TS Inter 2nd Year Political Science Model Paper March 2018

Varied difficulty levels in TS Inter 2nd Year Political Science Model Papers and TS Inter 2nd Year Political Science Model Paper March 2018 cater to students with diverse academic strengths and challenges.

TS Inter 2nd Year Political Science Model Paper March 2018

Time: 3 Hours
Max. Marks:100

Section – A
3 x 10 = 30


  • Answer any Three questions.
  • Each question carries Ten marks.

Question 1.
Explain the salient features of Indian Constitution.
Introduction: The Indian Constitution was prepared and Adopted by the Constituent Assembly, which was set up in 1946. The Constituent Assembly took nearly three years From 9th December,1946 to 25th November, 1949 (2 years, 11 months, and 18 days) to complete the framing of the Constitution. The Constituent Assembly approved the Indian Constitution on 26th November, 1949. The Indian Constitution came into force on 26th January, 1950, which we have been celebrating as ‘The RpubIic Dar. The following are the salient or basic features of the Indian Constitution.

1. Written and Detailed Constitution: The Constitution of India is a written document. It consists of 12 Schedules, 22 Parts, and 444 Articles. Many factors have contributed for the bulkiness of the Constitution. All most all matters relating to the composition and organization of union, states as well as Union Territories, provisions regarding protection of interests of Schedules castes, Scheduled Tribes and other Backward classes, provisions regarding Special Constitutional bodies. like the Election Commissions, the UPSC, and State Public Service Commissions are made in a very comprehensive manner. Similarly, several matters relating to Fundamental Rights, Fundamental Duties, Directive principles of state policy, union-state relations, Official Language, and Regional Languages were clearly mentioned in the Constitution.

2. India is a Sovereign, Socialist, Seúlar,’ Democratic Republic: The constitution deliberately designed India the a Sovereign, Socialist, Secular, Democratic, Republic. Each of these concepts has wide-ranging dimensions.

Sovereign State: India is a Sovereign State. It is clear that India is internally Supreme and externally independent of any
foreign control. India is not a sub-coordinate State.

Socialist State: According to the preamble India is committed to Socialism assuring the establishment of a socialist State. It strives to provide social and economic Justice to all its people and end all forms of exploitation. We follow mixed economy. The State is free to bring the key industries and the private enterprises Under the state ownership and management.

Secular State: Secularism means that the State protects all religions equally and does not itself subscribe to any other religion as official.

Democratic State: Democracy is the formidable foundation of Indian political system. It states that the people of India are the chief source of the Political Authority they can make and unmake the government. The people are both the Rulers and the ruled.’ India adopted Indirect or Representative Democracy.

Republican State: India is a Republic with an elected Head of the State i.e., the President of India. No public office in the
country is hereditary. Any Indian citizen can contest to any office of the government subject to certain limitations.

3. Noble Aims and Objectives: Indian constitution has noble aims and objectives. The hdian constitution secures to all its citizens, Justice – Social. Economic and Political matters. it also provides all its citizens, liberty of thought, and expression. belief, faith, and worship. Further, the Constitution of India promotes among all people the equality of status and opportunity. Likewise, it strives for fraternity by assuring the dignity of the individual and the unity and integrity of the Nation.

4. Combination of Rigidity and Felxibility: The Constitution of India can be amended with Rigid and Flexible methods. Article 368 provides the details of the amendment procedure. It can be amended by three methods.

Firstly: The Union Parliament can amend some parts of the constitution by a simple majority.
‘Ex: The formation of new States (Ex: Telangana), changing the boundaries of states, provisions relating to citizenship etc. It is said to be Flexible.

Secondly: Some provisions can be amended by a special majority i.e., not less than Two-thirds (2/3) of the members of the House present and voting.
Ex: Fundamental Rights, Directive principles of state policy ,etc. It is said to be half rigid and half flexible.

Thirdly: Some provisions can be amended by a Two-thirds (2/3) majority of the parliament and with the concurrence of half of the states. Ex: Election of the president, Executive powers of the union and the states, Distribution of Legislative powers between the union and the states ,etc. It is said to be Rigid.

5. Unitary and Federal Features: India is a union of states according to the constitution. Our constitution contains both the features of unitary and Federal Governments. It prescribed unitary system in emergencies and federal system on ordinary occussions.

Provisions of unitary state such as Single Citizenship, Single Integrated Judiciary, Single election Cömmission, Roll of All India Services personnel etc., are found in our constitution. At the same time certain federal features like written, Rigid constitution, Dual Government, Bicameralism etc., are profoundly seen in our constitution. Thus it is a quasi federal policy like Canada.

6. Parliamentary government: The. makers of our constitution adopted the irish precedent of an elected president instead of a hereditary Monarch. They retained all other essential features of Parliamentary system like two types of executive heads, Prime Ministers leadership, collective responsibility, nominal position of the President, Parliament’s control over the Union Executive etc. They prescribed the same type of political system for the states.

7. Independent Judiciary: The constitution of India granted independent and integrated judiciary for Indians. Hence the
Supreme Court and High Courts in India act independently without subjucet -to the control of the executive and legislative organs.

Judiciary enjoys independence in the matters of appointment of judges, their tenure, salaries and allowances, service conditions, promotion etc. Our constitution clearly states that the executive and legislative authorities should refraiñ from interfering in the functioning of the judiciary ft conferred the power of judicial review on the judges of the Supreme Court and High Courts. It is due to the independent position that the Supreme Court and High Court judges will decide the propriety and constitutional validity of the acts and policies of the legislative and executive authorities in the country.

8. Directive Principles of State Policy: Our constitution hinted out certain directive principles as the policy of the state in
Part IV from Articles 36 to 51. The makers of our constitution derived these principles from Irish constitution. They pointed out that these principles would transform India into a welfare, Gandhian, and liberal oriented state. These principles must be implemented by all the parties which hold authority without political considerations.

These principles enable the state to provide a new social order based on economic, political and social justice. These principles include certain programmes like provision of employment opportunities, fair distribution of wealth, equal pay
for equal work, educational and child care for those children below fourteen years etc. Similarly, unemployment relief, old age pension, protection against ill health, provision of leisure for workers, conservation of wild life etc are included in these principle.

9. Fundamental Rights: Our constitution mentioned fundamental rights on American model for the complete realization
of the personality of Indian citizens. They are incrporated under Part III from Articles 12 to 35 of our constitution. Indian citizens can utilize these rights subject to certain rational restraints. Nobody including the government is allowed to interfere in these rights.

The higher judicial organizations in the country help the citizens in safeguarding these rights. At first there were seven fundamental rights in the Constitution. But at present there are only six fundamental rights.

They are

  1. Right to Equality
  2. Right to Freedom
  3. Right against Exploitation
  4. Right to Religion
  5. Cultural and Educational Rights and
  6. Right to Constitutional Remedies.

10. Fundamental Duties: Our constitution incorporated fundamental duties in Article 51 A under Part 4A. At first there
were 10 fundamental duties inserted through the Constitution (Forty-second) Amendment Act, 1976. Later one more duty was added through the Constitution (Eighty-sixth) Amendment Act, 2002.

Altogether there are Eleven Fundamental Duties in our constitution. Respecting the constitution, National Flag, National Anthem, Safeguarding public property etc are some of the Fundamental duties.

11. Single Citizenship: Our Constitution provides for single citizenship for all persons who are born in India and who resided in India for a specific period. It enables the citizens to possess and enjoy identical right and privileges. It also promotes unity, integrity and fraternity among the people.

12. Universal Adult Franchise: The makers of the Indian Constitution provided for the Universal Adult Franchise for all
citizens without any discrimination based on caste, colour, creed, community, language, religion, region, sex, property, etc. At the beginning, Adult Franchise was given to all the citizens who attained the age of 21 years. Later voting age was reduced to 18 years through the 61st Constitution Amendment Act in 1988.

