TS Inter 1st Year Political Science Model Paper Set 6 with Solutions

Thoroughly analyzing TS Inter 1st Year Political Science Model Papers Set 6 with Solutions helps students identify their strengths and weaknesses.

TS Inter 1st Year Political Science Model Paper Set 6 with Solutions

Time: 3 Hours
Max. Marks:100

Section – A
3 x 10 = 30 Marks

Note: Answer any THREE of the following questions In not exceeding 40 lines each. Each question carries 10 Marks.

Question 1.
Discuss the relationship of Political Science with History and Economics.
Political Science has intimate relation with other social sciences like History and Economics. Such inter-relation between political science and History as well as relation between political science and Economics can be detailed as below.
a. Political Science – History
b. Political Science – Economics.

a) Political Science – History: History describes the past. The development of mankind and society can be known through History. History being the story of man, functions as a treasure house of human experiences. It is like a laboratory to all social sciences. The political, economic, social, cultural, religious and literary activity of man can be known only through History It describes different associations of man from earliest times. History conveys information to the present society, the developments in the past in the areas like state, civilization, culture, religion and economic activity. History is a written record of different events, movements, their causes and interrelations.

History provides information to study the political activity in the past. The birth and development of political ideas and institutions is known through history.

“History without Political Science has no fruit.
Political Science without History has no root”

There has been continuous transformation and development of political institutions since the earliest period of History. The evolution of different political institutions through the ages is recorded in History History is the foundation of Political Science. A comparative study of the previous political institutions and the contemporary political activity provides a scope to find ideal and stable political institutions in future.

The knowledge of political activity is very much essential to understand the events like founding of the Indian National congress, the French Revolution, the Russian Revolution and the theories like the twö Nation Theory of the Muslim League and also to estimate their impact.

In the same way it is possible to study the concepts proposed by Plato, Aristotle, and other Philosophers in the light of the knowledge of history of Ancient Europe. Different political thinkers like Machiavelli, Montesquieu, and Lord Bryce developed their respective theories basing on the information found in history As Robbon opined, it is essential for a student to know about the history of his own race to study the constitution and foreign policy of his race.

The knowledge of Political Science is essential to history, in the same way as the knowledge of History to Political Science. History and Political Science can contribute for the development of any Civilised society in the spirit of mutual co-operation.

b) Political Science – Economics: Economics ’studies the aspects Like wealth, production, distribution and exchange of goods. It studies about various methods to accumulate wealth. Economics is a sociological study of the aspects like wealth, production and distribution. All the social institutions nd political theories place the human life on a right track. A clearly defined political system is very essential for a man to become a good and ideal citizen.

Economics helps in different ways to study the human welfare. Economics tries to coordinate the methods of satisfying unlimited wants with limited resources. Lack of peace and dissatisfaction prevail in a society when the economic needs are not satisfied.

The Primary needs like food, clothing, shelter, education, and medical aid are to be satisfied. Other wise life becomes sorrowful. If the basic needs are not satisfied, the individual has to spend all his energy for that purpose only. A poverty-stricken society gives scope for the prevalence of immorality and anti-social elements.

An individual suffering from hunger, ignorance, ill-health cannot be in a position to assess his political aims and responsibilities. He resorts to many crimes to satisfy his hunger. Such individual entertains a spirit to adopt illegal means for his progress. He cannot use his rights properly and discharge his duties. A citizen without basic needs cannot understand the value of right to vote. The communists feel that democracy cannot be successful without a socialist economy. Aristotle warned that economic inequalities lead to social revolutions.

Even though Political Science and Economics are two different disciplines, their common aim is the welfare of people. The policies related to the production, consumption, proper use of exchange units, removing inflation: contributing for the accumulation of national wealth, promotion of industrial development are very much a part of the activities of a modern State. The impact of economic policies is very much considerable on all the above policies. it is quite possible to solve many economic problems through a political system only.

TS Inter 1st Year Political Science Model Paper Set 6 with Solutions

Question 2.
Discuss pluralistic theory of Sovereignty.
Pluralism or pluralistic theory of sovereignty was proposed and popularized as an attack on monism. Elements like democracy, federal spirit, individual freedoms, separation of powers, decentralization of authority etc. are considered as the factors which influenced the proponents of pluralism. This theory finds its origin during the middle age.

Main Principles: Pluralism comprises the following main principles:
1. The state is one of the many organizations in society. It is not the only organization having supremacy. It has no differ
ent features, status and significance apart from other organizations.

2. The state has not created the society or any organization, The various cultural, economic, religious and political associations were not created by the state. State cannot dissolve the above organizations. It has no such power.

3. Society is federal in structure. State too must distribute its powers on the basis of federal principles.

4. Sovereignty is not the exclusive possession of the state. The state is not supreme over all other organizations.

5. Sovereignty is not absolute, unlimited and unquestionable. It has some internal and external limitations. While the customs and traditions of the people will act as internal limitations, international covenants and agreements will impose some restrictions on the sovereignty of the state.

