TS Inter 1st Year Botany Question Paper May 2019

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TS Inter 1st Year Botany Question Paper May 2019

Time: 3 Hours
Maximum Marks: 60

General Instructions:
Note : Read the following instructions carefully.

  1. Answer all questions of Section ‘A’. Answer ANY SIX questions in Section ‘B’ and answer ANY TWO questions in Section ‘C’.
  2. In Section ‘A’, questions from Sr Nos. 1 to 10 are of ‘Very Short Answer Type’. Each question carries TWO marks. Every answer may be limited to 5 lines. Answer all these questions at the one place in the same order.
  3. In Section B’, questions from Sr. Nos. 11 to 18 are of ‘Short Answer Type’. Each question carries FOUR marks. Every answer may be limited to 20 lines.
  4. In Section ‘C’, questions from Sr. Nos. 19 to 21 are of ‘Long Answer Type’. Each question carries EIGHT marks. Every answer may be limited to 60 lines.
  5. Draw labelled diagrams, wherever necessary in Sections ‘B’ and ‘C’.

Section – A (10 × 2 = 20)

Note : Answer all questions. Each answer may be limited to 5 lines.

Question 1.
Name two diseases caused by mycoplasmas.
Mycoplasmas causes Witches broom in plants, Pleuropneumonia in Cattle and Mycoplasmal urethritis in Human beings.

Question 2.
What is the basis of classification of Algae ?
The basis for classification of Algae is pigmentation and type of stored food.

Question 3.
What was the contribution of Carolus Von Linnaeus for the development of plant taxonomy ?
Carolus Von Linnaeus popularised Binomial Nomenclature. He also proposed the sexual system of classification.

TS Inter 1st Year Botany Question Paper May 2019

Question 4.
What is meant by epipetalous condition ? Give an example.
When the stamens are attached to the petals, that condition is called epipetalous condition. Eg : Datura, Brinjal.

Question 5.
Name a plant that has single fruit developing from the entire inflorescence. What is such a fruit called ?
Pine apple, such fruit is called composite fruit.

Question 6.
Give the technical description of anthers in Allium Cepa.
In Allium cepa, anthers are dithecous, basifixed, introrse and dehisce longitudinally.

Question 7.
What is referred to as satellite chromosome ?
A few chromosomes have non-staining secondary constrictions at a constant location, which gives the appearance of a small fragment called satellite. The chromosome with satellite is called satellite chromosome.

Question 8.
What are primary and secondary metabolites ? Give examples.
Metabolites which have identifiable functions and play known roles in normal physiological processes are called primary metabolites. E.g. : Amino acids, sugars. Metabolites which have no identifiable function in host organisms are called secondary metabolites.
E.g. : Rubber, drugs, scents and pigments.

Question 9.
An anther has 1600 pollen grains. How many pollen mother cells must have been there to produce them ?
400 pollen mother cells.

Question 10.
Name the land plants that can tolerate the salinities of the sea. Give an example.
Eg : Rhizophora.

TS Inter 1st Year Botany Question Paper May 2019

Section – B (6 × 4 = 24)

Note : Answer any six questions. Each answer may be limited to 20 lines.

Question 11.
What are taxonomical aids ? Give the importance of herbaria , and museums.
Taxonomical aids are the collection of actual specimens of plant and animal species which are useful in agriculture, forestry, industry 1 and in knowing bio-resources and their diversity.

Herbarium is a store house of collected plant specimens that are dried pressed and preserved on sheets, These sheets are used for future use and also serve as quick referral systems in taxonomical studies.

Museums are generally set up in educational institutes and have collections of preserved plant and animal specimens for study and reference.

Question 12.
How would you distinguish monocots from dicots ? (Any four characters).

Monocots Dicots
1. Only one cotyledon is present in seed. 1. Two cotyledons are present in seed.
2. Fibrous root system is present. 2. Taproot system is present.
3. Parallel venation is seen in leaves. 3. Reticulate venation is seen in leaves.
4. Seeds are without endosperm. 4. Seeds are with Endosperm.
5. The flowers are trimerous. 5. The flowers are tetra or pentamerous.
6. Secondary growth is absent. 6. Secondary growth occurs.