13. Bicameralism: The Constitution of India introduced Bi-cameralism at the National level. Accordingly, the Indian Parliament consists of two houses namely the Rajya Sabha (upper house) and the Lok Sabha (Lower house). While the Rajya Sabha represents’ the states, the Lok Sabha represents the people.

14. Panchayati Rai and Nagar Palika Acts: The Panchayati Raj and Nagar Palikas Acts are recent features of our constitution., The 73rd and 74th constitutional recognition to the rural and urban local governments which came into force in 1993 and 1994 respectively had become operative all over the territory of India.

The ideas of democratic decentralization or the grassroof democracy are realised by these acts. These Acts provides for:
adequate representation for Women, Scheduled Castes, Scheduled tribes and other Weaker Sections in the policy-making bodies of the Local governments.

15. Special Provisions Relating to Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes: Indian Constitution hinted out certain specific
directives for the development of scheduled castes and scheduled tribes in India. It enabled the union and state governments to review the steps taken for the improvement of backward classes through setting up of independent commissions. In this regard, the union government was authorised to act as a coordinator between various state governments.

TS Inter 2nd Year Political Science Model Paper March 2018

Question 2.
Explain the powers of Indian Parliament.
Indian Parliament is bicameral: It consists of two Houses – Rajya Sabha and Lok Sabha. The Rajya Sabha or ‘The Council of States’ is the Upper House. It contains the representatives of the States. The Lok Sabha or ‘The House of the People is the Lower House. It is a popular House and contains representatives of the people. It is the pivot of all political activity. The Parliament is the highest law-making body in our country.

It has extensive powers and performs a variety of functions which are listed below.
1. Legislative Power: The main function of the Indian Parliament is law-making. It makes laws on all the subjects mentioned in the Union List and Concurrent List. Under, certain circumstances, it also makes laws on the subjects mentioned in the State List. Further, it also makes lawson the matters that are not included in any of the three lists i.e., on residuary matters.

2. Executive Powers: Another important function of the Indian Parliament is controlling the Executive (Union Council of
Ministers). Parliament controls the Executive through various ways, such as by asking questions, supplementary questions and by introducing adjournment motions and no confidence resolutions against the Ministry Hence the survival of the Government depends upon the will of the members in the Lower House. The executive remains in office so long as it enjoys the confidence of the Lok Sabha.

3. Financial Powers: The Parliament controls the financial resources of henatiott, t accepts the budget and other money
bills required by the Government. Its permission is needed for the Government for imposing and collecting tax and for revising the existing tax rates. In this regard the Lok Sabha has more financial powers than the Rajya Sabha. All money, bills shall at first be in troduced in the Lok Sabha. The Rajya Sabha has to accept all money bills sent by the Lok Sabha within 14 days. It aproves the railway budget, appropriation bill and other money bills.

4. Constitutional Powers: The Parliament takes initiative for changing the provisions of the Constitution according to the
changing times. Bills relating to the Constitution amendments may be introduced in either House. There are three methods of amending the Constitution.

5. Judicial Powers: The Parliament has certain judicial powers and functions. It has the power to remove the President and Vice President. The procedure is called impeachment. It bas also the power to recommend to the President the removal of the higher officials of the country such as the Chief justice and judges of Supreme Court, High Court and the Chairman and other members of UPSC, Chief Election Commissioner etc., for violation certain principles.

6. Electoral Powers: The Parliament also serves as an electoral college. It participates in the election of the President and
Vice President. The Speaker and Deputy Speaker who act as the presiding officers are elected by the members of Lok Sabha. The Deputy Chairman is elected by the members of the Rajya Sabha.

7. Deliberative Powers: The Parliament acts as the highest forum and direct agency of public opinion. Its members dis
cuss various issues of national and international significance. They demand the Government to solve the people’s problems.

8. Miscellaneous Powers: In addition to the above, the Indian Parliament has also the power to

  • Create of abolish Legislative Councils
  • Change the names and boundaries of the States etc.

Conclusion: A look at the powers and functions of the Indian Parliament shows that it is the centiç of legislative activity
and political activity of our country. ,

Question 3.
Explain the various factors which led to the agitation for a separate Telangana state.
Separate Telangana Agitation (1969): The agitation for a separate Telangana State was started at the end of 1958 and continued in 1969. It was first started by the students and employees as a protest against the injustice done to the Telangana area. Later, various political parties took advantage of the situation and led the agitation.


  1. Non-implementation of rights and safeguards given to the Telangana region at the time of formation of Andhra Pradesh.
  2. Since the formation of Andhra Pradesh in 1956 no Telangana person was elected as the Chief Minister of the State.
  3. As stated in the Gentlemen’s Agreement the Deputy Chief Minister post was not given to the Telangana persons by the Andhra Chief Ministers with the exception of D. Sanjeevaiah.
  4. Dissatifaction among some Telangana leaders who had not position.
  5. A rumour was spread that the Abkari surplus funds of Telangana region were spend in Andhra area. In those days, there was prohibition in Andhra area and no prohibition in Telangana area.
  6. Telangana People were in the idea that many Andhra were in jobs in Telangana with false Mulki Certificates.
  7. Telangana people were also in the opinion that the Andhra were dominating in all the administrative departments.
  8. Unrest among students.
  9. Support give by the people of other states who settled in Hyderabad and the other Telangana towns for their selfish ends.

The separate Telangana agitation was prolonged in the year 1970 also. In December, 1970 Mrs.Gandhi recommended for the Lok Sabha and for a mid-term pole to the Lok Sabha. The Telangana Praja Samithi contested all the 14 seats from the. Telangana region and secured 0 Lok Sabha seats. In September, 1971 there were discussions between the Prime Minister Mrs.Gandhi and T.P.S leaders. As a result T.P.S. was emerged in the Ruling congress. The discussions also led to the proclamation’ of six point formula. It includes,

  1. Contutiation of Mulki Rules.
  2. Separate accounts and budget for Telangana.
  3. A Separate Congress Committee for Telangana.
  4. Resignation of Kasu Brahmananda Reddy in favour of a Chief Minister from Telangana region.
  5. To review the situation after 10 years.
  6. To provide legal status to the Telangana Regional Committee.

The Separate Telangana agitation failed to achieves it essential goal of separate Telangana State. But it secured assuraces and protections for the Telangana for the first time, a Chief Minister was chose from the Telangana region was the Education Minister PV.Narasimha Rao.

Talangana Movement 2001 – 2014: 2001-2009: The movement for Telangana State took critical turn in 2001. K. Chandrasekhar Rao, who resigned from Chandrababu Naidu Government, left Telugu Desam party. He launched Telangana Rastra Samithi on April 27th, 2001 with an exclusive ‘One Point Agenda’ of creating a separate Telangana State with Hydarabad as its capital.

It is pertinent to mention that in 2001 the Congress Working Committee sent a resolution to the NDA, Government to constitute a second S.R.C. (State Reorganization Commission) to look into the Telangana. State demand. During 2004 Assembly and Parliament elections L.K.Advani the then Home Minister, observed that “unless there is consensus among all political parties in the state and unless that consensus is reflected in resolution of the State Assembly, we dont propose to include Telangana in the NDA agenda’.

It is significant to mention that the Congress party and TRS forged an electoral alliance in the Telangana region to consider the demand of a separate Telangana State. The Congress Party came to Power in Andhra Pradesh in 2004 and TRS joined as a coalition partner as part of Commom Minimum Programme.

It included the consideration of separate Telangana State after due consultation and consensus. The UPA government led by Dr.Manmohan Singh as Prime Minister has constituted a Sub committee to look into the issue of Separate Telangana statehood issue. This Subcommittee was led by Pranab Mukhezjee with two others as members. This committee was constituted during November 2004 and sought responses from all recognised national and regional political parties in the process of evolving consensus on the issue. Professor K. Jayashankar and K. Chandrasekhar Rao (TRS) have approached all the political parties and mobilized the letters of consent in fovour of separate Telangana.

