TS Inter 1st Year Political Science Model Paper Set 7 with Solutions

Thoroughly analyzing TS Inter 1st Year Political Science Model Papers Set 7 with Solutions helps students identify their strengths and weaknesses.

TS Inter 1st Year Political Science Model Paper Set 7 with Solutions

Time: 3 Hour
Max Marks: 100

Section – A
3 x 10 = 30 Marks

Note: Answer any THREE of the following questions in not exceeding 40 lines each. Each question carries 10 Marks.

Question 1.
Define Political Science and explain its scope.
Political Science is a premier social science. It is mainly concerned with the study of the state in its relation with Society.
Citizens, Associations and the world at Large. Aristotle is regarded as the Father of Political Science. He wrote famous book ‘THE POLITICS”.

The word politics is derived from the ancient Greek word “POLIS” meaning city. State and polity from ‘Poletieia’ meaning government of constitution. Politics came to mean the study of state and government and the Institutions of the state.

Political Scientists gave various definitions on Political Science.
They are as follows:

  1. J.W. GARNER: ‘Political Science begins and Ends with the State”.
  2. R.G. GETTLE: Political Science is” The historical investigation of the state in the past, an analytical study of the state of present and what the state ought to be in the future”.
  3. ROBERT DAHL: “Political Science is the Scientific study of importance of power, Authority and influence.”

Scope of Political Science: The scope of Political Science means the subject matter covered by it or the topics which are
included in its study It may be explained in the following ways:
i) Study of man in relation to the Society, State and Government: Political science is concerned with the perennial and central issue of establishing proper relationship among state, society and government with individual. Aristotle stated that Man is a social and political animal as well.

ii) Study of State: Political science explains the origin, evolution and purpose of the state and its intimate relationship between the state and the citizens. It explains the various theories of the origin of the state and it also studies the nature, functions and various theories of the state.

iii) Study of the Government: Scope of political science includes the study of government. Political science explains the relationship between state and government. The state realises it’s aims and objectives through the government. Government formulates various policies, programs and their implementation for well being of the people. Political science also studies various forms and structures of the government and their merits and demerits.

iv) Study of Associations and Institutions: There are several associations and institutions which influence the life of the individual. Political science studies various associations, institutions and their relationship with the state. Political science explains structure, nature and functions of the various associations and institutions. It also studies voluntary oranisations and their role in the political processes.

v) Study of Rights and Duties: Scope of Political Science includes the study or rights and duties of citizens. In recent times, issues relating to civil rights, human rights and civil society got significance in the study of political science.

vi) Studies of National and International Issues: The scope of Political science comprises the study of national and international affairs. The political science deals with the matters relating to nationstate, territorial integrity and its sovereignty it also studies international aspects like armaments and disarmaments, balance of power, defence and security studies. It also covers international law, international organisations etc.

vii) Study of Comparative Government and Polities: The importance of the comparative study of government and politics has been increased in recent times. Political science covers the study of various world governments, their structurés and functions. It studies the relationship among the different political systems in the world.

viii) Study of Modern Political Analysis: The 20th century political science is regarded as a study of sharing and shaping of power, and it’s execution in a day to day political process. Political science studies the modern concepts like, political socialisation, political participation. political development, political culture and political communication.

ix) Study of Public Policies: Modern political scientist like David Easton, Gabriel A. Almond, Charles Merriam argued that
political science is a policy science. They considered political science as the study of formulation, execution and evaluation of public policies. They also emphasised the study of political parties, pressure groups, mass media and organs of the governments and their influence in the formulation of the public policies. It also studies major polices like Agliculture policy,industrial policy. Environmental policy, Reservation policy and Education policy etc.

Thus, the scope of political science has, in recent times, extnded to the study of above concepts and theories and has become one of the most relevant social sciences.

TS Inter 1st Year Political Science Model Paper Set 7 with Solutions

Question 2.
Explain the differences between State and Associations.
Differences between State and Associations:

State Associations
1. The state is permanent. 1. Associations are temporary.
2. The state has sovereign power. 2. Associations cannot have sovereignty.
3. The state has fixed boundaries. No state is universal or world-wide. 3. The associations cannot have fixed territorial boundaries. Some associations are international and universal in character. Ex: U.N.O. Red Cross Society The Lions international etc.
4. The membership of state is compulsory. Every citizen naturally becomes the member of the state. 4. But the membership of an association is optical. It depends on the will and wish of the people.
5. A man can become a member of one state only at a time. 5. But they can be member of any number as associations as he desires.
6. The state has multifarious functions concerning almost the whole of man’s life. 6. The functions of an association are singular and common to its members only.
7. The state makes the laws, violation of which is visited by punishment. 7. The associations cannot make laws, but makes their own rules and regulations.
8. The state can impose compulsory taxes on its people. 8. Associations cannot impose taxes on its members. They can only thrive on voluntary contributions of their members.
9. The aim of state is broader. 9. The aim of the Associations is limited.
10. State can enforce its decisions upon recalcitrant members or punish them for disobedience. 10. The associations cannot enforce is decisions up on members.
11. The state is superior to all associations. 11. Many associations in a state which live and depend on the mercy and pleasure of the state.

Question 3.
Define Nationality Explain the essential elements of Nationality.
Introduction: The concepts of Nation and Nationality have become important components in the domain of International Relations and political science respectively Both inspired the people of several countries with patriotic feeling prior to the two world wars.

The Events that took place in the erstwhile Soviet Union, ethnic Riots between serbians and croatians in the former Yugoslavia, the unification of East and west Germanies, the peace talks between Israel and Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) on West Asia etc., refled the serious concern of the people for realising Nationality and Nation States.

