started before the 4th century BC. Aristotle, the famous Greek philosopher brought unprecedented importance and recognition to political science.

Definitions:

  • “Political science begins and ends with the state.” – J.W.Garner.
  • R.G. Gettle defines “Political science is a historical investigation of what the state has been, an analytical study of what the state is and a politico – ethical discussion of what the state should be”.
  • Appadorai defines “Political science is concerned with the conditions essential for the existence and development of the state”.
  • Stephen Leacock defines “Political science deals with the Government”.

Scope of Political Science: The scope of political science comprises the following points. They are:

1. Study of Man in Relation to the Society and State:
Aristotle stated that ‘Man is a social animal.’ Man can satisfy his basic needs like food, clothing, shelter and protection in the society. Political Science explains the relationship between man and society. It also explains the origin, evolution and purpose of the society. It examines how man should adjust himself with the society.

2. Study of State:
Political scientists like Paul Janet, Bluntschli and Garner viewed Political Science as a study of the affairs of the state. They conceived the state as a political institution. The state is indispensable for every individual. Political Science studies the intimate relationship between the state and the citizens. The scope of political science comprises many aspects of the state. It can be analysed into three categories. They are i) The state in the present situation, ii) the state in the past, iii) the state as it should be in future.

3. Study of the Government:
Scope of Political Science includes the study of government. Some political scientists like Stephen Leacock and John Richard Seeley confined the scope of the discipline to the government alone. Political Science mainly studies about the government. Government is an agency of the state. There can be no State without a government. The state realises its aims through the instrument of government. Government formulates, expresses and implements the will of the state. Political Science studies the meaning, forms, structure, nature and functions of the government.

4. Study of Associations and Institutions:
There are several associations and institutions which influence the life of an individual. Every individual is a member of various associations and institutions in the state. While the state fulfils various political needs of individuals, associations and institutions help the individuals for their moral, religious, cultural, scientific and technological progress. These carry on their activities at local, national and international levels. Individuals join as members in these associations out of their interests or purposes. Political science studies and examines as a part of its scope about all these associations and institutions which play a significant role in the all-round growth of human personality.

5. Study of Rights and Responsibilities:
Scope of Political Science includes the study of rights and responsibilities of citizens. Citizens in democratic states, enjoy certain rights such as right to life, right to liberty, right to property, etc. Political Science enumerates the definition, classification and different theories of rights. It also focuses its attention on fundamental rights and their constitutional provisions, Similarly, citizens will have some responsibilities towards the state. These include paying taxes, obeying the laws, etc. Political Science also deals with the fundamental duties.

6. Study of National and International Issues:
Scope of Political Science comprises a study of International Relations which have become significant since the beginning of the 20th century. Political Science deals with the matters of upcoming nation states as well as international politics.

7. Study of Power:
The Behaviouralists of twentieth century regarded Political Science as a study of sharing and shaping of power. They pointed out that Political Science discusses how power is grabbed, manipulated and perpetuated to have a control over the society.

8. Study of Public Policy:
Modern political scientists like David Easton, Anderson and Charles Lindbolm argued that Political Science is a ‘Policy Science’. They considered Political Science as the study of formulation, execution and evaluation of Public Policy. They emphasized the role of formal political structures and informal political groups.

AP Inter 1st Year Civics Important Questions Chapter 1 Scope and Significance of Political Science

Question 2.
Discuss the significance of the study of Political Science. [March 2019]
Answer:
The study of political science is very useful and valuable. Its significance can be analysed as follows:

1. Information about the State:
The primary aim of studying Political Science is to inculcate knowledge of the state – its origin, nature, structure and functions. Knowledge of the State is of great significance to everyone.

2. Knowledge of Government and Administration:
The administrators, political leaders and diplomats who manipulate the affairs of the State require a sound knowledge of Political Science in order to perform their functions with efficiency.

3. Provides Information about Democratic Valves:
Political Science provides accurate information about the various political terms such as State, Government, Nation, Nationality, Constitution, Democracy, Liberalism, Capitalism, Socialism and Communism which are used commonly in every sphere of life.

4. Makes Democracy Successful:
Political Science explains the significance of franchise. It educates the common men on the ideas and ideals of democracy. Its study is vital for the success of democracy. Its study makes the citizens intelligent, patriotic and vigilant in democratic system.