However, not much initiative was forthcoming from the U.P.A. government inspite of its positive assurances in 2004 elections. It is singnificant to mention that the Congress led by Dr.Y.S.Rajasekhar Reddy was personally not inclined to the bifurcation of the state. He was found to be a decisive factor in the victory of the Congress in Andhra Pradesh and defeat of TDP The Congress High Command did not wish to act contrary to the opinion of Dr.Y.S.Rajasekhar Reddy. K.Chandrasekhar Rao along with A.Narendra had resigned as a Union Cabinet Minister from the U.P.A: Government and protested against the postponement of the separate Telangana state. Accordingly, the TRS ministers also resigned in Andhra Pradesh.

2009 Elections: During the 2009 elections the Congress Party assured sand reiterated its stand that only the U.P.A. Government can declare the Telangana State. Accordingly, the people of Telangana voted in favour%of Congress Party. The Congress Party was in a position to form the Government both at the central and state levels. In this election, the TRS won 10 Assembly seats and 2 M.P. seats.

Earlier in 2009, the Supreme Court declared Hyderabad as a “Free Zone’ in contrast with the Girgiani Committee’s decision which treated Hyderabad as Zone VI. This judgement aggravated the fears and apprehensions of the people of Telangana. It triggered a lot of unrest among the Telangana Employees Associations. They feared that the Non-Locals would grab their jobs meant for Telanganites ¡n Hyderabad.

This has given a great impetus to the Telangana movement. A large number of intellectuals, journalists, lawyers, engineers, doctors, students, women and N.R.Ls came out openly against the declaration of Hyderabad as a ‘Free Zone”. In September 2009, Dr.Y.S.Rajasekhar Reddy died in a helicopter crash. This death witnessed serious implications both to the leadership of Congress party and the cause of Telangana movements.

At this juncture, TRS Party President K. Chandra Sekhar Rao came out with new assertions and increased voice for a separate state. On 29th November, 2009, K.Chandra Sekhar Rao undertook his fast-unto-death against the ‘Free Zone’ and for achieving the Telangana statehood. The students played a prominent role during this period, the students of Osmania, Kakatiya, Palamur and Telangana Universities intensified the movement through their active participation. Aganist this background, K.Rosaiah,the then Chief Minister of Andhra Pradesh called for an all party meeting on 7th December 2009. This meeting discussed the ongoing fast-unto-death by K. Chandrasekhar Rao and views of political parties were ascertained. It is believed that all political parties including the Congress, BJP, TDP, PRJ and CPI declared that they would support and vote for the Telangana state if a Bill to thiš effect is introduced.The minutes of the meeting were also faxed to the Congress High Command.

On 8th December, 2009 the BJP came forward openly in its support to the Bill for Telangana state in the event of its introduction in the Parliament. On December 9th, 2009 an announcement was made by the Home Minister P. Chidambaram. He announced the process of Telangana State formation will be initiated. Almost all political parties including Congress, TDP and P.R.P opposed the bifurcation of the state. In contrast, the political parties in Telangana Region whole heart edly welcomed the announcement in favour of a separate statehood for Telangana.

As Sarnaikhya Andhra Agitation became intense with widespread protests in Seemandhra region, the U.P.A, convened a meeting of its allies. It included NCP, Thnamul Congress and the DMK. The DMK said that the government should have taken them into confidence before announcing the creation of Telangana State. It was also stressed that similar demands for separate state would come forward in thier home states. On December 23rd 2009 the Home Minister P. Chidambaram again announced a contrary statement. He announced that “a large number of political parties . were divided on the issue. A wide ranging consultations could be held with all political parties and groups in the state.

The centre will take steps to involve all concerned in the process”. As a result of the revised and reversed announcements, all the political parties including TRSI BJP, Congress members of Telangana region, former PRP members and CPI formed a joint Action committee (JAC). The JAC is supported by N.R.I.Associations, Women Organizations and all Telangana Associations.

The JAC (also known as TJAC) included political and non-political groups which fearfully demanded the formation of
Telangana State. Prof. Kodanda Rani Reddy emerged as a convener of JAC.

Appointment of Sri Krishna Committee 2010: The’ Government of India appointed a five member Committee headed
by Justice Sri Krishna on 3rd February,’2010 to look into the issue of Telangana. The Committee toured -ait the regions of the State extensively and took the opinion of all sections of people on the statehood. The Committee submitted its report 0f 16th December; 2010. It had given six solutions to the problem.

The six solution stated that Bifurcation of the State into Telangana and Seemandhra as a per the existing boundaries with Hyderabad as the capital of Telangana and Seemandhra to have a new capital.

The Central government did not take speedy action on the reports of Justice Sil Krishna Committee. Hence. the critiques
commented that constituting the Sri Krishna Committee was only a delaying tactics. Thus, the movement for separate Telangana took its momentum through various activities which may be summed up as follows:

Million March and Non-Cooperation Movement:
(a) The Non-Cooperation Movement was started on 17th February 2011 which lasted for 16 days. In this movement, three lakh government employees participated.

(b) The Million March movement was organized by Telangana JAC in Hyderabad on 10th March,2011. Mass Resignations: This movement witnessed various forms of protests from the people of Telangana and resulted in mass resignations of the M.L.A. s and M.P.’s and Ministers of Telangana region.

Sakala Janula Samjne : The Sakala Janula Samme (All People’s Strike) is a great highlight in Telangana agitation. This
movement led to the strike of all sections of people supporting ‘Telangana Statehood”. The government employees stayed out from the work. Lawyers boycotted the Courts and many other Government employees like members of the teaching community, electricity board etc., participated. This movement led to Rail Roko’ and Road Blockade.

Other protests: The people of Telangana followed various Gandhian methods for the achievement of separate Telangana
State. They organised “Telangana March in 1-Jyderabad’ on the lines of the ‘Dandi March”. The popular and cherished slogan of the people of Telangana namely “JAI TELANGANA’ echoed at every nook and cornor of Telangana Region and inspired the people to carry their Justifiable demand for a Separate State.

The Students of Osmania University organised many protests Von the University Campus. It was reported that around 1000 students seemed to have lost their lives.

The Telangana movement at last attracted the attention of the U.P.A government. The U.PA. government has taken various steps in regard to the creation of separate Telangana State by the Union government. A New Telangana state with 10 districts has emerged as the 29th State of the Indian Union on 2nd June, 2014.

TS Inter 2nd Year Political Science Model Paper March 2018

Section – B
8 x 5 = 40


  • Answer any Eight questions.
  • Each question carries Five marks.

Question 6.
Explain any four causes for the birth of Indian Nation Movement.
The British rule contributed to the emergence of Modern Indian Nationalism. The National movement united people of different groups to fight the Britishers. The following are the some causes for the birth of Indian National Movement.
1. British Colonial Rule: British colonial rule is said to be one of the important cause for the birth and growth of Nationalism in India. The British rulers developed communication facilities such as road, rail, press, posts and telegraphs for preserving their administrative, political and eçonomic interests in India. The leaders of Indian Natiopal Movement properly availed such facilities and informed the Indian masses about the tyrannic and exploitative policy of the British colonial rulers. The political unity rendered by the British rulers also brought the feelings of unity among the Indians.

2. English Education: English was introduced in India as a medium of instruction and correspondence by the British rulers on the recommendations of ford Macaulay committee. A few educated elite among Indians travelled in England to gain proficiency in English language. They were able to study and understand the views of eminent thinkers like Hobbes, Locke, Rousseaue, J.S. Mill and Karl Marx on several concepts like liberty, equality, fraternity, independence, democracy etc.