Meaning: The Word “Nation’ is derived from a latin word “NATIO” which means ‘BORN’ (BIRTH) or “Common Descent”.


  1. LG. Gettle: “Nationality is a population having the common bonds of Race, Language, Religion, Traditions and History
  2. J.H. Rose: “Nationality is a union of Hearts once made and never unmade”.
  3. J.W Garner: “Nationality is a group or portion of population which is united by Raal and other bonds”.

Essential Elements of Nationality:
1. Purity of Race: Racial purity helps in the formation and strengthening of the idea of Nationality. Race is a physical phenomenon. It depends on certain distinctions of skull, stature, hair; complexion,etc. These distinctions serve as a cementing bond among the members of a group.

But we should remember that cômmon race is not an indispensable factor in the growth of Nationality Modern races are so mixed that none of them can daim to be pure. Pure races have disappeared because of wars and migrations. Racial purity is now a myth only Ex: Canada and United states have transformed into single nations inspite of their racial diversities in their respective populations. Similarly, Australia and Britain are two distinct Nations although they belong to one racial stock.

2. Common Language: Language plays a key role in the promotion of nationality. The philosophers and scientists said that common language is essential for the development of nationality. Language is a medium to express all their feelings. It helps to express one’s own selves to have cordial relations and to share the miseries and happiness in a group languages also promotes common feelings anti traditions. Common language promotes the feeling of oneness and keeps the entire race on single track.

3. Common Religion: Religion is one important factor to strengthen nationality. There are many instances when people of different nationalities with common religion remain citizens in the same state. For instance, the main reason for the partition of Indian subcontinent into India and Pakistan in 1947 lies in the religion.

4. Geographical Unity: Geographical unity is necessary for the emergence of nationality. Nationality sentiments prevail and develop among the people living in a single geographical area. The people residing in such an area love, worship their country and make sacrifices for the sake of their motherland. People, who belong to one religion, converse the same language, same race living in a geographical area inculcate and improve their nationality sentiments.

The formation of Israel in 1946 was purely due to the feelings of the hitherto wandering Jewish people to live in a single geographical area. Hence their desire of live in a territory made them united. This ultimately transformed them as patriotic persons.

5. Common History: Common History is considered as an important element of Nationality It invokes an inspiration among the people and binds them together. Some historical incidents may give a chance to the people to develop national sentiments. Ex: Indians have learnt the lessons of Nationalism from the British legacy.

6. Common Culture: Culture in its broad sense means a way of life. It is reflected through certain common elements like dress, customs, conventions, food habits, religious beliefs, ethical values, etc. They easily develop into a single Nation. These elements bind the people together and hold to gether.

7. Common Political aspirations: Nationality sentiments prevail and develop ìmong the people having common political aspirations. The political ideas, conventions and institutions which were formed due to. the single political rule will have a considerable impact and influence over the people. For instance, the Swiss people love very much their direct democratic devices in political matters.

Similarly, the Americans express the feeling of worship towards their constitution. The British people also feel proud of their political and judicial institutions like rule of law, parliamentary democracy and judicial review etc.

8. Common Economic ties: This element of nationality has been stressed by ‘Karl Marx. Since then onwards the importance of this element has been increasing. The Russians have great regard for their economic system, even though there exist diversities. Their unflinching love for socialism inspired nationalism among them. They successfully repulsed the attacks of Germany during the Second World War. Thus the common economic ties made them united and integrated them into a nation.

TS Inter 1st Year Political Science Model Paper Set 7 with Solutions

Question 4.
Explain different kinds of law.
Many political philosophers gave their classifications on laws in different ways. Of them the classification given by Maciver is mentioned as worthy which can be explained in the following points.

1. Natural Law: Natural law is also known as divine law. It is abstract. It is not created by any human agency. It is considered as the gift of nature, based on metaphysical power. It refers to the use of reason to analyse human nature. It is written in the heart of human beings by the ringer of God.

2. Positive Law: Positive law is created by the human agency. It is also known as political law. It is framed on the basis of the existing social and political conditions. It is sanctioned by the Sovereign Political Authority. Violation of positive law leads to punishment.

3. Constitutional Law: It is a basic law of any state. It defines the political system. All the basic principles of administration are included in this type. All other laws in the Statç are subservient to constitutional law. It is framed by the constituent assembly.

4. Ordinary Law: It determines the relation between the state, administration and people. These laws are framed by a group of officials authorised by law.

5. Public Law: It regulates the relation between people and state. These laws are formulated by state for society.

6. Private Law: It regulates the relation between citizens. It protects the rights of citizens. It also called civil law.

7. Administrative Law: It regulates the administrative relations between the authorities and people. Administrative law brings discipline among the personnel in the government. Now it is implementing in France and India.

8. General Law: It deals with the private affairs of individual in relation to the State. It covers the laws relating to Marriage, Divorce, Contract etc.

9. Statutory Law: Statutory law is the greater part of modern law. It is enacted by the legislature of a State for the day-to-day administration.

10. Common Law: Common law is a customary law. It is a product of customs and traditions which are popular among the people. The courts accept common law as a part of the legal system.

Question 5.
Define Rights. Describe the Civil and Political Rights.
Introduction: Rights are the essential conditions for the development of the personality of individuals. They are upheld by the laws of the state. They are regarded as a power or privilege which the law invests in a person. They are treated as the sum total of the opportunities meant for enhancing one’s personality. Individuals cannot achieve progress in the absence of the rights.