5. Awareness about Rights and Responsibilities:
The study of Political Science makes people conscious of their rights and responsibilities. It also enables the citizens to be familiar with their rights and responsibilities and the interrelationship between the two.

6. Teaches the Qualities of Good Citizenship:
Political Science teaches the lessons of various aspects and virtues of good citizenship. It trains the people to become ideal citizens. It inculcates good citizenship qualities such as obedience, social service, self-sacrifice, etc. It promotes and strengthens among them a sense of responsibility towards society and state.

7. Knowledge about World Affairs:
The study of Political Science enriches individual’s knowledge on world affairs. It widens his intellectual horizon. Political Science is useful for observing and understanding the contemporary world affairs.

8. Provides Knowledge about International Organisation:
The study of Political Science promotes the spirit of internationalism. It provides a good knowledge about international organizations like the United Nations. It educates the people about the importance of internationalism in the present day world for alleviating political tensions between states.

9. Develops Political Awareness:
The study of political science provides the necessary knowledge about political ideals namely Liberty, Equality, Fraternity, Justice, etc. It also discusses about some political ideologies like fascism, socialism and communism. It removes ignorance among the people regarding the above political ideals.

10. Explains the Need for Co-operation and Toleration:
Political Science teaches about the need for adjustment, co-operation and toleration. It eliminates narrow mentality and selfish outlook among the people. It emphasizes the need for overcoming the sectarian and sectional interests. It further explains the need for respecting each other in society.

11. Knowledge of Political Science is Indispensable:
The study of Political Science has special significance in all states of the world. Its study helps everyone to understand the mechanism and constitutional systems of modern governments. Political Science creates awareness among them about the contemporary issues in national and international spheres.

AP Inter 1st Year Civics Important Questions Chapter 1 Scope and Significance of Political Science

Question 3.
Define Political Science and explain its nature.
Answer:
Definitions:
Political science has been defined by eminent political thinkers in different dimensions. They are:

  • J.W. Garner defines “Political science begins and ends with the State”.
  • Stephen Leacock defines “Political science deals with the Government”.
  • Gilchrist defines “Political science is a study of the foundations of the State and Government”.

Nature of political science:
There prevailed a controversy among the political scientists in regard to the nature of Political Science. Some viewed Political Science as a Science. Others treated it as an Art. Those who viewed Political Science as a Science include some prominent political philosophers like Aristotle, Bluntschli, Bodin, Hobbes, Jellinick, Montesquieu, Sidgwick and others. On the other hand, some political writers like Barker, Collin, Maitland and J.S.Mill regarded Political Science as an Art. Let us examine the two aspects (Science and Art) of Political Science.

1) Political Science is a Science: Political Science is considered as a Science on the following grounds:

  • Political Science is studied in a systematic manner.
  • Experimentation is possible in politics. Principles are applied in the actual organisation of political institutions.
  • Political Science, like other Sciences, has absolute and universal laws.
  • Predictions are easily applicable in politics.
  • Certain generally agreed principles can be incorporated into the study of Political Science.
  • Political Science embraces scientific nature. Scientific principles are applicable in the study of this discipline.
  • Political Science, like other sciences, gives scope for establishing relationship between cause and effect.

2) Political Science is also described as an Art: Political Science is considered as an Art on the following grounds:

  • Political Science has no absolute and universal laws like physical sciences.
  • The phenomena studied in Political Science are interpreted in various ways depending upon the context and situation. So it lacks uniformity in the interpretation of various concepts.
  • Political Science gives no scope for the exact theory of cause and effect which is the basis of all sciences.
  • Political Science is not evolutionary in nature as its concepts are not developed in a study, regular and continuous manner.
  • Scientific methods of observation and experimentation are not applicable in Political Science.
  • Complete objectivity and detachment are not found in the case of various phenomena in Political Science.
  • Political Science gives no scope for accuracy.

AP Inter 1st Year Civics Important Questions Chapter 1 Scope and Significance of Political Science

Short Answer Questions

Question 1.
Write about the traditional definitions of Political Science.
Answer:
Traditional definitions of Political Science may be classified under three sub-categories. They are mentioned as follows.