6. Sovereignty is not discretionary in nature. It has to be enforced keeping in view the various constitutional acts and
covenants. It will not vest in the state alone.

7. It is not correct to say that. the commands of the sovereign are laws. Sovereignty has to be exercised keeping in view the customs, traditions and the constitutional provisions.

8. Pluralists criticized that Austin’s theory assigned more importance to the state. This may threaten the very origin, existence, survival and progress of the remaining associations in human society Hence Krabbe and laski pointed out that it is better to ignore the criticism of sovereignty.

1. The pluralist’s contention that sovereignty is possessed by all associations along with the state has been condemned by the critics. The critics expressed their apprehension stating that the pluralist’s ideas may lead to the creation of anarchy and instability in the state.

2. The pluralist’s assumption of similarity of state and other associations in regard to their aims objectives, and aspirations is not appropriate.

3. The pluralist failed to identity the distinction between the community, society, and state. There prevails more similarity rather than differences between the state and society. Both the state and society are independent in their sphere. They are more heterogeneous in their nature.

4. The critics viewed pluralism as unreal and impractical. They felt that it is not possible to achieve coordination between
the state and associations.

Conclusion: Inspite of the above criticism, pluralistic theory of sovereignty is recognized as very important in political science. Similarly, the concept of state and Monistic theory of sovereignty have acquired special place in political science.

Question 3.
What is Equality? Explain its characteristic features.
Meaning and explanation of Equality: The concept of Equality is of great significance in the study of political science. The term Equality became an important slogan and inspired the people of France, America, Russia and India during their struggle for freedom and independence.

The term “Equality” implies absolute equality of treatment. In Political science, the term ‘Equalitÿ refers to a state which
grants its citizens equality before the law and equal opportunities to develop their personality But it may be noted that individuals are not equal in many respects. While some of them are strong, some others may be weak. Similarly some are more intelligent than others. In this way, men differ in many respects. Hence, equality of treatment is not possible. In other words, it implies that state should grant to its citizens equality before law and equal protection by law.

Essential Features of Equality:
1. Equality as a Claim of Right: Equality is a prescriptive term, not a descriptive one. We argue that human beings must be treated as equal, not that they are in fact equal. Equality aims at widening the base of social benefits lest these benefits are cornered by a small and vocal minority impoverlshing the rest of the community.

2. Equality as a Modern Idea: Large inequalities of wealth, prestige and power have always remained prominent and almost universal features of social structure throughout human history With beginning of scientific age, men learned to control natural phenomenon by rational and empirical knowledge of nature. This paved the way for removing such social inequalities as were not reasonable and which were also removable by human effort.

3. Equality as an Idea of Social Change: With advance of scientific knowledge and technology, more and more areas of natural inequality are coining within the alterable sphere. We know that health and bodily strength can be improved by proper nutrition, and mental up can be considerably developed by proper education and training. But the availability of these benefits to an individual is dependent on his socioeconomic status.

4. Essential for Social Justice and Liberty: Equality is essential for social justice. Equality is closely connected with liberty. This is due to the fact that without liberty people cannot have equality. Liberty remains insignificant in the absence of equality.

5. Social distinctions can be based only upon public utility: Unequal treatment would not be resented in society unless the more gifted persons employ their natural qualities to exploit others. And also, so long as authority and division of labour are based on rational grounds, inequality of status and position does not become objectionable. Inequality is not an issue so long as authority is exercised in the general interest of the society.

6. Equality does not imply literal Equality: It means equality of opportunities. Equality demands a progressive reduction of inequalities where they are thought to be unreasonable. It does not imply literal equalization. It implies giving equality of opportunities for the development of personal qualities and capacities. It does not mean ‘equality of outcome’.

TS Inter 1st Year Political Science Model Paper Set 6 with Solutions

Question 4.
Write an essay on basic ideas of Gandhism.
Gandhism – basic ideas:
Gandhi – A brief biography: Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi was born at Porbandar in Gujarat in 1869. He was called the Mahatma. (The Great Soul) by Rabindranath Tagore. He was the father of our nation. He applied age-old ancient Indian ideals like Truth, Non-violence, and Satyagraha as political weapons and won the freedom not by late but by loving the enemy. He preached only whatever he practiced.

Basic ideas of Gandhism:
1. Meta Physical idealism: The Upanishadic concepts like ‘The Divine”. The universal soul, manifested in all living and non-living things of the entire universe, or ‘The Divine light illuminating everywhere” are the basis for the Gandhian Philosophy. His metaphysical idealism was a unique combination of the values based on Non-violence, ethics, Vedanta, Spiritual, Meta Physical, Jam, Buddhist and Vaishnava.

2. Ethical absolutism: Gandhi believes the superiority of moral and ethical values. The roots of Ns ethical absolution can be traced in the “Rita’ of the Vedanta. This Rita is universal, omnipresent, and ethical in values is ruling the Men and the Gods.

3. Doctrine of Non-Violence: The literal meaning of Non-violence is “not doing violence. In a Nutshell it means “Not to kill”. “Not to do harm is its wider meaning.