3. Economic Exploitation: The British government transformed India’ into a safe citadel for British investments, markets and export of Indian raw materials. It suppressed the growth of Indian cottage, village and small-scale industries for safe
guarding the British investments on permanent basis. The British Governor generals like Lord Lytton and Curzon implemented such policies suited to the British investors exploiting the national wealth of India. This has caused bitter resentment among the Indian industrialists, cottage and small-scale artisans. Hence, they were attracted towards the freedom movement in India.

4. Press: Many Journals and dailies were published and circulated in India during freedom movement. Ex: Amrit Bazar,
Kesari, Marata, Hindu, Andhra Patrika etc. They created, enhanced national feelings among themselves. They played a crucial role in spreading National feelings and conveed the desires and demnds’ of people to the Britishers.

Question 7.
Write about Judicial Review of Supreme Court.
The Supreme Court has been given the power to decide whether a 1aw passed by the Parliament or the State Legislatures and executive decisions taken by the Central or State Governments is constitutional or not. If such a Taw or Executive decision is found unconstitutional, then it can be declared as invalid. The Judiciary in India is armed with the power of Judicial Review not only to safeguard the provisions of Constitution but also ensures that all the organs of the Government function within their Jurisdiction as per the spirit of the Constitution. Further, it also upholds the Fundamental Rights in general and Right to property in particular. The Supreme Court protected the property Rights from violation in the Context of Golaknath and Kesavananda Bharathi cases. These two cases are extremely important from the point of View of Judicial Review.

Question 8.
Any two legislative powers of the Governor.
Articles 163 and 164 of our constitution deals with the office of the Chief Minister. Article 163 states that the Chief Minister, along with other Ministers, renders advice to the Governor in the exercise of his functions.

The Chief Minister plays a prominent role and occupies a key position in the State Government. He acts as the head of the

  • State Council of Ministers,
  • Party in power, and
  • the leader of the Assembly,
  • the people.

He will have a decisive influence on political arena of the state. He influences the public opinion in the State.

Qualifications: Usually the qualifications prescribed for the members of the State Legislative Assembly are applicable to the Chief Minister. The Only difference is that a person who is not a member of the State Legislative Assembly may also become the Chief Minister. The such a case, he should be get elected to the State Legislative Assembly within a period of six months from the date of assumiIg the office.

Appointment: The Chief Minister is appointed by the Governor (Article 164) Normally the Governor appoints the majority party leader in the State Legislativessembly as the Chief Minister after the general elections.

Tenure: There is no fixed tenure for the Chief Minister. The Chief Minister and other Ministers shall hold òffice and exercise powers during the pleasure of the Governor. The Chief Minister and the Ministers are collectively responsible to the State Legislative Assembly. It implies that the Chief Minister holds his office during the

  • pleasure of Governor and
  • confidence of the majority members in the State Legislative Assembly.

So, the Chief Minister takes all measures to gain the pleasure of the Governor and the confidence of the majority members of the State Legislative Assembly Normally the Chief Minister holds office for a period of five years.

Powers and Functions:
The Chief Minister exercises vast powers and carries out varied functions. They are explained as follows.
1. Formation of the Ministry: Formation of the Ministry is the choice and responsibility of the Chief Minister. He chooses
some members of his party or constituent parties in the case of a coalition and recommends their names to the Governor to be appointed as Ministers. He renders advice to the Governor in the matters of allocation of portfolios to the Ministers. He also renders advice to the Governor in dropping a Minister from the ministry.

2. Presides over the Cabinet Meetings: The Chief Minister is the chairman of the State Cabinet. He presides over it meetings. He decides the agerda, imtiates discussions and influences the policies of the cabinet.

3. Link between the Governor and the Council of Ministers:
The Chief Minister is the main link between the Governor and the Council of Ministers. It is his duty to communicate to the Governor all the decisions of the Council of Ministers, relating to the administration of the state and proposals for legislation. He is the chief advisor of the Governor.

4. Leader of the Legislative Assembly: The Chief Minister is the leader not only of his party but also of the Legislative
Assembly. He acts as a leader of the majority party in the State Legislative Assembly. He informs the party members about the programmes implemented by the State Government. He seeks the cooperation and support of the legislators for the successful and effective implementation of the government policies. He brings co-ordination between the members of Assembly and the Government. It is his duty to help the Ministers on the floor of the House in case they are cornered by the opposition. He is the chief defender of the policies of the State Government.

5. Chief Spokesman: The Chief Minister is the chief spokesman of the State Government. He makes important announcements on behalf of the State Government. His statements in and outside the State Legislature carry much legitimacy and influence in the State.

6. Leader of the Party in Power: The Chief Minister is the leader of the party in power at the state level. He participates in
the party meetings. He informs the various policies and programmes of the State Government in the party meetings. He
seeks the cooperation of the party members for effective imlementation of the State Government programes, He brings coordination between the party in power and the government.

7. Leader of the people The Chief Minister acts as the prominent leader of the people in the state. He maintains rapport with the people by visiting frequently different places in the state He consoles the affected people during natural calamities. He draws the attention of the people towards the developmental programmes taken up by the government by making them involved in such activities.

8. Chief Advisor to the Governor: The Chief Minister renders advice on the matters of placements and promotions in
public services. He also renders advice to theGovernor in accepting the resignation of some Ministers. The Chief Minister acts as the Chief advisor to the Governor in the matter of composition of the Ministry, allotment of portfolios to the Ministers, reshuffling the, Ministry, dissolution of the Assembly, Appointment of Chairman and Members ofState Government Undertakings, issue of ordinances etc.

9. Power of getting the State Legislative Assembly dissolved: The Chief Minister has the privilege to advise the Governor to dissolve the State Legislative Assembly in case he finds that the Government cannot be carried on in accordance with the provisions of the constitution or in case he is likely to lose the majority in the Assembly Such advice is given by the Chief Minister alone on the basis of political considerations.

10. Role in Union-State Relations: As the real head of the state administration, it is the main responsibility of the Chief
Minister to maintain good relations with the Union government. He has to use his position for securing financial grants and help required for carrying out the development works In the state. In case, he belongs to a party other than the one which is In power at the Union Government he has to act as a good negotiator.

TS Inter 2nd Year Political Science Model Paper March 2018

Question 9.
Discuss the powers and functions of District Collector.
The District Collector Is the Head of the District Administration. He occupies a pre-eminent position in the district. He belongs to the AS cadre and plays an unparalled role in the administration of the district.

Powers and functions of District Collector:
The District Collector enjoys vast powers and performs multifarious functions
in the district.

Some of them are:
a) Revenue Functions: The most important function of the District Collector is to look after the collection and recovery
of land revenue and other dues of the ‘Government. He is responsible for the matters of survey and land records. He
is assisted by Joint Collector, M.R.Os, Revenue Inspectors etc., to carry on these activities.

b) Magisterial Functions: The District Collector has magisterial functions. He is responsible for thé maintenance of law and order in the district.

c) Electoral Functions: The District Collector acts as the Chief Electoral Officer of the district. He is responsible for
conducting the elections in fair and impartial manner.

d) Coordinating Functions: The District Collector is the Chief Coordinator of various departments in the district, such as
agriculture, irrigation, labour affairs etc. The Head of the departments in the district are answerable to him.

e) Functions of Census Operation: The District Collector takes steps for holding census operations in the district for every ten years on behalf of the Union and the State Governments.

f) Miscellaneous Functions: The District Collector has many more functions like attending the meetings of the Panchayat
Raj Institutions and Urban local body institutions, looking after the development activities of the district, moblising the human, material and financial resources in the district and implementing the directives of the Union and the State

Question 10.
Write an essay on Nirbhya Act.
The Criminal Law (Amendment) Act 2013, popularly known as the Nirbhaya Act had increased the quantum of punishment for crimes against women. The Criminal Law (Amendment) Act, 2013 enacted by the Indian Parliament which came into existence on 3rd April 2013 provides for amendment of Indian Penal Code (IPC), Indian Evidence Act, and Criminal Procedure Code on laws related to sexual offences.