Definitions of Rights: Political scientists have defined the term Right in several ways. Some of their definitions are explained below:
1. Earnest Barker: ‘Rights are the external conditions necessary for the development of the capacities of the personality of the individual.’

2. Beni Prasad: ‘Rights are nothing more and nothing less than those social conditions which are necessary for the development of personality of individuals.”

3. Bosanquet: “A right is a claim recognised by the society and enforced by the state.’

4. T.H. Green: ‘Rights are those powers claimed and recognized as contributory to the common good.”

5. H.J. Laski: “Rights are those conditions of social life without which no man can seek in general to be himself at his best.”

civil Rights: Civil rights aim at providing basic conditions for individuals to lead a happy and dignified social life. These rights are considered vital for a civilized society Social life becomes impossible in their absence. Individuals in a civilized society enjoy the following Civil rights.

These are
1. Right to life:
This is the most important civil right. T.H. Green considered it as the most fundamental civil right. This right provides security to the individual’s life. Individuals cannot lead their lives in the absence of this right. This right is based on the premise that the life of an individual is valuable not only to himself, but also to the society and the state as a whole. Hence it prescribes at large the state to extend protection to the life of individuals. However, it empowers the state to impose some reasonable restrictions upon the individuals. The state can insist any person to sacrifice his life for the sake of the nation This right also includes the right of self-defence.

2. Right to liberty: This right enables individuals to have freedom in various walks of life, It makes their lives worth living. It enables them to develop their personality in various spheres. It includes various freedoms such as freedom of movement, speech, expression, thought, residence etc.

3. Right to equality: This right implies that individuals are equal before law. It forbids discrimination on the basis of ones caste, colour, creed, education, region, race, religion, wealth etc. It enables equal treatment to all persons provides scope for uniform application of laws. It enables equal opportunities to all persons in social, economic and political fields.

4. Right to property: This right enables every individual to acquire, enjoy, donate or inherit the property. It is essential to the individual for securing higher standards of living. This right is crucial for the growth of individual’s personality.

5. Right to family: Family is a fundamental social institution. This right enables individuals to maintain family relations in society. Consequently. individuals will have freedom to marry persons of their choice. They will have choice to procreate children and rear their offspring. However, the state can impose certain restrictions upon this right keeping in view the national interests. For example. until recent’ times China imposed severe restrictions against their citizens in the size of their families. Recently it has made some amendments in this regard.

6. Right to religion: This right allows the individuals to have freedom to practice, propagate and profess any religion of their choice. Every individual is at liberty to preach or practice the religious doctrines as they like. The secular states provide religious freedoms to their citizens.

7. Right to contract: This right provides freedom to every individual to enter into contract or legal arrangements with others regarding his life, property and work. It regulates the two parties in carrying their contracts in letter and spirit. The state recognizes only those contracts which are helpful to the common well being of the people.

8. Right to education: In the modem era education is regarded as vital to every individual. Uneducated and innocent individuals cannot play an active role in public affairs. Similarly, illiterate persons cannot fully make use of their abilities. Education and literacy enable the people to understand the problems of the society and policies of the government. This right guarantees a minimum level of education to every citizen in democratic states.

9. Right to form associations and unions: This right enables individuals to form associations and unions for releasing some specific objectives. Individuals may join, continue or keep away from the membership of associations according to their will and pleasure. The State is empowered to impose restrictions against those associations which ignore the welfare of the nation.

10. Right to constitutional remedies: Civil rights are meaningless in the absence of this right. This right is essential to every individual for safeguarding his rights. This right empowers a person (who was deprived of his liberty due to the intervention or manhandling by others including the government) to seek justice and relief from the concerned judicial organizations. The affected individuals are authorised to approach an appropriate, court for correcting such imbalance. in this regard the higher judicial organizations issue several writs and effectively check such tendencies. These writs are in the form of Habeas Corpus, Mandamus, Prohibition, Quo-warranto and Certiorari etc. Political Rights: Political rights are those rights which enable the individuals to participate in the political affairs of the state.

The following are the important political rights:
1. Right to vote: Right to vote is the most important political right enjoyed by the citizens in modern democratic states. It serves as a powerful weapon for adult citizens in choosing their representatives to various legislative bodies. It makes them as real sovereigns. All the citizens are entitled to this right without any discrimination based on creed, colour, language, race, region, religion, sex etc. However, persons such as aliens and minors are deprived of this right.

2. Right to contest in elections: This right empowers the citizens to contest as candidates to various legislative bodies in the state. Especially this right enables those, who have political sagacity, enthusiasm and dynamic nature, to actively participate in the political dynamics of the state. As a result, it increases political enthusiasm among the citizens. Such an element is considered as a base of democratic polity.

3. Right to hold public offices: This right provides opportunities to the citizens to hold various public offices for a definite period. It gives no scope for exclusion of citizens or conferring special privileges to some at the cost of others. This helps the citizens to exercise authority in a dignified manner.

4. Right to petition: This right enables the citizens to forward competitions denoting their requirements or grievances. It is considered as a vital political right in the modem state. The citizens could be able to find solutions to their immediate or long pending issues by bringing them to the notice of the government through this right. It also helps the public authorities to know the grievances of the people and attend to them properly and promptly.

5. Right to criticism: This right gives opportunity to the citizens to criticize the various public policies and programmes. It also enable them to highlight the omissions and commissions of the leaders, and administrative personnel at various levels. It also gives scope for the citizens to render positive and constructive criticism about the on goings in the government from time to time. Ultimately it keeps the administrative authorities and policymakers to be vigilant in discharging their obligations.