He applied nonviolence as a means and a weapon in politics. Truth and fearlessness are the essential conditions of Non-violence. Gandhi regarded and equated non-violence on par with self-torture of the Soul, Mercy, Love, Fearlessness, innocence, Soul Force, kindness, Selflessness and non-indulgence. Gandhi used non-violence as a potent weapon not only against the British colonialism but also in the movements waged against all types of deeply entrenched evils of the society.

4. Doctrine of Satyagraha: Gandhi explained Satyagraha not as a philosophical doctrine, but as a means to fight against the foreign rule and to achieve social and economic justice.

Gandhi formulated the word satyagraha when he was in South Africa. He called satyagraha as Love Force” and ‘Sóul Force’. Truth cannot tolerate violence. Even the guilty should not be punished with violence. A sin for one may not be to the other. At once, the search for truth must be only on non-violent means. We have to try to remove the holds on untruth and injustice from his ways by inflicting suffering upon himself. By satyagraha means, Gandhi said that inflicting suffering not on the evil-doer but upon himself.

Question 5.
Identify the safeguards of Rights.
Introduction: Rights are the essential conditions for the development of the personality of individuals. They are upheld by the laws of the state. Individuals cannot achieve progress in the absence of the lights.


  1. T.H. Green: “Rights are those powers claimed and recognized as contributory to the common good.”
  2. H.J. Laski: “Rights are those conditions of social life without which no man can seek in general to be himself at his best.”

Safeguards of Rights: Individuals enjoy their rights only when they were fully protected or safeguarded by the State. In this regard, the following elements act as the safeguards of the rights.
1. DemocratIc Rule: Democratic rule safeguards the rights of the people to a great extent. People can enjoy their rights perfectly in democratic states only. This system makes constitutional and legal provisions for safeguarding the right of the people.

2. Written and Rigid Constitution: A written constitution clearly defines the powers and functions of the government. It also explains about the various limitations of governmental authority. Besides, a rigid constitution will guarantee the rights of the people by making it difficult for the rulers and legislators to make amendments on flimsy grounds.

3. Constitutional Incorporation: The incorporation of fundamental rights in the constitution will prevent the encroachment of individual rights by the government. Such an arrangement protects the rights of the individuals to a great extent.

4. Separation of Powers: The powers of the government should be separated among the three organs of the government. Such as measure would act as a check against other organs. Ultimately, it serves as a safeguard of individual liberty.

5. Decentralisation of Powers: Individuals enjoy their rights, when powers are decentralised among the governmental institutions. This involves allocation of powers at various levels – national, provisional, local either on functional or territorial basis.

6. Rule of Law: Rule of law implies equality before law. It also denotes equal application of laws to the citizens. It gives no scope for discrimination between citizens on the grounds of region, religion, caste, colour, community etc.

7. Independent and Impartial Judiciary: Independent and impartial judiciary is another safeguard of rights. Judges in higher judicial bodies will deliver judgement with impartial and independent outlook. In the process of delivering justice, they issue certain writs for immediate protection of the rights.

8. Independent Press: Independent and honest press is another essential safeguard of rights of individuals. Such agency will be able to disseminate news and views impartially and without fear or favour to anybody. In this regard the state should not try to threaten and silence the press. Then only individuals enjoy their rights to the maximum extent.

9. Social and Economic Equalities: Social and economic equalities are necessary for enjoying one’s rights. People will be able to utilize their rights properly and positively when there are social and economic equalities in the state. These equalities include absence of casteism, communalism, linguism, widespread economic inequalities, exploitation, etc.

10. External Vigilance: Eternal vigilance is said to be the most important safeguard of rights of individuals. Individuals must be vigilant and cautious about the policies of the government. They should oppose the despotic tendencies of the government through democratic and constitutional methods. Under no circumstances they should allow the self-seeking politicians to acquire power. Besides several other elements like judicial review, recall, strong opposition etc., are considered as the safeguards of rights.

Seciton – B
8 x 5 = 4o Marks

Note: Answer any EIGHT of the following questions in not exceeding 20 lines each. Each question carries 5 Marks.

Question 1.
Write a brief note on the Evolution of Political Science.
The beginning of a study of politics (or political thinking) is traced to the ancient Greek philosophers like Socrates, Plato and Aristotle. Among these, Aristotle is regarded as the father of Political Science because of his objective and systematic (scientific) study of the affairs of the government and politics. Aristotle used the term ‘politics’ to designate the science of the state. He called ‘politics’ a Master Science’ as it covered almost all the activities of individuals in society that includes political and social institutions In fact, politics was a comprehensive concept for the Greeks. However, the Greek concept of politics underwent changes over the centuries.

In other words, the Greek concept of politics is no more valid today. The study of politics has acquired a wider meaning in the modern times. As a matter of fact, with the evolution of the systems of production through different stages (e.g., hunters and food-gatherers, to agriculture and then to industry/factory) social and economic institutions become important, and so also political organizations, evolved and progressed.