Background: A Female para-medical student Nirbhaya (Name Changed) of Delhi was beaten and gang raped on Delhi 6th December 2012 who died 13 days later although she received treatment in India and Singapore.

The incident was covered by National and International media and was condemned by the international organizations such as UNO and UNHRC. Public protests took place in Delhi and throughout India where thousands of protesters clashed with security forces.

Six days after the incident, central government, appointed a judicial Committee headed by J.S. Verma, a former Chief Justice of India, to suggest Amendments to Criminal Law particularly to deal with sexual assault cases. The Committee included justice Leila Seth, a retired judge and Gopal Subramanyam a popular advocate.

The Committee submitted its report on 23rd January 2013. The Committee considered the suggestions and petitions received from jurists, lawyers, -NGO’s and women associations.

The union government issued an Ordinance, fôr giving effect to the changes in law as suggested by the Verma Committee report. The Ordinance was subsequently replaced by a Bill, which was passed by the Parliament and came into force on 3rd April 2013.

Offenses/Punishments: The new Act explicitly recognised certain acts as offences which were dealt under related laws. The offences like acid attack, sexual harassment, voyeurism, stalking, etc have been incorporated into the LPC, CrPC and Indian Evidence Acts. The Act provides severe punishnìents for the above offences which range as follows.

Acid Attack: Imprisonment not less than ten years but may extend to imprisonment for life and with fine.
Attempt to Acid Attack: Imprisonment not less than five years, which may extend to seven years, and shall also be liable to fine. Sexual harassment: Imprisonment up to three years and fine.

Voyeurism: In case of first conviction, imprisonment not less than one year, but which may extend to three years and shall also be liable to fine. In case of second conviction, imprisonment not less than three years which may extend to seven years.

Stalking: Imprisonment not less than one year, which may extended to three years, and shall also be liable to fine.
Rape/Gang Rape: Severe imprisonment not less than 2 years and also fine.

The Criminal Law (Amendment) Act 2013 has been criticized by several human rights and women’s rights organizations for not including certain suggestions recommended by the Verma Committee report like marital rape, reduction of the age of consent, amending Armed Forces (Special Powers) Act; so that no sanction is needed for prosecuting Armed Force personnel accused of a crime against women. The Government of India replied that it has not rejected the report completely but made changes after proper discussion. Anyhow this Act is a good step towards the protection of Women against assaults/victimization.

TS Inter 2nd Year Political Science Model Paper March 2018

Question 11.
Write a note on Tribal Movement in Telangana.
The total Scheduled Tribe (ST) population in 10 districts of Telangana is 27,50,000 comprising 9% of the entire Telangana
population. The original Adivasi inhabitants of the forests- The Andh, Koyas, Nayakpodu, Konda Redd Kollani, Chenchu, Thoti, Mannevar and Pardhan – have become a minority since 1977, when the Lambadas, who were historically a nomadic pastoral community were notified as a ST in AP This led to a large influx of Lambadas from Maharastra to Telangana area.

Ramji Gond Revolt 1857 -1860: Ramji Gond was an autonomous ruler who ruled Asifabad area with Nirmal and Adilabad as its important areas. This area was popularly known as Jangoan. Since the princely state of Hyderabad viewed this as a strategically important area, the Nizam made plans to annex this area into his princely state.

Meanwhile, in 1853, a Treaty was concluded between the Nizam and East India Company in which Nizam transferred Berar to British. As a result the British soldiers intruded into this area and forced the people into bonded labour They have also assaulted Tribals who invaled it and viblated a number of women. These developments angered Ramji Gond and made him to challenge their dominance. British suppressed the Ramji Gond rebellion which consisted of Rohifla, Maratha and Gond Soldiers. Ramji Gond and his followers employed tranditional weapons and courageously fought the British on one side and Nizam on the other side. However, the violent assault held on April 9th, 1857 by Nizam witnessed the killing of hundreds of Gonds.

Ultimately, Ramji Gond was caught as a captive and was awarded with hanging punishment. Though he succumbed to heinous assaults of British, Marsukola Ramji Gond’s rebellion signifies the self-respect of Gonds. Though the magnitude and extent of Ramji Gond Rebellion was construed as limited, its significant influence on prospective generations in terms of self respect is undeniable.

Komaram Bheem Revolt 1940 -1950: Komaram Bheem is a prominent Tribal leader who organised the Tribal communities, mostly the Gonds the Adilabad against the Nizam and his Jagirdari rule. The Gonds of Adilabad witnessed some problems during the early part of the 20th century which included the problem of land alienation, high rates of taxation, vetti or the bonded labour, socio-cultural suppression, economic exploitation and others. The local Muttedars and Jagirdars forced the Gonds to pay heavy taxes failing which their lands were confiscated.

The people who challenge these trends are met with severe punishments. Women members of the families faced atrocities and sexual assaults. The nexus between Nizam-Muttedar Jagirdar – rich landed gentry angered Komaram Bheem. He organised the Gonds against the misrule and atrocities of Jagirdars and their henchmen. Ultimately, there was an armed assault on Komaram Bheem led by Talukdar Abdul Sattar and his 90 Policemen.

Komaram Bheem and his followers encountered the assault with traditional arms such as bows, arrows, swords and spears. In the ensuring revolt Komaram Bheem succumbed to Nizam Police and secured a place in the history as a veritable diety of Gonds.

Komaram Bheem gave the slogan of Jal, Jngle and Jameen. It means, people who live in forests should have rights on all resources of the forest, especially, water and forest Land morder to identify the pathetic problems of Tribals in Adilabad regarding violation of their land rights, etc, the Nizam VII appointed Prof. C.E Haimendorf to look into’their issues. On
account of Haimendorf taking up the issues of Tribals in general, and that of Gonds in particular he is regarded as the Father of Tribals among the Gonds.

Further, the Tribal communities inhabiting in plain areas are demanding the extension of all safeguards ad facilities. They
are also demanding the protection of environment and are opposed to the construction of big dams that would create ecological imbalance and large-scale displacement. As a result, the Tribal movements are also expressing concern for ecological issues.

Thus, the Tribal land right were violated under the Nizam’s rule in Telangana region. However, at the same time, the Tribals were given legal pattas for their lands. The non-tribals from coastal Andhra encroached several acres of Tribal land in Adilabad and some parts of Karimnagar, Warangal, and Khammam including banks of Godavari. The coastal Andhra settlers were very much attracted to the black cotton soil in these areas, which was fertile for cultivation of cotton, chilly, tobacco and other cash crops.

Since these settlers had a vast experience in cultivating the mentioned crops, along with a ready commercial market, they were keen in encroaching the Tribal lands in Telangana. Due to the heavy influx of coastal Andhra people into Telangana, the Supreme Court of India passed the Samatha Judgment in 1995. With the intervention of Supreme Court, all legal controversies regarding the protection of Tribal lands and the ambiguity that the previous governments have exploited earlier were removed.

The government of Andhra Pradesh set up a Commission by J.M.Girglani, ¡AS (Retd), to study the issues of Tribal land rights. Girgiarn submitted his first report on 16 August 1995. Later, this commission observed and analyzed the injustice faced by the Tribals for the last 53 years and decided to submit a detailed report to the President of India annually. The report dealt exclusively with the violation of Tribal rights in Telangana and advised that this kind of violations need to be shunned immediately.

Question 12.
Write a note on Women’s Movement in Telangana.
The Telangana armed struggle was a radical peasant movement against the oppressive socioecbnomic structures prevalent in the region of the erstwhile Hyderabad state. The active involvement of the Communist party in this movement gave it an ideological coherence and a radical political content. One of the remarkable features of the movement was large-scale participation of women. The principal source of subjugation was not capitalism but feudalism. Telangana women actively joined and participated in the activities of the armed and güerilla forces.