TS Inter 1st Year Political Science Model Paper Set 7 with Solutions

Section – B
8 x 5 = 40 Marks

Note: Answer any EIGHT of the following questions in not exceeding 20 lines each. Each question carries 5 Marks.

Question 1.
What is the nature of Political Science?
The traditional writers considered the study of state and government as the proper sphere of political science. The state and government are both closely related. There can be no state without government. The sate and government, therefore, have been the central subjects of the study of political science.”

In the period after the Second World War political scientists in the West developed new theories and concepts in the discipline of political science. American political scientist. Harold Laswell, in the 1930s, defined politics as the science of the study of power because the state is a structure of power and, the business of the political scientists is to examine ‘Who gets Power, When and How? Twenty years later during 1950 s, a school of thinking shifted the emphasis and redefined politics as a policy-making science. Modem writers have expanded the scope of poLitical science. They describe political science ‘as the science of the study of power’-or a policy-making science; or a fundamental activity in every organized group of human

Broadly speaking, the study of Political Science developed in two strands: the normative and the empirical. In the normative studies of political science, the main focus is on norms, values and goals or ends of political life and activity. Most of the studies of the concepts such as liberty, equality, justice and empowerment and the study of ideologies are covered under normative studies. The empirical studies, both quantitative and qualitative, focus on facts and the actual processes or means that subscribe to the achievement of goals.

The study of the functioning of government and other institutions and the human interactions in different capacities come under empirical studies. These include, the studies on public policy, voting behaviour, political parties, pressure groups and social movements.

Question 2.
Explain any four kinds of Sovereignly.
Introduction: Sovereignty is the most important characteric of the modem state. The state is distinguished from other Associations or institutions only by sovereign power.

Willoughby: “Sovereignty is the supreme will of the state”.
Jean Bodin: “Sovereigñty is the supreme power of the state over citizens and subjects unrestrained by law”.

Kinds of Sovereignty: Sovereignty is classified into several kinds as mentioned below;

  1. Nominal sovereignty
  2. Real sovereignty
  3. Legal sovereignty
  4. Political sovereignty
  5. Popular sovereignty
  6. Dejure sovereignty
  7. Defacto sovereignty

1. Nominal sovereignty:
Nominal sovereignty is also known as titular sovereignty. Nomial sovereignty implies possession of sovereign powers only in name. The Queen in Britain, the Emperor of Japan, the President of India etc., are some examples of nominal sovereignty.

2. Real sovereignty:
The real sovereign actually possesses the sovereign power. He discharges such authority bn behalf of the nominal sovereign head. Accordingly, the nominal soverign person exercises his powers only on the advice of the real sovereign persons or body of persons. The Prime Ministers of England and India etc., are some best examples of this kind of sovereignty.

3. Legal sovereignty:
Legal Sovereignty denotes the supremacy in terms of formal law. Only the legal sovereign is competent to issue the highest orders. It transcends even the divine law or the normal laws and the public opinion. The court of law recognizes only the legal sovereign and accepts its orders. The best example of legal sovereign is the king-in-parliament in England. The legal sovereignty is definite, deliberate, decisive and precisely known. The president of india is also an example of legal sovereignty.

TS Inter 1st Year Political Science Model Paper Set 7 with Solutions

4. Political sovereignty: Behind the legal sovereignty there is the political sovereignty. In a democratic state while the legal sovereign is the supreme lawmaking power; there is behind it another sovereign whose will is the ultimate and final source of authority. Gamer observes: “Behind the legal sovereign, however, is another power, legally unknown, unorganized, and incapable of expressing the will of the state in the form of legal command, yet with a power to those mandates the legal sovereignty will in practice bow and whose will must ultimately prevail in the state.

5. Popular sovereignty: The concept of popular sovereignty is different from that of political sovereignty. It means that sovereignty ultimately resides in the people. The doctrine of popular sovereignty is the product of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuñes. It emerged as an expression of resentment of the people against the despotic authority of the kings and their reliance on the theory of Divine Right.

Popular sovereignty attributes ultimate sovereignty to the people. This theory, first hinted by the John Locke, was later expounded by Rousseau and it becomes the slogan of the French Revolution.

6. Dejure sovereignty: The term ‘De Jure’ denotes authority exercised according to law. De Jure sovereignty is the power possessed and exercised by a legally competent authority. It issues orders and enjoys command over all persons, institutions, and organizations in the state. The Queen in Britain and the President in India are some examples of the De Jure sovereignty.

7. De facto sovereignty: The French term ‘De facto’ implies ‘real’. De facto sovereign is a person or a body of persons who exercise such authority in the last resort and at the final stage. De facto sovereign may not be a legal sovereign. Hs authority is based not on law but on physical force. De facto sovereign may be a king, dictator or religious priest.

Question 3.
Describe the merits of Nationalism.
The Nationalist character of the Modem State has the following merits.

  1. Nationalism removed the mutual differences, personal animosities and internal feeds. It promoted unity integrity and solidarity among the people of a nation. It enabled them to understand the neighbour’s point of view. So, it promoted closer understanding among the people.
  2. Nationalism made the people obey the government.
  3. It helped in achieving the progress of a nation in a short period.
  4. It accelerated the pace of the development of the state. It provided a democratic bare to the government and those strengthened the administrative system.
  5. It is anti-imperialistic. So it does not allow economic exploitation.
  6. It secured political stability and peacefull social atmosphere.

Question 4.
What are the characteristics of Liberty?
Meaning: The term Liberty is derived from the Latin word “LIBER” which means free from restraints.
Definition: “Liberty means the absence of restraints”. – J.R. Seely
Characteristics of Liberty: The following are the important characteristics of Liberty.