This resulted in a distinction between three spheres of human activities, namely, ‘politics’, ‘social’ and ‘economics’. Hence forth, Political Science came to be defined as ‘science of state and government. Thus, the detailed study of the evolution of the State, its functions and the government constituted the subject matter of the study of Political Science.

With the influence of the study of Behaviourism in natural Sciences, the behavioural Movement has been iñitiated in Social Sciences. After the Second world war the behavioural movement which had emerged in 1920’s, became very popular movement in 1950’s. This movement was led by American Political Scientists like Charles Marrium, Gabriel Almond, David Easton etc.

Behaviouralism emphasises on the study of political behaviour, and perceptions of the individuals towards their own political system. Hence the study of political science confined itself to the study of political behaviour in an organised society. The study area of political science also extends to policy formulation, implementation and evaluation of the political systems. Hence, the political science is also called as policy science. The concept of policy science was propounded by J. Lasswell.

TS Inter 1st Year Political Science Model Paper Set 6 with Solutions

Question 2.
Explain the differences between State and Government.
Differences between State and Government:

State Government
1. State is broader. It consists of all the people. 1. Government is narrower. It is a body of few citizens.
2. State is permanent. 2. But Government is transitory. Government keeps on changing. For ex: In India NDA at the national level has been replaced by the UPA.
3. State has sovereign power. 3. Government does not have sovereignty. But, Governments exercise the sovereign power in the name of state.
4. All states are universal and similar in nature and characteristics. 4. Government differs from state to state depending upon the wishes of the people or the constitutions of the respective states. For ex : Parliamentary, Presidential Govt etc.
5. Loyalty of the citizens to their state is compulsory. 5. In a democracy, people have the right to critizen the acts of omission and commission of the Government.
6. State is a whole. it consists of four essential elements like population, territory, government and sovereignty. 6. Government is one of the four elements of the state. Hence, it is the part and parcel of the state.
7. The state is master; it can place and replace the governments according to their efficiency and popularity. 7. The status of the government in relation to the state is that of a master and servant. The survival of the Government depends on the pleasure of the state.
8. Membership of the State is Compulsory No one is exempted from its membership. 8. Membership of the Government is not compulsory ‘it depends upon the will of the person concerned to become the member of the Government or not.

Question 3.
Describe any three types of Justice.
1. Natural Justice: Natural Justice is based on the notion that every person in the world possesses some rights for availing the natural resources. Natural resources provide support to the life of each and every creature on Earth. As the human beings are the only rational creatures, it is their responsibility to see that natural resources have to be judiciously exploited. Human beings must keep in mind the requirements of future generations in this regard.

2. Social Justice: Social Justice envisages a balance between rights of individuals and social control. It facilitates the fulfillment of the legitimate expectations of the individuals under the existing laws. It ensures several benefits and extends protection to the individuals against the interference or encroachment from others in society. It is consistent with the unity and the integrity of the nation. It fulfills the needs of the society Social Justice enforces the principle of equality before law. It also ensures eradication of social evils like poverty unemployment, starvation, disease etc. It also extends protection to the downtrodden and weaker sections of society. Ultimately it provides those conditions essential for the all-round development of individuals.

3. Political Justice: Political Justice symbolises political equality It implies provision of political rights to all the adult citizens in a state. It facilitates free and fair participation of the citizens in the governance of the country. It is manifested to the full extent in times of elections. It allows the citizens for their active participation in day-to-day administration. It is based on the premise that everyone is counted as one and none for more than one. It may be noted that political justice prevails in the State when the following conditions are prevalent:

  1. Rule of law
  2. Independent Judiclaiy
  3. Popular elections to the representative bodies.
  4. Political parties.
  5. Freedom of press and assembly
  6. Democratic rule etc.

Question 4.
Gandhiji’s views on Religion and Politics.
The moral concepts of Gandhi can be founded in his ideas expressed very frequently. Politics without morals character create a degenerated state and Government in a human society indulged in material pleasures. All the political means are used only to gratify power. But Gandhi described the theory of authority. He says that both authority and ethics should become the focal points of politics.

He mixed humanistic, political religious and ethical values in politics. He opposed the segregation of religion from politics. In his opinion both of there are equally essential. Politics without religion is like a dead corpse, not useful to a country except to burn. He says that his search for truth pulled him into politics and his moral strength helped him to remain very firm in politics.

Even a political programme is intended for the social and ethical advancement of the people. We cannot segregate politics from life, most importantly from religion. Segregation means nurturing religious fundamentalism’, bigotry and evil in politics. Religion according Gandhi was not Rituels and blind faith, but a coordinated moral values of all religions. A religion should not promote sectarianism. But Gandhi never supported a state religion. He wants to use the religion to oppose all types of evils in the society.

TS Inter 1st Year Political Science Model Paper Set 6 with Solutions

Question 5.
Discuss the various types of Duties.
Duty is an obligation of an individual towards. Other individuals residing in the Society. It is regarded as an obligation or duty towards others. The term Duty’ denotes what one is bound to do. Every individual must abide by certain rules of behaviour in society for his own good and for the good of others. These include some do’s and don’ts. Duties are both positive and negative in nature.