A) Political Science – a study of the State:
Political Philosophers like J.W. Garner, R.G.Gettle, Appadorai and others defined Political Science as a study of the State.

  • J.W. Garner:
    “Political Science begins and ends with the state.”
  • R.G. Gettle:
    “Political Science is a historical investigation of what the state has been, an analytical study of what the state is and a politico-ethical discussion of what the state should be.”

B) Political Science – a study of the Government:
Some political philosophers like Stephen Leacock, John Richard Seely and others defined Political Science as a study of the Government.

  • Stephen Leacock:
    “Political Science deals with the Government.”
  • John Richard Seeley:
    “Political Science investigates the phenomenon of the Government.”

C) Political Science – a study of the State and the Government:
Political Philosophers like Paul Janet, R.N.Gilchrist, Dimock, Prof. Catlin and others defined Political Science as a study of the State and the Government.

Paul Janet:
“Political Science is that part of social science which treats the foundations of state and the principles of the government.”

Question 2.
What are the various modern definitions of Political Science?
Answer:
Modern definitions of Political Science can be classified into two sub-categories. They are discussed as follows:

A) Political Science – a study of power:

  • Lasswell and Kaplan:
    “Political Science, as an empirical discipline, is the study of shaping and sharing of power.”
  • William A.Robson:
    “Political Science is primarily concerned with the power in society.”

B) Political Science – a study of allocation of values:

  • David Easton:
    “Political Science is concerned with the authoritative allocation of values for a society.”
  • Hillman : “Politics is the science of who gets what, when and why ?”
    We may conclude that the modern definitions conceived Political Science as a social science concerning with the study and evaluation of activities, power and processes of political institutions.

Question 3.
Explain about the nature of Political Science.
Answer:
There prevailed a controversy among the Political Scientists regarding the nature of Political Science. Some Political Scientists like Aristotle viewed Political Science as a science. On the other hand, some Political thinkers like J.S.Mill viewed Political Science as an Art.

These two aspects may be explained as follows:

1. Political Science is a science:
Political Science is considered as a Science on the following grounds:

  • Political Science is studied in a systematic manner.
  • Experimentation is possible in politics. Principles are applied in the actual organisation of political institutions.
  • Political Science, like other Sciences, has absolute and universal laws.
  • Predictions are easily applicable in politics.

2. Political Science is an Art:
Political Science is considered as an Art on the following grounds:

  • Political Science has no absolute and universal laws like physical sciences.
  • The phenomena studied in Political Science are interpreted in various ways depending upon the context and situation. So it lacks uniformity in the interpretation of various concepts.
  • Political Science gives no scope for the exact theory of cause and effect which is the basis of all sciences.

Question 4.
Mention any three topics covered under the scope of Political Science.
Answer:
1. Study of Man In Relation to the Society and State:
Aristotle stated that ‘Man is a social animal. Man can satisfy his basic needs like food, clothing, shelter and protection in the society. Political Science explains the relationship between man and society. It also explains the origin, evolution and purpose of the society, it examines how man should adjust himself with the society.

2. Study of State:
Political scientists like Paul Janet, Bluntschli and Garner viewed Political Science as a study of the affairs of the state. They conceived the state as a politcal institution. The state is indispensable for every individual. Political Science studies the intimate relationship between the state and the citizens. The scope of political science comprises many aspects of the state. It can be analysed into three categories. They are i) The state in the present situation, ii) The state in the past, iii) The state as it should be in future.

3. Study of the Government:
Scope of Political Science includes the study of government. Some political scientists like Stephen Leacock and John Richard Seeley confined the scope of the discipline to the government alone. Political Science mainly studies about the government. Government is an agency of the state. There can be no State without a government. The state realises its aims through the instrument of government. Government formulates, expresses and implements the will of the state. Political Science studies the meanings, forms, structure, nature and functions of the government.