Question 13.
Write a brief account on gametogenesis with examples,
The process of formation of male and female gametes is called gametogenesis. In some Algae, the two gametes formed similar in appearance so called Homogametes or isogametes. Eg : Cladophora in majority of sexually reproducing organisms, the gametes produced are of two morphologically distinct types. They are called Heteroametes. In such organisms, the male gamete is called the Antherozoid rnd the female gamete is called the Egg. Eg: Funaria, Pteris and Cycas.

Question 14.
Give economic importance of plants belonging to Fabaceae.

  1. Pulses like red gram (Cajanus), black gram (Phaseolus) green gram (Phaseolus aureus), Bengal gram (Cicer arietinum) are rich source of proteins.
  2. Pods of Dolichos and Glycine are used as vegetables.
  3. Seeds of Pisum and Arachis are edible.
  4. Ground nut oil from Arachis seeds and soyabean oil from Glycine max are used in cooking.
  5. The oil cake from Arachis is used as fodder.
  6. The oil from the seeds of Derris indica is used in making medicines.
  7. The seeds of Abrus precatorius are used as Goldsmith’s weight.
  8. Seeds of Trigonella are used as condiment and medicine. The leaves are used as vegetable.
  9. Sesbania and Tephrosia are used as green manure.
  10. Crotalaria and Phaseolus are used as fodder.
  11. Fibre from Crotalaria is used in making ropes.
  12. Indigofera yields blue dye, which is used in colouring clothes.
  13. Wood from pterocarpus is used in making musical instruments.

TS Inter 1st Year Botany Question Paper May 2019

Question 15.
Describe the structure and function of power house of cell. Draw labelled diagram.
Mitochondria is termed as power houses of the cell. It is 0.2 to 1.0 pm in diameter, 1.0 to 4.1 µm in length, appears in cylindrical shape.

Each Mitochondria is a double membrane bound structure with outer smooth membrane and inner membrane with infoldings towards inside called cristae. The space inner to inner membrane is called matrix, which consists of single, circular DNA, few RNA molecules, 70s type of ribosomes and the components required for the synthesis of proteins. The cristae shows several stalked particles called F1 particles or oxysomes.
TS Inter 1st Year Botany Question Paper May 2019 1
Function : Food materials undergo oxidation and releases energy in the form of ATP so called power houses of the cell.

Question 16.
Write a brief account on polysaccharides.
Polysacharides are long chains of sugars. They are threads containing different monosaccharides i.e., Glucose. Cellulose is a homopolymer. In a polysaccharide chain (Glycogen), the right end is called the reducing end and the left end is called the non- reducing end. It has branches shown in the form of a cartoon. Plant cell walls are made of cellulose. Paper made from plant pulp is cellulose. Cotton fibre is also cellulose. There are more complex polysaccharides in nature. They are amino sugars, chemically modified sugars (Glucosamine, N-acetyl galactosamine). Exoskeleton of arthropods and cell wall of Fungi have a complex polysaccharide called Chitin (Heteropolymer).

Question 17.
State the location and function of different types of meristems.
Based on the position, meristems are classified into three types.
They are :

  1. Apical meristems : The meristems that are present at the tip of the stem and at the tip of the root are called apical meristems. They help in linear growth of the plant body.
  2. Intercalary meristems : The meristems that are present in between mature tissues are known as intercalary meristems. They contribute to the formation of the primary plant body and also involves in intemodal length.
  3. Lateral meristems : The meristems that occur in the mature regions of roots and shoots peripherally called lateral meristems. They help in increase in thickness of the plant organs, e.g : vascular cambium and Cork cambium.

Question 18.
List the anatomical adaptations of hydrophytes.

  1. Cuticle is totally absent in the submerged parts of the plants. It may be present, it is in the form of a thin film on the surface
  2. The epidermis is composed of thin walled cells. They perform absorption and assimilation as all cells contain chloroplasts.
  3. Stomata are totally absent in submerged hydrophytes as the gaseous exchange takes place by diffusion.
  4. In Nymphaea, nelumbium, the leaves are epistomatous.
  5. All hydrophytes contain aerenchyma that helps in gaseous exchange and buoyancy.
  6. Mechanical tissues are poorly developed.
  7. Xylem is poorly developed.