Everyone in society must perform these duties in the larger interests of society and state. Everyone must behave in such a way that promotes common good and social welfare: Duties in turn contribute to the public good. They establish peace and order in society. Duties always precede rights.

Types of Duties: Duties are broadly of two types :
Moral and Legal.
i. Moral Duties: Moral Duties are those which bound the individuals together on moral grounds. They may not be upheld and supported by the laws of the state. They are based on the moral beliefs of the people. They are sanctioned by the community basing on some customs, traditions and usages. Any violation of moral Duties does not lead to punishment. Helping the needy and the sick is regarded as an example of moral Duties.

ii. Legal Duties: Legal Duties are implemented through the courts and with the support of the statutory laws. They carry statutory significance. They are very clear and precise. They are compulsory and coercive in nature. So those who violate these Duties will be punished. Obeying the laws of the state, paying taxes, assisting the administrators in the maintenance of law and order etc., are some of the important legal Duties of a citizen. Legal Duties are further classified into positive and negative.

1. Positive Duties: When a citizen exercises his Duties to strengthen the social progress and welfare, they are known as positive Duties. Obedience to the laws of the state, defending the country paying taxes, etc., are some of the examples for positive aspects of legal Duties. These Duties aim at extending cooperation to the government in realizing the objectives of the state.

2. Negative Duties: When a citizen abstains from doing an activity as prohibited by the laws, it is said to be an example of negative responsibility. Negative responsibilities keep the people from not doing certain activities. The government, on behalf of the state, makes several regulations in this regard.

Question 6.
How citizenship is lost?
Citizens loose their citizenship under the following conditions:
1. Renunciation: A person is deprived of his citizenship, if he wishes to become the citizen of another state. One will lose the citizenship of ones parent state and may become the citizen of a foreign state by naturalization. In India, the Constitution prescribes that a person Who voluntarily acquires citizenship of any other state will no longer be an Indian citizen.

2. Marriage: Generally a woman lose her citizenship when she marries an alien. However, some states allow retention of citizenship. For instance in Britain, there is an option to retain British citizenship who marries an alien.

3. Accepting Foreign Service: A person may lose his citizenship when he enters into the service of another state. If a person accepts a permanent job in the government of a foreign state, he foregoes the citizenship of his native state.

4. Obliging Foreign Decorations or Titles: When a citizen obliges to receive foreign decorations or titles, it may lead to the forfeiture of his Citizenship.

5. Prolonged Absence: Prolonged absence in the native state beyond a certain period may lead to the loss of citizenship. In some states like France and Germany citizens who are absent themselves from their native country for more than ten years will loose their citizenship.

6. Treason or Crime: Involvement of a citizen in a serious crime and subsequent proof of his action will aIo lead to the loss of citizenship. Especially those persons who directly or indirectly participate or extend assistance to anti-state, anti-social, and anti-governmental activities, will loose their citizenship by a special notification’ to that effect.

7. Desertion from Army: Desertion from Army thereby jeopardizing the security of a state leads to the forfeiture of citizenship.

Question 7.
What are the two types of Democracy?
Democracy is an important and most significant form of government. The term Democracy is derived from two Greek words namely Demos and Kratio. In Greek language Demos means the people and Kratio means power. Hence Democracy means power of the people.

Definitions of Democracy:
Abraham Lincoln: ‘ Democracy is a government of the people, by the people and for the people’.
J.R. Seeley: “Democracy is a government in which everyone has a share.”

Lord Bryce: ‘Democracy is that form of government in which the ruling power of the state is vested not in a particular class but in the members of the community as a whole”.

Types of Democracy: Democracy is mainly classified into two types, namely Direct Democracy and indirect Democracy. These two types are explained as below.

1. Direct Democracy: When the people themselves directly express their will on public affairs, this type of government is called direct democracy. In direct democracy the citizens are the real makers of the state policy and programme of action. The will of the state is directly formulated by them and not through their elected delegates.

Some direct democratic checks such as referendums and initiatives are in operation today in Switzerland and in a few states of the United States. In some small Cantons of Switzerland, adult citizens meet in any Sunday in April or May and by show of hands, elect their representative offices as also approve the measures they needed.

2. Indirect Democracy: Indirect democracy is also known as representative democracy. In this type of democracy a clear distinction is made between the immediate sovereign and the ultimate sovereign. The legislature which consists of the elected representatives of the people formulates and expresses the will of the state. Hence, the legislature is the immediate sovereign authority. In this type of democracy, the people elect their representatives periodically and review their activities during their full term.

If their activities are proved to be unsatisfactory, the people can withdraw their trust in them and choose new representatives. Representative democracy thus combines efficient administration with popular sovereignty. In representative democracy the parties articulate and organize the will of the people and act as the transmission belt between the government and the governed. In a representative democracy the ultimate source of authority remains the people.