  1. Liberty is a dynamic concept. its interpretation varies according to time, place, and wishes of the people.
  2. Liberty always opposes political subjugation, imprisonment, and slavery
  3. It always aims at realizing the aspirations of the individuals.
  4. Liberty always means absence of irrational restraints and presence of favourable conditions.
  5. It is the product of rights.
  6. It is essential for the realization of human personalities.
  7. It is found only in democratic states.
  8. It is manifest in the form of rights.
  9. It does not mean license to do whatever a person wants. It is always subject to limitations.

Question 5.
Discuss Individualism.
Meaning: Individualism means the state should leave the individual alone. This theory is also known as the Laissez Faire theory. Laissez Faire is a French term which means ‘leave alone’. It regards the individual as the centre of social life. According to this theory, the individual freedom should be given maximum scope and the state interference should be reduced to the minimum.

The individualists regard state as a necessary evil’. It is necessary because it has to protect the individual from violence and fraud. It is an evil because its existence is a threat to individual freedom. So it is desirable to have state’s interference as little as possible. Lesser the functions performed by the state, the more is the liberty enjoyed by the individual.

The state should perform the following limited functions:

  1. Protection of the individual and of the state from foreign aggression.
  2. Protection of the individual against one another.
  3. Protection of property from robbery and damage.
  4. Protection of individual from false contracts and breach of contracts.

Question 6.
How is naturalised citizenship acquired?
Naturalized Citizenship: Citizenship may also be acquired through naturalization. According to this method, an alien will become a citizen after fulfilling certain conditions. These conditions vary from state to state. Some of them may be summed up as follows.
1. Residence: An alien who resides in a state for a prescribed period automatically become its citizen. Residence in any part of the state is a must for an alien. The period of residency varies from state to state. For instance it is 5 years in Britain and United States and 10 years in France respectively.

2. Choice: The children of alien parents could receive citizenship of the state according to their option and choice.

3. Application: An alien in a state may apply for the citizenship of that state. Then the government of that state considers his application on its merits. It grants citizenship to him with or without some conditions. These prescribed conditions refer to a minimum period of residence, good moral character, financial capability and knowledge of one of the national languages. Besides, an alien must take an oath of allegiance before he assumes the citizenship of another state.

4. Fixed Assets: An alien who buys some portion of land or acquires some fixed property can acquire citizenship in a state.

5. Service Public or Private: An alien who service in government of a state or in a private recognised enterprise could
become the citizen of that state. He is entited for which citizenship the serves in the public or private authorised departments. He may also be given Citizenship if the renders meritorious service in another state.

6. Marriage: An alien woman acquires citizenship of a state when she marries the citizen of that state. In some countries when a person marries an alien, citizenship of either of the husband or wife is acquired. For instance, a British lady will acquire Indian citizenship if she marries an Indian citizen. Japanese women do not lose their citizenship even if they marry persons of alien states. The alien person on the other hand, acquires the citizenship of Japan if he marries a Japanese lady.

Question 7.
Explain any four essential conditions for the success of Democracy.
1. Sound system of Education: The success of democracy requires adequate education for the citizens. Ignorance. innocence and undereducation prevent them from adopting right attitudes and large-scale reforms. Education sharpens the intellect of individuals. It develops a proper understanding of various things. It makes the citizens vigilant. Besides, this enables them to assess. and criticise the policies of government.

2. Enlightened Citizenship: Enlightened citizens are an asset to the democratic state. They can exercise proper vigilance. They can actively participate in public affairs and help their fellow citizens in the exercise of their rights and discharge of their responsibilities. They extend co-operation to the government in all its good work.

3. Independent Press: An independent press is a prerequisite democracy. It enables the people to receive accurate and unbiased information regarding the activities of the government. It not only keep’ s the people in touch with government activities but also ventilates their grievances. It strives to promote a harmonious relationship between the people and the government.

4. Strong Opposition: The success of parliamentary democracy depends to a great extent on the strong and effective opposition. Such an opposition will act as a check against the government by pointing out its lapses. in this regard, the role of opposition in some advanced states like Australia, Britan and United States is liable. In India to the opposition parties performed great role in many times.

5. Decentralization of powers: Decentralization of powers and establishment of democratic institutions at the grassroots level is indispensable for the healthy organisation of democratic institutions. The representative bodies at the grass roots level (as known as Panchayat Raj Institutions (PRIs) in India) will act as the mini legislatures. The residents of local areas will be able to know how to exercise their franchise.

6. Absence of economic dispartities: Democracy can not function smoothly when there are economic disparities in a country When a country comprises a large number of poor people and a few wealthy persons, democracy could not work successfully.

7. Social Equality: Social equality is another pre-requisite of democracy Caste, class and racial differences will impede the healthy working of democracy. Such elements encourage of democratic polity To be successful, democracy must open its doors to everybody on equal ‘basis by providing equal social opportunities to all in social sphere. Social equality must not only be proclaimed but also be practiced.

8. Faith in democracy: Certain democratic beliefs and values like individuals worth, need for tolerance of differences, decisions through discussions etc., should be inculcated among the people.

9. Sagacious Leadership: Sagacious leadership is another essential condition of democracy. Sagacious leaders, by dint of their administrative acumen, political propriety, social ‘commitment and economic perspective, will be able to lead the democratic state to greater heights of glory.

10. Honesty and transparency: Honest persons belonging to various walks life, when entrusted with major responsibilities of the government, will strive for the success of democracy. Similarly transparency in administration also acts as a basic ingredient for the success of democracy.