They also took part in non-combing operations like taking out stencils, nursing the wounded from the movement, cooking and helping men in setting up of the make-shift dens. They used to carry letters by serving as couriers in the movement.

Two important events sparked the entry of women in the Telangana movement. One was of Chakali Ailamma and the other of Kamalamma. Vishnur Ramchandra Reddy, a deshmukh of Jangaon in Warangal district, tried to forcibly take possession of land belonging to Chakali Ailamma.

Secondly, Kamalamma- was made a slave in the house of a Brahmin inspite of owning a piece of land: Both were physically tortured along with their husbands and children. However, with the support of the sangham, they fought relentlessly and acquired their lands. Another primary reason for the active participation of women in Telangana Movement was sexual exploitation of women by the Razakars and Landlords.

Thus, women entered the mainstream of Telangana Movement with the support of Communist parties: Famous among the women Telangana Leaders are: Mallu Swarajam, Priyamvada, Arutla Kamala Devi, Kamalammma, Prarnila, Tapi Rajamma, Chakali Ailamma, Kauer Bee Mohiuddin, Veramma. The significant Women Guerilla fighters were: Ramulainma, Rangamina, Tirupalamma, Savitramma, Narsamma, Venkatamma, Nagamma, Lachakka, Seetakka and Sugunamma. There were certain training centres known as akhadas exclusively for women to get trained in self defence during attacks by the razakars.

Women In Separate Telangana Movement: During the post- independence period, in Telangana region many prominent women leaders such as Sangam Laxmi Bai, T.N.Sada Laxmi, Laxmi Kanthamma, J.Eshwari Bai, Sarojini Pulla Reddy, Roda Mistty and other contributed towards the cause of Women’s liberation. They mobilized women from the marginalized and weaker sections and demanded protection against social and cultural evils plaguing in the Telangana region. Smt J.Eshwari Bai was very vocal in the legislature and highlighted the injustices meted out to Telangana.

She had also demanded the formation of separate Telangana state. In the name of Eshwari Bai a Trust was started to reach out the marginalized women. Likewise, Smt. Sad Laxmi relentlessly fought for the inclusion of women in the Devasthanam,Trusts of the Temples in the region.

These leaders had also fought against social, religious and cultural practices prevailing in Telangana region such as jogini system, devadasi system and basivini system. In the name of these practices, village girls are manied to God by their helpless parents. These girls are sexually exploited by the landlords and other influential people in the region. These evils were vehemently fought by these leaders.

Like wise the next generation of women leadership in Telangana are inspired by the words and works of prominent Telangana ideologues such as Dasarathi, Konda Laxman Bapuji, Kaloji Narayan Rao, Kesav Rao Jadav, Prof. Jaya Shaker and Rama S.Melkote wio under took Separate State Movement. Based on the vocal support from these intellectuals, Telangana Praja Sabha is formed. Women leaders like Belli Lalitha, Vimala, popularly known as Vimalakka, Devaki, Ratnamala, Saihya (Maa Bhoomi), Sandhya (PoW), J.Subhadra, Gogu Shyamala, Tula Urna and other actively participated and mobilized public opinion m favour of a separate Telangana state. They have witnessed police repression in many forms but were undeterred in fighting for the cause of separate Telangana.

Further, the Telangana Movement reached across all sections and people actively participated in the movement. Women used the symbols of culture in mobilizing public opinion. The Telangana Jagruthi led by Smt. K. Kavitha played a significant role by using cultural symbols such as Bathukamma, Bonalu, etc and drew thousands of women into the movement. In other words, Bathukamma and Bonalu rituals played a crucial role in Telangana Movement not only religiously,but also politically. Through these rituals women from all castes and classes, both rural and urban strengthened the movement. Thus, culture also played a vital role in the statehood of Telangana.

TS Inter 2nd Year Political Science Model Paper March 2018

Question 13.
Explain the provisions of Gentlemens Agreement.
In order to clear the doubts among the people of Telangana that the visalandhra may obstruct their interests, the Gentlemens Agreement took place on 20th February, 1956 at Delhi basing on the recommendations of Fazal Ah Commission. It was attended by Sri Bezawada Gopala Reddy the then chief minister of Andhra State, and his Colleagues Sarvasi Neelam, Sanjeeva reddy, Gouthu lanchana, Alui Satyanarayan Raju from Aridhra Region.

Sri Burgula Rama krishana Rao the then chief Minister of Hydarabad state and his colleagues savaging K.V. Ranga Reddy, Mari Channa Reddy, J.V. Narsinga Rao from Telangana Region. They had signed on the Agreement which contains the following aspects.

1. The administrative expenditure of the state shall be contributed in proportion of both Andhra and Telangana should be confined for its development up to five years and it may be extended for another five years at the request of Telangana legislators.

2. The educational opportunities which are in Telangana shall be provided for them only more development is to be
extended. Technical education and seats in Universities shall be allocated up 1/3 for Telangana students.

3. The Vacancies arise in Future shall be allocated to both regions in proportion to their population.

4. 12 Years of Residency is must for Andhra people to get job in Telangana.

5. Regional Development council shall be constituted for over all development of Telangana.

6. In Council of ministers there shall be 60% from Andhra and 40% from Telangana respectively there must be one Muslim from Telangana part.

7. If the Chief Minister is belongs to Andhra region, the deputy chief minister must be from Telangana region and vise-versa. At least 2 poof folios must be given to Telangana out of Home, Finance, Revenue, Planning, Development, Commerce and Industry.

Question 14.
Students JAC.
Telangana Movement was started and intensified with the active participation of students of different colleges and universities. Students belonging. to different organisations with multiple ideological doctrine have come together to form the students Joint Action Committees. Prominent among them were the Osmania University Students JAC (OUJAC) and Kakatiya University Students JAC (KUJAC).

The very concept of JACS was coined initiated, formed and shaped by various organisations of students tuitions. The historical Osmanla University Arts College building has become the launching ground for the establishment of students JAC which was later imbibed by others to form various 3ACs throughout Telangana including political JAC.

In fact, students have been demanding the formation of Telangana State since 1957 and also started an agitation in 1969. Around 350 students have lost their lives in the agitation and became Martyrs. The students JAC demanded the Political Parties to withdraw from Parliament and State Legislature to spearhead the agitation. Students JAC have also acted as scrutiniser to deter political parties from shifting stands and diluting the movement against the aspirations of the people of Telangana. The students JAC gave call for “Chalo Assembly” in 2009, when TRS President, K. Chandra Sekhar Rao undertook hunger strike “Fast-Unto-Death”.

The attempts of the students to hold massive demonstration January 2010 was not permitted by the then State Government. With the permission from state High Court, the meeting was successfully conducted. Fearing black lash from students, so much of resistance persisted against students rallies and demonstrations and the Government adopted so many repressive measures against the students. Police adopted measures like firing in the air, using the tear gas, fencing the campus, disallowing the assembly of students in more numbers and so on. The determined students also changed their methods of protest. Some of the students have also chosen suicide as a form of protest. As a result nearly 600 students lost their lives for the movement and became Martyrs.(Amaraveerulu).

As a part of the larger demand for creation of separate state for Telangan a, students demanded cancellation of sub-inspector recruitment notification. cancellation of 14(f) that makes Hyderabad Free Zone”, ánd so on. The students JAC has also provided alternative leadership for the continuance of the movement. As noted scholar and Telangana ideologue, Professor Keshav Rao Jadhav observed, “student movement has always been a prominent part of Telangana Movement since 1957 and students are the most affected by discrimination”.

Telangana students JAC is active even after the formation of Telangana State and pushing forwards the demand for Reconstruction of Telangana.

TS Inter 2nd Year Political Science Model Paper March 2018

Question 15.
Elucidate various types of Terrorism in Indian context.
Terrorism is the systematic use of force or threat of use of force (Violence) to achieving political religious or ideological goals. Terrorism posed, the greatest danger and threat to many countries in the world and created law and order problem. The temples, mosques, churches, markets railway stations, multistoried buildings and other places where people densely move, are the targets of terrorism.