TS Inter 1st Year Political Science Model Paper Set 6 with Solutions

Question 8.
What is essence of secularism?
Secularism is essentially an advocacy in independent, separate or distinct ideologies separate from religion. It is a view of Life based on the principle that morality, education, and government should not be related to the religion. It contends that ethical standards of society and norms of governance should be determined exclusively on the basis of the present life and world, not of the divine.

Secularism does not aim at repudiation of religion. It merely affirms that church and state are two separate entities. Secularism enables the individuals to enjoy their religious freedom to their full extent. The state will not interfere in the religious affairs of individuals. Secularism preaches tolerance and kindness. It believes in universal brotherhood of man. Secularism serves as the best means for fostering national units and integrity feelings among the people.

Question 9.
Explain the differences between Written and Unwritten constitutions.

Written Constitution Unwritten Constitution
1. Written constitution implies a document or few documents in which the rules regulating the main institutions of Government are written down. 1. Unwritten constitution denotes a sum of customs, conventions, and usages which have not been systematically documented.
2. All the basic principles of the State are clearly written. 2. All the basic principles of the State exist in the form of customs and traditions.
3. Written constitution is framed by a special assembly convened at a particular point of time. 3. Unwritten constitution contains some written elements also in the form of enactments of fundamental charters made from time to time.
4. It is suitable to the educated and literate people. 4. It is suitable to the uneducated and illiterate people.
5. Courts of law protect the liberties of the citizens. 5. Courts of law cannot provide much protection.
6. It is formulated at a particular time. 6. It is evolutionary in nature.
7. It provides political Stability. 7. It could not ensure political stability.
8. It cannot be easily amended. 8. It can easily be amended.
9. It is useful to federal states. 9. It is advantageous to the unitary states.

Question 10.
What is Judicial Activism?
According to the idea of judicial activism judges should use their powers to correct injustices, especially when the other branches a Government do not act to do so. The courts play an active role In’ shaping social policy on such issues as civil rights, political unfairness protection of individual rights, and public morality.

Judicial activism is policy-making function of judiciary in competition with poilcy making by the legislative and executive. This element is associated with the doctrine of judicial review. The essence of true judicial activism lies in rendering decisions by the judiciary which are in tuhe with the temper and tempo of the times.

Behind every judicial decision, judicial activism and judicial restraint are the two aspects that describe the philosophy and motivation. The concept of judicial activism is the polar opposite of judicial restraint. Judicial activism refers to a theory of judgement that takes into account the spirit of the law and the changing times, whereas judicial restraint relias on a strict interpretation of the law and the importance of Legal precedent.

Judicial activism is a dynamic process of judicial outlook in a changing society. Arthur Schlesinger jr. intrõducéd the term ‘Judicial activism’ in 1947. According to BlacWs Law Dictionary, ” Judicial activism is a judicial philosophy which motivates judges to depart from. traditional precedents in favour of progressive and new social policies”.

Question 11.
What is Parliamentary form of Government?
In a parliamentary system a clear distinction is made between the head of the state and the head of the Government here, the head of the state King or Queen in Britain or President of India, possesses nominal or titular authority whereas real authority rests with the government of which Prime Minister is the head. Example : Australia, Canada, Japan etc.

Parliamentary form of government as a system in which the real executive, the cabinet, is immediately and legally responsible to the Legisture for its political policies and acts, ultimately responsible to the electorate.

Features of Parliamentary Governments:
a) Nommai and Real executives: In the parliamentary form of government there should be two kinds of executive in the Political system one of them, National Executive is the Head of the state and other one is real executive, Head of the government is president and Head of the government is the Prime Ministers.

b) Coordination between the Legislature and executive: Another important feature a mong, is that, there is a close relationship and coordination between legislature and executive bodies of the government. The executive members are selected from the Legislature and so executive remained as responsible for the Legislature for all its acts.

c) Significant role of the prime minister: In a parliamentary form of government, the prime minister hold the real executive authority. He holds the government as cornerstone. He has the authority to from the council of ministers and also has right to reshuffle and dissolve the government.

d) Collective responsibility: The most important feature of the parliamentary government works on the principle of collective responsibility. It means the ministers enjoy the office only as long as they have confidence of the parliament.

e) Individual responsibility: In a parliamentary government, every minister is individually responsible to the Legislature for the efficient conduct of his department or office. In case there is any lapse in the administration, the ministers are personal answerable to parliament.

f) Dissolution of Lower House: The head of the state can dissolve the lower house on the recommendation of the prime minister. If deadlock rises between cabinet and Legislature they can appeal to the electorate through elections.

g) Effective opposition: In a parliamentary form of government opposition party is considered as soul of the democracy. If the ruling party loses its confidence in the Legislature, opposition party is the alternative to form a government and it works against ruling party through questioning the acts.

Question 12.
Define power and explain its different kinds of power.
The concept of power has become a key concept covering all aspects of politics. Suppose the politics is viewed as the process of resolution of the conflict. In that case, the distribution of power within a political community determines how the conflict is to be resolved and whether the resolution is to be effectively accepted by all parties.