11. Absences of militarism: Democracy functions mostly in countries which are relatively free from militarism. In rules out the use of force and believes in the worth of individuals. It provides adequate opportunities to the people basing on worth, ablility and dedication militarism, on tlie other hand, demands concentration of authority and favours despotism.

TS Inter 1st Year Political Science Model Paper Set 7 with Solutions

Question 8.
What is Indian Secularism?
It is asserted that India is a secular state. The addition of the word secular to our constitution by 42 amendment in 1976 proves this fact. Even from the beginning of the Indian constitution, India is a secular state. Several provisions of the Indian Constitution also prove this fact.

  1. According to Article 25, every Indian citizen enjoys the freedom to profess, practice and propagate the religion of his own choice. It also allow them to donate their properties for the religious purposes.
  2. Article 26 guarantees every person to:
  • Establish and maintain religious and charitable institutions
  • Manage his (or) her religious affairs
  • Own and acquire movable and immovable properties and
  • Maintain such properties in accordance with law.

3. Article 27 states that state shall not impose any tax upon the individual for the development of religions. It also implies that state. shall not impose taxes on the basis of the religious principles of individuals.

4. Article 28 forbids the imparting of religious teachings in the educational institutions which are wholly partly aided by
the government. No religious prayers or discussions shall be conducted in educational institutions.

Question 9.
Explain the features of Constitutions.
Introduction: The age of Democracy led to political civilisation. Now-a-days every civilised state possess a constitution. A Constitution is a condition of modern state. The constitution is a living text of a political system. It represents the political character of the state and its constituents.

The term constitution implies a written document embodying the provisions relating to the powers and functions of the government organs, the rights and duties of the citizens.

Meaning: The term Constitution is an English word. It was
derived from a Latin word ‘Constitution, which means to Establish’ Definitions:

  1. Aristotle: “Constitution is the arrangement of offices in a state, especially the highest of all”.
  2. ord Bryce: “Constitution is a set of established rules embodying and enacting the practice of Government.
  3. Stephen Leacock: “Constitution is the form of Government’.
  4. K.C. Wheare: “Constitution is that body of rulés which regulates the ends for which governmental power is exercised’.

Features of the Constitution:
1. Preamble: Every Constitution will have a preamble. The preamble denotes the aims and aspirations of the Constitution. it is like the soul of the Constitution. Hence, preamble is considered as an important feature of the Constitution.

2. Clarity: Clarity is another important feature of the Constitution. The Constitution clearly explains about the different policies and methods of governance. It is written in a simple and clear language.

3. Incorporation of Fundamental Rights: Every Constitution includes some fundamental rights. These fundamental rights are meant for safeguarding the freedoms of the citizens. They enable the citizens to realise their personality in various spheres. They help the citizens for leading a happy and honorable life in the state.

4. Brevity: Brevity is another feature of a Constitution. Brevity avoids confusion among the individuals in understanding and interpreting provisions. Unnecessary elements are not included in the Constitution. It should be precise. It must not contain large number of clauses.

5. flexibility: The Constitution must be flexible for adapting the wishes are aspirations of the people from time to time. There must be a scope of amending the provisions of the Constitution if necessary. Frequent changes in the Constitution tend to weaken the spirit of the Constitution. But, at the same time, the Constitution of a modern state should be adaptable to the progressive changes.

6. permanence: Permanence is one more feature of the Constitution. The Constitution must have everlasting values for the welfare of the whole nation. It represents the actual structure of the state and its political institutions. it obliges the customs of the people.

7. Mode of Amendment: The Constitution specifies the mode of amendment. It will be relevant to the contemporary conditions of the state. it contains a special chapter on the constitutional amendment procedures. Usually, the constitutional amendments are of three types, namely

  • Rigid
  • Flexible and
  • Half rigid and Half flexible.
  • On the whole, the constitution of every state comprises both rigid and flexible elements.

8. Explanatory: The Constitution is explanatory in nature. It denotes and discusses almost all elements relating to the People, Government and State. It contains separate provisions of the structure, powers and limitations of state activity.

Question 10.
What is Judicial Activism?
According to the idea of judicial activism judges should use their powers to correct injustices, especially when the other branches a Government do not act to do so the courts play an active role in shaping social policy on such issues as civil rights, political unfairness protection of individual rights and public morality.

Judicial activism is policymaking function of judiciary in competition with policymaking by the legislative and executive. This element is associated with the doctrine of judicial review. The essence of true judicial activism lies in rendering decisions by the judiciary which are in tune with the temper and tempo of the times.

Behind every judicial decision, judicial activism and judicial restraint are the two aspects that describe the philosophy and motivation. The concept of judicial activism is the polar opposite of judicial restraint. Judicial activism refers to a theory of judgement that takes into account the spirit of the law and the changing times, where as judicial restraint relies on a strict interpretation of the law and the importance of legal precedent.

Judicial activism is dynamic process of judicial outlook in a changing society. Arthur Schlesinger Jr. introduced the term Judicial activism in 1947. According to Black’s Law Dictionary, “Judicial activism is a judicial philosophy which motivates judges to depart from traditional precedents in favour of progressive and new social policies”.