AP Inter 1st Year Civics Important Questions Chapter 1 Scope and Significance of Political Science

Question 5.
Describe the scope of Political Science in the sphere of Government.
Answer:
Scope of Political Science includes the study of government. Some political scientists like Stephen Leacock and John Richard Seeley confined the scope of the discipline to the government alone. Political Science mainly studies about the government. Government is an agency of the state. There can be no State without a government. The state realises its aims through the instrument of government. Government formulates, expresses and implements the will of the state. There must be some men or body of men who are authorised to issue orders on behalf of the state. They are known as the government. Political Science studies the meaning, forms, structure, nature and functions of the government. It discusses the relationship among the various organs of the government. It makes a differentiation between the State and Government. While dealing with the government, Political Science narrates the classification of various governments as given by Aristotle, Leacock and others. Political Science discusses the various merits and demerits, essential conditions and manifold activities of the above governments. Hence, Political Science is treated as a science of government.

Question 6.
“Political Science is a study of the present, past and future of the state. “Analyse this statement.
Answer:
The scope of Political Science comprises many aspects of the state. It can be analysed under three categories i.e.,

  • the state in present situation
  • the state in the past and
  • the state as it should be in future.

1. Study of State in the present:
Political Science deals with the state as it exists today. It explains the meaning, nature, purpose, growth and functioning of the state. It also studies about the origin of the state and its theories. It also deals with public opinion, political parties and pressure groups which seek to capture the political power or influence public policies.

2. Study of State in the past:
Political Science explains about the origin and transformation of the state. It also discusses about the diverse political institutions that existed with in the state. It studies various factors that influenced the origin and evolution of the state. This sort of historical study is possible only in Political Science.

3. Study of State in future:
Political Science tries to determine the principles and concepts of a model state. It lays down the conditions under which a perfect state is realized. Political scientists conceive the future with a view to improve the standards of political institutions and their activities in the light of changing conditions.

Very Short Answer Questions

Question 1.
Write about ancient city states. [May. 2022, Sep. 2021 Mar. ’19,’18, ’16; May ’17; Mar. 17 -T.S; Mar. ’15-A.P]
Answer:
Political Scientists felt that the study of Political Science had its origin in the ancient Greek city states. They described that civilisation at first flourished in those city states like Athens, Corinth, Macedonia, Thabes, Sparta, Milan, etc. These city states enjoyed sovereignty. They possessed self sufficiency and self-reliance. Prof. Catlin described them as city communities. Residents of the above city states belonged to three categories, namely, (i) Citizens, (ii) Aliens, and (iii) Slaves.

AP Inter 1st Year Civics Important Questions Chapter 1 Scope and Significance of Political Science

Question 2.
Give any two traditional definitions of Political Science.
Answer:
1) J.W.Garner:
“Political Science begins and ends with the state.”

2) R.G.Gettle:
“Political Science is a historical investigation of what the state has been, an analytical study of what the state is and a politico-ethical discussion of what the state should be.”

 

Question 3.
Write about any two modern definitions of Political Science.
Answer:
1) Lasswell and Kaplan:
“Political Science, as an empirical discipline, is the study of shaping and sharing of power.”

2) William A.Robson:
“Political Science is primarily concerned with the power in society.”

Question 4.
How does Political Science teach the qualities of good Citizenship?
Answer:
Political Sciences teaches the lessons of various aspects and virtues of good citizenship. It trains the people to become ideal citizens. It inculcates good citizenship qualities such as obedience, social service, self-sacrifice, etc. It promotes and strengthens among them a sense of responsibility towards society and state. It promotes the personality of individuals.

Question 5.
Justify the statement that Political Science is an Art. [Mar. 2020, May. 2016]
Answer:
Political Science is justified as an Art on the following grounds. Those are:

  • Political Science has no absolute and universal laws like physical sciences.
  • Political Science gives no scope for the exact theory of cause and effect which is the basis of all sciences.
  • Political Science gives no scope for accuracy.

Question 6.
On what grounds is Political Science considered as a Science? [May. 2022]
Answer:
Political Science is considered as a science on the following grounds. Those are:

  • Political Science is studied in a systematic manner.
  • Experimentation is possible in political science. Principles are applicable in the actual organisation of political institutions.
  • Political Science, like other sciences, has absolute and universal laws.

AP Inter 1st Year Civics Important Questions Chapter 1 Scope and Significance of Political Science

Question 7.
Name any four topics covered under the scope of Political Science. [Sep. 2021]
Answer:
Political Science covers the following topics under its scope. Those are:

  • State and government
  • Political ideas
  • Political theories
  • Political institutions.