Definition of power:

  • H.V. Wiseman defined power as “the abilits’ to get one’s wishes carried out despite resistance”.
  • Hans J.Morgenthan defined power as “Man’s control over the minds and actions of other men”.
  • Edward A.Schiils defined power as ‘The ability to influence the behaviour of others in accordance with one’s own ends”.

Different kinds (or) Forms of power:
1. Political Power: Political power refers to the influence exercised by formal and informal órgans of the state. Power, in politics, is always political power, power of the state, power of the government, and power of the laws through which government operates. But these formal organs, in turn, are influenced by the informal organs which not only take the form of political parties in power and in opposition, but also large number of pressure groups, public opinion, popular movements, mass media, etc. Therefore, the comprehensive analysis of power goes beyond formal organs of the state and includes informal organs of the state.

2. Technological Power: Technology, in modern times, has become an important element in the exercise of power. In recent times, the down of intelligent machine in the form of Artificial intelligence (AI) revolution will have immense influence on man, society, and politics. The computers, unintelligeñt machines, are already doing much of the work in contemporary democracies. Political parties rely on large automated database fo help run their campaigns.

Governments increasingly utilize big data systems to manage and deliver health care and other public services. Our dependence on the technology leaves us ripe for exploitation. Its visible signs are fake news and the micro-targeting of voters with machine-generated messages designed to trigger their individual prejudices so as to influence voting behavior. Therefore, whoever gains paper hand technologically will have a decisive influence on politics.

3. Economic Power: Economic power is the power derived from the possession of wealth, especially the major means of
production and distribution. Economic power plays a vital role in decision-making processes in liberal democracies. If a nation possesses abundant natural and other resources, it will have more economic power. The major newspapers and TV channels are owned by a handful big business houses who take full advantage of these media to promote opinion which suits their opinion. Consumer culture is promoted in a big way to suit their business interests.

4. Ideological Power: Ideological power represents the manipulative power of the dominant or ruling classes which hold sway on the thinking and emotions of the people and try to create an illusion of consent. Thus, the people are led to believe that they are governed with their approval while they are actually continued to be governed according to the designs of the ruling classes.

This ideological domination by the ruling class through the consent of the ruled is conceptualized as ‘hegemony by the Italian Marxist, Antonia Gramsci (1891 – 1937). Thus, an outstanding feature of political ideology is that it provides legitimacy to the ruling classes and helps them maintain their stronghold or political power. When people are made to believe that a particular system of government is the best system, they will not be inclined to challenge the authority of the ruling classes.

5. National Power: From the point of view of realist’s perspective, politics is a struggle for power’. Whatever may be the ultimate aims of international politics, power is the immediate aim’. In the context of international relations, the national power implies a sovereign state (s) attempt to influence other sovereign state (s) in terms of achieving its own goals in international affairs. In this context, the terms like ‘uni-polar’, ‘Bi-polar and ‘multi-polar’ world systems represent the world politics as dominated by one, two, and many nations respectively.

There are different methods of exercising national power through force, influence, and authority. Force is the explicit threat or the use of military, economic, and other instruments of coercion. Influence is the use of instruments of persuasion in order to alter the behavior of other nations. Authority is the compliance by one nation to the directives issued by another nation nurtured by the perception of respect, solidarity, affection, affinity, leadership, knowledge, and expertise.

TS Inter 1st Year Political Science Model Paper Set 6 with Solutions

Section – C
15 x 2 = 30 Marks

Note: Answer any FIFTEEN of the following questions in not exceeding 5 lines each. Each question carries 2 Marks.

Question 1.
The Ancient Greek philosopher Aristotle is regarded as the Father of political Science because of his objective and scientific study of the affairs of the government and politics. Aristotle used the term Politics’ to designate the science of the state. He called politics a Master Science. He was the disciple of Plato.

Question 2.
What is Society?
Society: Society is a group of men brought together by a system of common ideas, interests, and aspirations.

Question 3.
What is State?
The term ‘State is comparatively modern. To the Greeks the term was not known. They used the word Polis’ which we translate as City State. Ancient Romans used the word Civitas’ for State. After the disintegration of the great Roman Empire towards the end of the fifth century, the. Teutonic tribes established their principalities and they used the word Status’ from which the English word ‘State’ is derived. Thus the word Status is a Teutonic word. The exact meaning of the status is society.

Question 4.
Write any two merits of Nationalism.

  1. Nationalism made the people obey the government.
  2. It helped in achieving the, progress of a nation in a short period.

Question 5.
Write any two definitions of Law.
Political thinkers defined law in different ways which are listed below.

  1. “Law is the command of the sovereign.” – John Austin
  2. “Law is the system of rights and obligations which the state enforces’. – T.H. Green

Question 6.
Mention the names of four types of liberty.
Liberty is of in the following types namely:

  1. Natural liberty
  2. Civil liberty
  3. Economic liberty
  4. Political liberty and
  5. National liberty.

Question 7.
What are the implications of Legal Justice?
Legal Justice has two implications:

  • It implies that there is just application of the laws in the society on the basis of rule of law.
  • Laws are made in accordance with the principle of Natural Justice.