Question 11.
Explain the merits and demerits of Parliamentary form of Government.
Merits of Parliamentary Government:
a) Harmony and co-ordination between Legislature and executive: a parliamentary government, it secures cooperation
and coordination from the Legislature because it was formed with the single majority party from Legislature. It enacts laws and implementing laws through taking confidence of legislators.

b) A Scrub on Autocracy: Parliamentary government effectively checks the despotic attitude of the majority party in the lower house of the Legislature. Legislators prevent the government from the making mistakes against public interest through its questioning and a vote of no-confidence in the other motions.

c) Governmentally Able and Experienced: In a parliamentary government, Government should be consisted with the top Leaders of the majority party. Able and experienced people from the party have a hold on the party and government.

d) Responsible Government: In a parliamentary from a government, council of ministers along with prime minister hold the offices and enjoys the powers and acts on the collective responsibility to the Legislature. In a parliamentary system, opposition party controls the ruling party through its vigilance in the outside of the Legislature.

e) Flexible Government: Flexibility is another merit of the parliamentary from of a government, according to Bagehot, under this government; the people can choose a ruler for the occasion who may be especially qualified to successfully pilot the ship of the state through motional crisis.

f) Alternative to Government: Parliamentary system is in the real sense a government by criticism; The majority from the government the majority continues the opposition. The opposition must criticises the, government. The lapses of the government are its opportunities and ruling party lost confidence opposition party is ready to hold the office.

Demerits of the Parliamentary Government:
a) Unstable Government: The government has no fixed life. It remains in office only so long as it can retain parliamentary majority which is sentient to the vagaries of the representative actives.

b) Violation of the theory of separation of powers: In a parliamentary of government, there is a combination of executive and Legislature functions in the same set of individuals lead top while the same men may be at one members of the Legislature and the executive, their functions in the two roles are distinct but in political experience, they worked in no distinction.

c) Executive becomes Autocratic/tyranny of majority: When the executive is confident of support by majority members in the Legislation, at is likely to become autocratic. The opposition feels helpless in correcting the erratic behaviour of the government because all decisions taken on the basis of voting.

d) Unsuitable for emergencies: A national crisis cannot meet with promptness in parliamentary government because much of his time wasted in discussions. Get emergency needs prompt action, while taking decisions, be fear of the opposition and the masses at large.

e) Bureaucratic Dictatorship: a parliamentary government, bureaucracy becomes unduly important. The ministers being amateurs heavily rely on bureaucratise for everything.

f) National Interests Ignored: In a parliamentary government, political parties often ignore the interests of the nation for the sake of interest of the party in power. All national aspects are divided in the interest of the party only.

Despite all their defects, parliamentary government is very popularity is considered more democratic and a true reflection of the public opinion.

TS Inter 1st Year Political Science Model Paper Set 7 with Solutions

Question 12.
Explain three types of Authority.
The sociologist and philosopher Max Weber distinguishes three types of Authority – namely:

  1. Charismatic
  2. Traditional and
  3. Legal-rational.

Each of which corresponds to a brand of leadership that is operative in contemporary society
i) Charismatic Authority: The charismatic authority points to an individual who possesses certain traits that make a leader extraordinary. This type of leader is not only capable of but actually possesses the superior power of charisma to rally diverse and conflict prone people behind him. His power comes from the massive trust and almost unbreakable faith people put in him.

ii) Traditional authority: Traditional authority indicates the presence of a dominant personality. This leader is some one who depends on established tradition or order. While this leader is also a dominant personality, the prevailing order in society gives him the mandate to rule. This type of leadership, however, is reflective of everyday routine and conduct.

iii) Legal-rational authority: Legal-rational authority is one that is grounded in clearly defined laws. The obedience of people is not based on the capacity of any leader but on the legitimacy and competence that procedures and laws bestow upon persons in authority Contemporary society depends on this type of rationalization, as the complexities of its problems require the emergence of a bureaucracy that embodies order and systematization.

Section – C
15 × 2 = 30 Marks

Note: Answer any FIFTEEN of the following questions in not exceeding 5 lines each. Each question carries 2 Marks.

Question 1.
It is a modern interdisciplinary approach in Political Science. It seeks to make political Science a real Science. It originated in 1925 but became popular in the USA after the second World War David Eason, Robert Dahl, Gabriel Almond are important supporters of this approach. It studies political behaviour of people by using Scientific methods of data collection, It is a protest against the Traditional Approach.

Question 2.
Pluralistic theory of Sovereignty.
Pluralism opposes Austin’s theory of sovereignty. It says state ‘sovereignty is not absolute. State is also an Association and the individual is benefited by many Associations. Pluralists want decentralisation of authority and limited functions of the state. Sovereignty is divisible and it is not the source of law. Von Gierke, H.I. Laski, Ernest Barker, Maciver, G.D.H cole, Mait land were the exponents of pluralism.

Question 3.
De-Facto Sovereignty.
The French term DeFacto’ implies Real. Defacto sovereign is a person or a body of persons who exercise such authority in the last resort and at the final stage Defacto sovereign may not be a legal sovereign. His authority is based not on law but on physical force. De Facto sovereign may be a king. Dictator or Religious priest.

Question 4.
Mention any two demerits of Nationalism.

  1. Nationalism makes the people extremely proud. Jealous and arrogant as was clear from the history of Germany and Italy.
  2. It leads to unnecessary and unhealthy competition among the nations in economic matters.

Question 5.
What do you mean by the term equality?
Equity means fairness or justice. It is also a kind of Jude-Made law. It is an informal method of making a new law or altering an old law to new conditions. Sometimes, the courts may be confronted with the disputes about wliich the law is silent. under such situation, the Judge will give relief to the aggrieved party by using principles of social justice and humanism common sense. In course of time, they acquire the status of law. In equity Judge is adding to the law what is missing therein and creating a new one.