Question 8.
In what way is Political Science considered as a study of the government?
Answer:
Scope of Political Science includes the study of government. Some political scientists like Stephen Leacock and John Richard Seeley confined the scope of the discipline to the government alone. Political Science mainly studies about the government. Government is an agency of the state. There can be no State without a government. The state realises its aims through the instrumnet of government. Government formulates, expresses and implements the will of the state.

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Intermediate 1st Year Civics Syllabus

AP Inter 1st Year Civics Syllabus

Chapter 1 Scope and Significance of Political Science
Meaning of Political Science, Origin of Political Science, Definitions of Political Science, Nature of Political Science, Scope of Political Science, Significance (or) Importance of Politica Science

Chapter 2 State
Meaning and definition of State, State and Its Essential elements – Population, Territory, Government and Sovereignty, Other elements of the State – International recognition, permanence, general obedience, and popular will, Relationship between State and Society, DIfferences between Stat. and Society, Relationship between State and Association, Differences between State and Association, Relationship between State and Government, Differences between State and Government

Chapter 3 Nationalism
Meaning and definitions of Nation, Meaning and definition of Nationality, Essential Elements of Nationality, Nationalism, Differences between Nation and State, Differences between Nation and Nationality, National self-determination, India is a Nation State, Uni-national State, Multi-national State, Connotations of Nationality, Different phases of Nationalism, Merits and Demerits of Nationalism

Chapter 4 Law
Meaning of Law, Definitions of Law, Features of Law, Sources of Law, Classification of Law, Law and Morality Relationship, Law and Morality Differences, Relation between Law and Liberty, Differences between Law and Liberty, Rule of Law

Chapter 5 Liberty and Equality
Introduction to Liberty, Meaning of Liberty, Definitions of Liberty, Aspects of Liberty, Characteristics of Liberty, Types of Liberty, Safeguards of Liberty, Elements Threatening of Individual Liberty, Introduction to Equality, Meaning of Equality, Aspects of Equality, Essential features of Equality, Types of Equality, Various obstacles to Equality, Relation between Liberty and Equality

Chapter 6 Rights and Responsibilities
Introduction, Meaning and Definition of Rights, Features of Rights, Classification of Rights, Important Civil Rights, Important Political Rights, Important Economic Rights, Fundamental Rights, Safeguards of Rights, Human Rights, Features of Human Rights, Responsibilities, Types of Responsibilities, Important Responsibilities of a citizen, Relationship between Rights and Responsibilities

Chapter 7 Justice
Introduction, Definitions, Major Concepts of Justice, Connotations of Justice, Aspects of Justice, Evolution of Justice, Sources of Justice, Types of Justice, Social Justice, Achievement of Social Justice

Chapter 8 Citizenship
Introduction, Definition, Aliens, Methods of Acquiring Citizenship, Loss of Citizenship, Qualities of good Citizen, Hindrances to good Citizenship, Suggestions for overcoming the hindrances to good Citizenship, Types of Citizenship, Global or Universal Citizenship, Significance of Citizenship

Chapter 9 Democracy
Introduction, Origin, Evolution, and growth of Democracy, Features of Democracy, Types of Democracy, Merits of Democracy, Demerits of Democracy, Essential conditions to the success of Democracy, Importance of Democracy, Working of Democracy in India, Devices of Direct Democracy, Future of Democracy in India

Chapter 10 Secularism
Introduction, Origin of Secularism, Meaning and definitions of Secularism, Interpretations on Secularism, Types of Secularism, Factors that led to the spread of Secularism, Conceptions of Secularism, Dimensions of Secularism, Secularism Vs Theocracy, Meaning of Theocracy, Differences between Secular State and Theocratic State, Merits of Secularism, Meaning of Secular State, Features of Secular State, Importance of Secular State, Secularism in the Indian context, Suggestions for making India as a Secular State

Chapter 11 Constitutions
Introduction, Definitions of Constitution, Essential features of the Constitution, Classification of Constitution

Chapter 12 Government
Introduction, Meaning of Government, Classification of Governments, Unitary Government, Federal Government, Distinction between Unitary and Federal Governments, Parliamentary Government, Presidential Government, Differences between Parliamentary and Presidential Governments, Theory of Separation of Powers, Organs of Government, Legislature, Executive, Judiciary

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