Question 8.
Meaning of Socialism.
Hughan regarded socialism as the political movement of the working class which aims to abolish exploitation be means of collective ownership and democratic management of the instruments of production and distribution. Some writers regarded socialism as a democratic movement meant for promoting justice and liberty and for managing the society on efficient principles.

TS Inter 1st Year Political Science Model Paper Set 6 with Solutions

Question 9.
Natural Rights.
Natural rights are those rights which are enjoyed by men by birth. Men enjoyed these rights even before the origin of civilized society. The society and the state recognized and respected these rights. John Locke, who propounded the theory of natural rights, claimed that rights are pre-social and pre-political in nature. He cited the right to life, right to liberty and right to property as the basic natural rights. The state cannot deprive men of these rights.

Question 10.
List out two conditions of loss of citizenship.

  • Renunciation: A person is deprived of his citizenship if he wishes to become the citizen of any other State.
  • Marriage: Generally a woman lose her citizenship when she marries an alien.

Question 11.
What is public opinion?
Public opinion occupies an important place in democratic states. People express their opinion in times of elections or through the legislatures. They obey and follow those laws which are formulated in accordance with the public opinion. If the government acts against the wishes of people it has to face the consequences. Public opinion keeps the government responsible and responsive. It keeps the government alert and vigilant in its functioning.

Question 12.
What is Secularism?
Secularism is one of the characteristic feature of a modern state. The concept of secularism was popularised by the state authority to control the religion and religious authority over the safe affairs. Secularism is an important social and political phenomenon. Secularism is essentially an advocacy in independent, separate or distinct ideologies separate from religion.

Question 13.
Write about any two features of Secular Stale.
Features of Secular State: Secular State comprises the following features.
1. No place for religion: Secular Stateš does not assign significance to any particular religion. It will not make laws or implement them on religious grounds.

2. Equal status: Secular state accords equal status to its people. It makes no differentiation between individuals on the grounds of their caste, colour, community, religion, race, region, language etc. As a result, people will have satisfaction and extend cooperation to the government in the implementation of various policies and programmes. They live together with the fellow members of other religious denominations.

Question 14.
What is Rigid Constitution?
Rigid Constitution is one whose provisions can be changed easily. In this system the constitutional amendment methods are different from those of ordinary laws. There will be a special procedure for amending the provisions of the Rigid Constitution. The Rigid Constitution will have firmness due to its special procedures of amendment. Ex.: Constitution of United States of America.

Question 15.
Council of States.
Council of States is the Upper House of indian Parliament. It is also known as the Rajya Sabha. It consists of 250 members out of them 238 members are elected by the members of state legislative assemblies through the system of proportional representation by means of single transferable vote. The remaining 12 members are nominated by the President of India from the fields of Arts’, Literature, Social Service, Cooperative Movement, Science and Technology. It is a permanent house and it can never be dissolved. Each member shall remain in office for a period of 6 years. For every 2 years 1/3 of its members shall retire.

TS Inter 1st Year Political Science Model Paper Set 6 with Solutions

Question 16.
What is meant by Plural Executive?
Among various types of Executive, Plural Executive is one. If the executive powers are exercised by a body of persons having coequal authority, it is called “Plural Executive”. The Swiss Federal Council and the President in the former U.S.S.R. are the examples of Plural Executives. This Plural Executive combines the merits of both the parliamentary and the presidential executives, avoiding their defects.

Question 17.
Federal Government.
Governments are classified into Federal and Unitary on the basis of the distribution of powers between the Centre and the States. A federal system is one in which the powers of the government are distributed constitutionally between the Centre and the State Governments. Ex: America, Switzerland, etc. Meaning: The term “Federatloñ” is derived from a Latin word “Foedus” which means “Treaty of Agreement”.

Question 18.
No-Confidence Motion.
No,- confidence motion is an important power of the Legislature, especially in a parliamentary system of government in which the legislature exercises control over the executive for all its decisions over policies, the Council of Ministers are directly responsible to the Lok sabha in India and to the House of Commons in Britain where the parliamentary system is in existence. The Lok Sabha in India and the House of Commons in Britain can fail the government by passing the direct vote of No – Confidence against the prime minister and his Ministers.

Question 19.
What are the Informal organs of power in the state?
These are the eight main informal organs of power in the state. They are popularly known as agents of political socialization. They are namely:

  • The family
  • The school
  • Peer groups (or) Reference groups
  • Employment experiences
  • Mass – media
  • Government and Party agencies
  • Symbols
  • Direct contact.

Question 20.
What is equality of Opportunity?
The idea of equality refers to the equality of rights and opportunities.

  1. Harold Laski, in his book, ‘A Grammar of Politics’, mentioned that Equality implies fundamentally a leveling process.
  2. According to Barker, equality implies “Equal rights for all the people and abolition of all special rights and privileges’.

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