Types of Terrorisms: The Second Administrative Reforms Commission in India, in its report in 2008 classified Terrorism into 5 types based on different goals and objectives of Terrorist groups.
They are

  • Ethno-Nationalist Terrorism
  • Religious Terrorism
  • Ideology oriented Terrorism
  • Statesponsored Terrorism
  • Narco Terrorism.

On the basis of the methods used by terrorists the other type also emerged such as

  • Environmental Terrorism (bio Terrorism)
  • Cyber Terrorism
  • Suicide Terrorism and so on.

i) Ethno – Nationalist Terrorism: Terrorist groups resort to violence demanding secession from Indian union or the creation of a new state in the Indian Federation. Demands for Khalistan, Jammu and Kashmir, Greater Nagaland are some of the examples. The insurgent tribal groups in North East India also indulge in this sort of terror.

ii) Religious Terrorism: This terrorism is perpetuated in the name of religious fundamentalism. The terrorist attacks in Mumbai on 26 November 2008 and other attacks in different parts of the country by ISI of Pakistan are acts of Religious Terrorism. This is popularly known as Jehadi Terrorism.

iii) Ideology-oriented Terrorism (Left wing extremism): This form of Terrorism is also known as Left wing extremism which condemns the economically exploitative and soci1y suppressive nature of the society It aims at revolutionary change through violence and terror. The ideology of Karl Marx, Mao Zedong, Lenin and others are considered as the basis for this type of extremism.

vi) State Sponsored Terrorism (Cross border Terrorism): This type of terrorism is a type of warfare by proxy emanating from neighbouring countries. The terrorist groups are allowed to make frontal attacks on nations across the border to create insecurity in neighbouring countries. India has been facing this problem from Pakistan since independence. Terrorist groups in India are supported by Pakisthan is land other agencies.

v) Narco Terrorism and Sandalwood Terrorism: This form of Terrorism focuses on indulging in prohibited trade of narcotics and sandalwood. The attempts to make illegal traffic zones in North, West India and Jammu & Kashmir and ensuring Terrorism by illegal traders on officials is an example. Similarly, the sandal wood smugglers in reserve forest areas of Tamilnadu, Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka resort to Terrorism against forest officials and police.

Based on means employed by terrorists, terrorism can be further classified as:

a) Environmental Terrorism (Bio-terrorism): Environmental terrorism is a premeditated damage caused to the nature and natural resources. Using weapons of mass destruction, chemical weapons and biological weapons to create insecurity and massacre in the society. Sometimes, the deliberate use of viruses, bacteria, or other germs (agents) to kill people, animals and plants and destroy natural resources is called bio-terrorism. There are stances of Terrorists using these techniques unsuccessfully.

b) Cyber Terrorism: The criminal activities perpetuated by the use of computers and telecommunications capabilities resulting in violence, destruction and disruption of services to create fear and confusion among people. Spreading misinformation and lies, harassing women, posting sensitive comments on individuals and incidents with Facebook, Twitter e-mail, and so on (social media) come under their purview.

d) Suicide Terrorism: Terrorist groups resort to this type of Terrorism by employing suicide bombers to create large-scale
massacres in the society. The first suicide attack by the Fedayeen was on July 13th,1991 on Border Security Post. The attacks on Jammu and Kashmir Assembly complex in October 2001, Indian Parliament in Dec 2001 and storming of Akshardham Temple in Gujarat in 2002 are some of the examples. In fact, the former Prime Minister of India, Rajw Gandhi along with 18 others was assassinated in May 1991 by a suicide bomber employed by LTTE.

Though the aims and objectives, means and methods differ, all the Terrorist groups have a unanimous intention of creating feal violence, insecurity, and confusion among Indians.

Terrorism and Insurgency: There is a very little thin layer of difference between Terrorism and Insurgency. While Insurgency is confined within the National boundary and directed against one’s own Government, Terrorism can transcend the National boundary and may be directed against ones own country as well as other countries.

Question 16.
What is SMART Governance?
SMART stands for Simple, Moral, Accountable, Responsive and Transparent.
Components of Smart Governance:

  1. To improve the performance of the administration
  2. Enhance accountability and transparency
  3. To do away with petty politics
  4. Successful implementation (Administration) of the public policy ‘
  5. Greater efficiency
  6. Role of the Community leadership
  7. Riture role and Innovation in Public Services
  8. Focus on planning and decision-making
  9. Use of a wide range of services like Internet, Mobile and other Web-based services
  10. E-Governance.

The following institutions throw some light on the Governance process in India. To suggest ways and means for the enhancement of SMART Governance, the below institutions of excellence were created.

The National Institute for Smart Government (NISG, Hyderabad, India).
The Centre for Good Governance, Hyderabad, india.
The Centre for Law and Governance, New Delhi.
The Centre for Public Policy and Governance, New Delhi.

Question 17.
Briefly describe the powers and functions of the Secretary General.
The Secretary-General is the Chief Administrative Officer of the United Nations Organisation (UNO) The Secretary General who is appointed for a term of five years by the General Assembly on the recommendations of the Security Council. Its main function is to execute the decisions of the main organs and specialized agencies of the United Nations Organization. The Secretariat has a staff of about 8,900 under the budget drawn from some 170 Countries.

Functions of the Secretary General: The Secretary General performs many function of the United Nations Organization with in the ambit of the Charter.

  1. He brings to the attention of the General Assembly and Security Council all the matters which threaten the international peace and security.
  2. He prepares the annual budget and also annual report on the working of the United Nations Organizations.
  3. He summons the special sessions of the General Assembly on the request of Security.
  4. He acts as the registering authority of all treaties and international agreements.
  5. He supervises the operations of various peace keeping forces created by the United Nations Organization on different occasions.

Section – C
15 x 2 = 30


  • Answer any FIFTEEN questions.
  • Each question carries two marks.

Question 18.
Moderate stage is also described as reforms era. Eminent National leaders like Gopala Krishna Gokhale, Dadabhai Nauroji played an improtant role in this stage. They expressed complete faith in liberalist policies óf the Britishers. The Moderates appealed the British Government to introduce certain reforms. i.e., Extention of powers of the Indian Legislative Councils, seperating judiciary from executive, and ffiore representation to Indians in Legislative Councils.

Question 19.
Any two differences between Fundamental Rights and Directive Principles.
Fundamental rights and Directive principles of State Policy are two important features of the Indian constitution, Both are important from the social perspective. They differ from one another as under.

Fundamental Rights Directive Principles of State Policy
1. Fundamental Rights are negative in nature. The State restrained from doing something detrimental to the individual. DPSP are positive in nature. The State’s activity to transform the socially and Economically.
2. These are Justifiable in courts Courts issue writ orders for implementation of these FRs under Article 32. DPSP are not Justifiable. Courts cannot compel the government of implement them.
3. Article 13 states that any law or order made violating the provisions of FRs become void. No law will be declared void on the round that, it violated DPSP.
4. FRs concerned about the citizens and protects the individual liberty and life. DPSP are aimed at development and welfare of the nation in social, political and economic aspects.
5. When ever a conflict and between FRs and DPSP, FRs override DPSP. DPSP cannot override Fundamental Rights of an individual.
6. These are enumerated in Part III of Constitution Articles from 12 to 35. These are enumerated in Part IV of Constitution Articles from 36 to 51.
7. No Separate Legislation is required to enact or implement the Fundamental Rights. To implement the DPSP, separate Legislation is to be passed.
8. These are orders to the state and successive governments from the constitution. These are the advises for successive governments for implementation of the special and ideals of constitution makers.
9. Whoever be in the, government, FRs shall be implemented. DPSP can be implemented according to the will and wish of the persons in government. Because there may be constraints in an implementation like lack of resources, opposition from various groups’ etc.
10. The concept of Fundamental Rights was borrowed from the American Constitution. The concept of Directive principles of State Policy was borrowed from the Irish Constitution.