Question 6.
What is International Equality’
International equality: International equality means that all the states are treated equally irrespective of theIr geographical, economic or military composition. According to this element all nations of the world are equal whether they are large or small. For instance, the United Nations have extended equal dignity and status to all the nations in its charter. International Equality reflects the traits of humanism.

It emphasizes the peaceful settlement of disputes between the nations. Some cautioned about the occurrence of Third World War in the absence of respect to international law. They expressed apprehensions thinking that human beings will go back to the stone ages.

TS Inter 1st Year Political Science Model Paper Set 7 with Solutions

Question 7.
What do you know about Social Justice?
Social Justice envisages a balance between rights of individuals and social control. It facilitates the fulfillment of the legitimate expectations of the individuals under the existing laws. It ensures several benefits and extends protection to the individuals against the interference or encroachment from others in society. It is consistent with the unity and the integrity of the nation. It fulfills the needs of the society.

Social Justice enforces the principle of equality before law. It also ensures eradication of social evils like poverty, unemployment, starvation, disease etc. It also extends protection to the downtrodden and weaker sections of society. Ultimately it provides those conditions essential for the allround development of individuals.

Question 8.
Meaning of Socialism.
Hughan regarded socialism as the political movement of the working class which aims to abolish exploitation by means of collective ownership and democratic management of the instruments of production and distribution. Some writers regarded socialism as a democratic movement meant for promoting justice and liberty and for managing the society on efficient principles.

Question 9.
Civil – disobedience – National movement.
This movement is a landmark in the constitutional history of India. The Indian National Congress Launched this movement on March 12, 1930 under the guidance of Gandhiji. Gandhiji started the civil disobedience movement by taking salt laws for violation. Along with 78 standards supporters Gardhiji began to March towards Dandi, a remote village for about 240 miles from Sabarmati Ashram on March 1930 to 6th April 1930. Gandhiji Planned to violate the salt Laws of the British government by making salt. Hence this movement is also popularly known as salt Satyagraha Movement.

Question 10.
What does the terms Jus Soli mean?
Jus Soli means, acquisition of citizenship by the principle of place of birth. According to this method, a child acquires the citizenship of a State, where it borns. It is the place of birth which determines citizenship. This method is not more popular in modern times. At present, this method is observed exclusively in Argentina.

Question 11.
What is initiative?
An initiative is a request made by the people to the legislature inframing a law on certain national problem or policy as such. After making the law, the same shall be presented for referendum. In this aspect, people in a specified number present a petition in written form to the legislature proposing a legislation. It is also of two kinds. They are:

  • Formulative initiative
  • Non-formulative initiative.

Question 12.
In what ways does Secularism enables religious freedom to individual?
Secularism does not recognize any particular religion as the state religion. Secular state adopts neutral policy in religious matters. It implements various laws and social welfare measures without basing on the religious feelings of the people.

Question 13.
What is an Unwritten Constitution?
An unwritten constitution is one whose provisions are not written in a single document. It includes several customs and traditions which are manifested in the form of Laws. The constitution of Britain is the best example of an unwritten constitution.

Question 14.
House of lords.
The House of Lords, also known as The House of Peers, is the upper House of the parliament of the United Kingdom. Membership is granted by appointment or else by heredity. Like the House of common, it meets in the palace of West Minister. Currently, there are 300 members in the House of Lords members of whom 240 are Elected members and 60 appointed. Independent members upto 12 Church of England Bishops may sit in the House as ex officio Lords spiritual.
Elected members will serve a single non-renewable term of 15 years.

TS Inter 1st Year Political Science Model Paper Set 7 with Solutions

Question 15.
Parliamentary Executive.
A parliamentary System of government means that the Executive branch of government has the direct or indirect support of the parliament. This support is usually shown by a vote of confidence. The Relationship between the executive and the Legislature in a parliamentary system is called Responsible government. According to this system, there is a President who is the formal Head of the State and the Prime Minister and the council of ministers which run the government.

Question 16.
Aristotles classification of Governments.
Aristotle classified governments on the basis of two elements, namely:

  • i) Number of rulers
  • ii) Aims of the State.

He again classified Governments into normal and perverted forms. He says monarchy, aristocracy, and polity as the normal form of governments. Tyranny, oligarchy and democracy are the perverted form of Government.

Question 17.
Separation of Powers.
Theory of separation of powers is propounded by Montesquieu in his famous book The Spirit of Laws’. The powers among the three organs of the Government in presidential executive will be distributed on the basis of the theory of separation of powers. Its main feature is Checks and Balance’, which means the three organs of the Government possess equal powers and each organ checks the other two organs from crossing their limits.

Question 18.
Prime Minister.
Parliamentary government is described as Prime Ministerial government. The Prime Minister in this system acts as the Real executive head of the government. He acts as the Leader of the Majority party or coalition Ministry in the lower house of the legislature. He remains as the main pillar to the structure of union cabinet and unioncouncil of Ministers. He is central to the formation, continuance and survival of the Ministiy He Presides over the meetings of the union cabinet and decides its agenda. He enforces the Principle of Collective Responsibility. All the Ministers ake oath of office assume powers and discharge their Public and political obligations under his stewardship.

Question 19.
What are the views of Plato on Justice?
Justice is giving to every man his due. It is a combination of reason, courage, appetite and will in terms of the state.

Question 20.
Equality and Social change.
Equality as an idea of Social Change: With advance of scientific knowledge and technology, more and more areas of natural in equality are coming within the alterable sphere. We know that health and bodily strength can be improved by proper nutrition, and mental make up can be considerably developed by proper education and training. But availability of these benefits to an individual is dependent on his socioeconomic status.

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