TS Inter 1st Year Botany Question Paper May 2019

Section – C (2 × 8 = 16)

Note : Answer any two questions. Each answer may be limited to 60 lines.

Question 19.
Explain the different types of racemose inflorescences.
Racemose inflorescences are of several types.
They are :
1. Simple Raceme : The peduncle is simple, unbranched producing many pedicellate, bracteate flowers in acropetal manner. e.g. : Crotalaria.

2. Coymb : The peduncles is long and bears many flowers in acropetal manner, but all the flowers are brought to the same level due to varied lengths of pedicels eventhough they are bom at different nodes.
e.g. : Cassia, Cauliflower.

3. Umbel : The peduncle grow indefinitely and bears several bracteate and pedicellate flowers which have arisen from the same point. The inflorescence is covered by a whorl of bracts called involucre.
e.g. : Coriander, Carrot.

4. Spike : The peduncle is long and bears many sessile flowers arranged in acropetal manner.
e.g. : Achyranthus, Grass.

5. Spadix : The peduncle is long, fleshy and bears many unisexual flowers. Male flowers are the upper part, Female flowers are at the base of the peduncle with neuter flowers in between them. The inflorescence is covered and protected by an enlarged bract called spathe.
e.g. : Cocos, Colacasia.

6. Head : the peduncle is condensed and bears many unisexual and bisexual flowers arranged centripetally.
e.g. : Tridax, Sunflower.

Question 20.
With a neat labelled diagram, describe the parts of a mature angiosperm embryo sac. Mention the role of synergids.
Mature angiosperm embryosac shows three parts. They are :
1) Egg apparatus
2) Antipodals
3) Central cell.
TS Inter 1st Year Botany Question Paper May 2019 2
1) Egg Apparatus : Three cells present towards the micropyle of the embryosac together called egg apparatus. Of which, the central, largest one is called egg and two lateral cells are called synergids. Synergids show finger like projections towards the micropyle called filliform apparatus.

2) Antipodals : Three cells present towards the chalazal end of the ovule are called antipodals. They are also referred to as vegetative cells of the embryosac and disintegrates before or after fertilisation.

3) Central cell : It is the largest cell of the embryosac. It is formed by the fusion of two polar nuclei. It is also called secondary nucleus. It shows central vacuole and 2 haploid polarnuclei.

Role of synergies :

  1. The filliform apparatus of the synergids absorbs food materials from the Nucells and supplies to embryosac.
  2. It also secretes some chemicals which direct the growth of the pollen tube towards embryosac.

TS Inter 1st Year Botany Question Paper May 2019

Question 21.
Describe the internal structure of a monocot root.
The internal structure of monocot root shows three parts namely
(1) Epidermis
(2) Cortex and
(3) stele.
TS Inter 1st Year Botany Question Paper May 2019 3
i) Epidermis : It is the outermost layer madeup of thin walled cells. Some cells protrude in the form of unicellular root hairs, so called Epiblemat It gives protection to inner parts. Cuticle and stomata are absent. Root hairs help in absorption of water and minerals from the soil.

Cortex : It consists of several layered parenchymatous cells with Interecellular spaces. The Inner most layer of cortex is called Endodermis. It is the single layer made of barrel shaped cells without inter cellular spaces. The tangential as well as the radial walls of the Endodermis

shows suberin thickenings called casparian strips. Some cells opposite to protoxylem are without casparian strips, called passage cells. They help in the movement of water and dissolved salts from cortex into xylem.
iii) Stele : It is the central part of the root, consists of 4 layers.

a) Pericycle : It is single layered, made of parenchyma cells inner to Endodermis. It produces lateral roots.

b) Vascular Bundle : Xylem and phloem constitutes vascular bundle. They are arranged on different radius (in alternate manner) so, called Radial vascular Bundle. Xylem is exarch, where protoxylem is towards periphery and metaxylem is towards the center. Xylem is in polv- arch condition (Many xylem strands). Xylem helps in conduction of water and minerals and phloem helps in conduction of food materials.

c) Medulla : It is large, made of parenchyma cells which help in storage of food.

d) Conjuctive Tissue : The parenchyma present between xylem and phloem is called conjunctive tissue. It helps in storage of food.

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