Question 20.
Any four fundamental Duties.

  1. To Abide by the Constitution, Respect its ideals and Institutions, the National Flag and the National Anthem.
  2. To cherish and follow the noble ideals which inspired our national movement.
  3. To uphold and protect the sovereignty, unity, and integrity of India.
  4. To defend the country and render National Service when called upon to do so.

Question 21.
Mention any four powers of Lok Sabha Speaker.

  • The Speaker presides over the meetings of the Lok Sabha.
  • He exercises his vote in case of a tie over a bill.
  • He presides over the joint session of the Parliament.
  • He has a privilege of determining whether a bill is Money Bill or Not.

Question 22.
National Emergency.
If the President is satisfied that a grave emergency exists in the country or any part of its territory and is threatened by war or external aggression or armed rebillion, he may impose National Emergency as per Article 352 of the constitution on the written advice of the Union Council of Ministers. This type of emergency was imposed in 1962, 1965, 1971 and 1975.

TS Inter 2nd Year Political Science Model Paper March 2018

Question 23.
Discretionary powers of the Governor.
The Governor exercises these powers without the aid and advice of the State Council of Ministers headed by the Chief
Minister. The discretion any powers are listed as follows:

  • Selection of the Chief Minister.
  • Dismissal of the Ministry.
  • Dissolution of the Legislative Assembly.
  • Advising the President to impose President is Rule in the State.
  • Seeking instructions from the President before promulgating ordinances on some matters.

Question 24.
State Executive.
Article 153 to 167 of Indian Constitution deal with the matters relating to the State Executive. The Staté Executive consists of the Governor and the Council of Ministers headed by a Chief Minister. Besides, there are some administrative personnel who assist the ministers in the functioning of state government. The Governor is the constitutional head of the State Government where as the council of ministers is the real executive. The Council of Ministers is collectively responsible to the State Legislature.

Question 25.
Grama SABHA.
There will be a Grama Sabha in every Panchayat. It comprises all the adult citizens who have been entitled to vote. It meets at least twice a year usually after Rabi and Khan! crops are harvested. It discusses and approves the administrative and audit reports. It identifies the beneficiaries of development schemes. It takes steps for mobilizing voluntary labour for community welfare programmes.

Question 26.
Municipal Corporation.
Municipal Corporation is an important category of urban local government. It is the highest local government institution working in each large urban area. It is constituted by a special Act of the State Government. The State Government can declare the transformation of a Municipality into a Municipal Corporation when the population is at least three lakhs and annual income is four crore rupees.

The number of member of each Municipal Corporation is determined on the basis of the population of the city concerned by the law passed state legislature. Every Municipal Corporation consists of four organs, namely

  • Corporation Council,
  • Mayor,
  • Commissioner and
  • Standing Committees.

Question 27.
Who are Minorities?
The government of India notified six religious communities as minorities. They are Muslims, Christians, Sikhs, Buddhists,
Parsis and Jains.

Question 28.
Rajender Singh Sachar Committee.
The U.P.A government led by Prime Minister Dr.Manmohan Singh appointed a Seven Member Committee headed by Justice Rajender Singh Sachar in 2005. The main aim of the Committee was to plug the information gap on the social, economic and educational status of Muslims. The Committee submitted its report in 2006.

TS Inter 2nd Year Political Science Model Paper March 2018

Question 29.
Who were the Razakarsin Telangana?
The Ittehad-ul-muslimeen developed a cadre of volunteers who were called Razakars who began to rouse the feelings of muslims against Hindus. The growing militancy and power of the Majlis Ittehad were evident in the activities of the Razakars, a parliamentary voluntary force organized by Kasim Razvi, the leader of the Ittehad. As the peasant resurrection spread in Rural Telangana, The Nizam government sent batches of Razakars. The Razakars resorted to large-scale terrorism and even took violent methods such as murder, arson and rapes.

Question 30.
Write about chakali’Ailamma’s incident in Telangana.
Vishrur Ramachandra Reddy, a deshmukh of Jagaon in, Warangal district tried to forcibly take possession, of land belonging to Chakali Aliamma. She was physically tortured along with her husband and children. However with the support of the sangham, she fought relentlessly and acquired her land.

Question 31.
Jai Andhra Movement: 1971.
In 1972-73 when Mr P.V.Narasimha Rao was the Chief Minister, Andhra Pradesh witnessed anothèr agitation. It emerged
from the Andhra region. The aim of Jal Andhra agitation was that the Mulki rules and Telangana regional committee be serapped.

An unconditional Andhra Pradesh or a Separate Andhra State was clearly stated in all their pronouncements. On December 5th 1972 students observed an Andhra Bandh and from December 1972, the Andhra Non-Gazetted officers resorted to indefinite strike.

Large-scale destruction of public property and arson was reported from Andhra districts to bring political normal the Chief Minister inducted 8 Ministers into his cabinet on January 7th, 1973, but soon president rule was imposed in the state. Gradually the movement lost its vigour on March 5th 1973, NGDs called off their strike.

Question 32.
Hyderabad as common capital.
According to the A.P Reorganization Ac, 2014, Hyderabad remains as the common capital for the states of Telangana and Andhra Pradesh for a period not exceeding 10 years.

Question 33.
Kulasanghala JAC.
The emergence of Kula Sanghas (Caste associations) and forming into Joint Action Committee (JAC) in a novel phenomenon in the Telangana Movement. All the subaltern caste groups and occupational groups such as Dalit bahujans, other backward classes (OBCs), minorities and so on come together as a Joint Action Committee to actively participate in the movement.

Question 34.
Powers of corruption.
The World Bank defines corruption as using Public office for private profit. There are different forms of corruption which include bribery, extortion, embezzlement, favoritism, nepotism, communalizer, undue influence etc. The Prevention of Corruption Act 1988 declares the act of bribers misappropriation, obtaining pecuniary advantages, abasing official position, possessing assets disproportionate to known sources of income etc, are corruption practices and punishable under law. The most recent phenomenon in the forms of corruption in India is “quid pro quo corruption’.

This means political leaders and high-ranking officials take decisions in favour of corporate houses and high profile business people who make inflated investments into the industrial units, business undertakings and NGO’s owned and managed by the family members of concerned leaders and officials. th other words, it is an exchange of benefits by both the leaders officials combine, and corporate. The Central Bureau of Investigation (CBJ) is investigating many cases of quid pro quo corruption scandals.

Question 35.
What is Accountability?
Accountability means the officials (public servants or civil servants) are accountable for their decisions and actions to the public. Henceforth, they are subjected to public scrutiny. in a wider sense it includes the bodies/civil society organisation/ stakeholders/ organisations as well. Rule of law and transparency can ensure accountability.

Question 36.
Characteristics of Terrorism ‘‘.
Many studies on Terrorism pointed out certain similarities or patterns in the acts of terrorism.
They are:

  1. Terrorism in an organised, planned, and deliberate act of violence carried out by a handful of people. ;
  2. Terrorism is directed against innocent civilians or a particular community, police officials, armed personnel or government employees of state or central.
  3. Terrorism is a motivated violence to challenge the social and political order of the society.
  4. Terrorism engages itself in an unofficial war with the Government and political system.
  5. Terrorism is a weapon of blackmail and coercion. It aims to highlight its demands with violence.
  6. Terrorism is always unlawful, inhuman and antidemocratic.

TS Inter 2nd Year Political Science Model Paper March 2018

Question 37.
List the various organs of UNO.
The United Nations Organization functions through six principal organs. They are:

  1. General Assembly
  2. Security Council
  3. Economic and Social Council
  4. Trusteebip Council
  5. International Court of Justice and
  6. Secretariate.

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