AP Inter 2nd Year Civics Question Paper May 2016

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AP Inter 2nd Year Civics Question Paper May 2016

Time : 3 Hours
Max. Marks: 100

3 x 10 = 30


  • Answer ANY THREE of the following questions in 40 lines each.
  • Each question carries 10 marks.

Question 1.
Explain ten salient features of Indian Constitution.
Introduction: The Indian constitution was prepared and adopted by the Constituent Assembly which was set up in 1946. The Constituent Assembly took nearly three years (From 9th December, 1946 to 25th November, 1949) to complete the framing of the constitution.

The Constituent Assembly approved the Indian Constitution on 26 November, 1949. The Indian constitution came into force on 26th January, 1950. Which we have been celebrating as ‘The Republic Day”. The following are the salient or basic features of the Indian constitution.

1. Preamble: The Indian constitution begins with a preamble. The preamble clearly defines the objectives of our constitution. It declares India as a Sovereign, Socialist, Secular, democratic Republic. It provides liberty, equality, fraternity, and justice. It states that the people of India are the chief source of the political authority.

2. A lengthy Written Document: The Constitution of India is the most written, lengthy, and detailed document in the world. In 1950, the Indian Constitution had 22 parts, 8 schedules, and 395 articles. After subsequent amendments, it contains 12 schedules and 444 articles for the present.

3. A combination of rigidity and flexibility: The constitution of India is a blend of rigidity and flexibility. Our founding Fathers were programatic enough to provide for rigidity and flexibility as the situation demands. Article 368 provides the details of the amendment procedure.
i) Some of the provisions 1iIe admission of New states (Ex: Telangana), provisions relating to citizenship, salaries and
allowances of the members of the constitutional bodies like President, Vice-President, Supreme Court and High Court judges etc. Can be amended by simple majority. It is said to be flexible.

ii) Some provisions can be amended by a special majority i.e., not less than Two-thirds of the members of the House present and voting. Ex: Fundamental Rights, Directive Principles of state policy etc. It is said to be half rigid and half flexible.

iii) Some provisions can be amended by two-thirds majority of the Parliament and with the concurrence of half of the states. Ex: Election of the President, executive powers of the union and the states, distribution of legislative powers between the union and the states etc. It is said to be rigid.

4. Quasi-Federal polity: India is a states according to the constitution. Our constitution contains both the features of unitary and Federal Governments. It prescribed unitary system in emergencies and Federal system on ordinary occassions. Provisions of unitary state such as Single Citizenship, Single Integrated Judiciary, Single Election Commission, Role of All india Services Personnel etc., are found in our constitution. At the same time certain federal features like written, rigid constitution, Dual government, Bicameralism etc., are profoundly seen in our constitution. Thus it is a Quasi-Federal. Polity like Canada.

5. Republican government: Unlike the colonial Master, the UK, India preferred a Republican government. Here all public
offices right from World member to the top president of India are open to all eligible citizens and there is no place for hereditary principles.

6. Parliamentary government: The constitution of India provided Parliamentary government of the British type but with an elected President of Irish Model. Accordingly, the features of Parliamentary government such as two executive heads, Ministerial accountability to the lower house of the legislature, Prime Minister leadership etc., are prevalent in our political system.

7. Fundamental Rights and Fundamental Duties: Part – III of the constitution, Articles from 12 to 35, provides for a set of
basic human rights to all. They are justiceable and ensure basic freedoms.
They are six in number.

  1. Right to equality
  2. Right to freedom
  3. Right against exploitation
  4. Right to religion
  5. Cultural and educational right and
  6. Right to constitutional remedies.

The 42nd Amendment to the constitution in 1976 incorporated the fundamental duties in Article 51A under part – IVA. Though they are not justiciable. But they put an obligation on the citizens to render certain duties in return for the protection they have been enjoying through fundamental rights. Fùndamental duties relate to respecting the constitution, the National Flag and National Anthem, safeguarding public property etc.

8. Single citizenship: Our Constitution provides for single citizenship for all persons who are born in India and who resided in India for a specific period. It enables the citizens to possess and enjoy identical rights and privileges. It also promotes unity, integrity and fraternity among the people.

9. Universal and Adult Franchise: The makers of the Indian constitution provided for the universal adult Franchise for all
citizens without any discrimination based on caste, colour, creed, community, language, religion, region, sex, property etc. At the beginning, adult Franchise was given to all the citizens who attained the age of 21 years. Later voting age was reduced to 18 years through the 61st Constitution, Amendment Act in 1988.

10. Secular state: Our constittìon stands for a secular state. It does hot uphold any particular religion as the officia! religion of the Indian state. It ensures complete religious freedom to the people. It abolishes discrimination between individuals on religious grounds in the matters of employment, education, and legislation. It prohibits religious instructions in state-owned or state-aided educational institutions.

11. Independent judiciary: The Judiciary performs its functions independently. The legislature or the executive shall not interfere in the working of the Judiciary. The Judiciary carries on its obligations according to the constitutional norms and democratic principles.

12. Directive principles of state policy: Our constitution hinted out certain directive principles as the policy of the state in part TV from Articles from 36 to 51. These principles are drawn from Irish constitution. These principles reflect the welfare state concept. They are the directions to be followed by the various governments. Equal pay for equal work, provision of employment opportunities, fair distribution of wealth, old age pension, protection of ill health, provision of education, protection of women and children etc., are the some examples of these principles. Though these principles are non-justiciable, No responsible government can afford to ignore them.

13.  Bi-cameralism: The constitution of india introduced Bicameralism at the National level. Accordingly, The Indian Parliament consists of two houses namely the Rajya Sabha (upper house) and the Lok Sabha (lower house). While the Rajya Sabha represents the states, the Lok Sabha represents the people.

14. Panchayati Raj and Nagar Palikas Acts: The Panchayati Raj and Nagar Palikas Acts are recent features of our constitution. The 73rd and 74th Constitutional Amendment Acts gave constitutional recognition to the Rural and Urban local governments. Which came into force in 1993 and 1994 respectively had become operative all over the territory of India.

The ideals of democratic decentralisation or the grass roof democracy are realised by these acts. These acts provides for adequate representation for women, scheduled castes, scheduled tribes and other weaker sections in the policy-making bodies of the local governments.

AP Inter 2nd Year Civics Question Paper May 2016

Question 2.
Explain the various types of Directive Principles of State Policy mentioned in Indian Constitution.
Directive principles of state policy are enumerated in articles from 36 to 51 in past -IV of the Indian constitution. They are borrowed from the Irish constitution. They help in realizing the objectives mentioned in the preamble.

Types of Directive principles of State Policy: Directive principles can be classified into three broad categories namely Socialistic, Liberal-intellectual and Gandhian principles.

Article 36 defines the term “State’’.
Article 37 declares that the directive principles shall not be enforceable by any court.

1. Socialist Principles: ArticIs 38, 39, 41, 42, 43 and 47 explains about the socialistic ideology ot the directive principles of state policy.

1. Article 38 prescribes that the state shall strive to provide justice and promote welfare of the people by creating a proper economic, social and political atmosphere.
2. Article 39 directs the state to secure its citizens.

  • Adequate means of livelihood for all citizens.
  • Equitable distribution of wealth for sub-serving the common good.
  • Equal pay for equal work for all.
  • Protection of adult and child labour.
  • Decentralization of nation’s wealth.
  • Preserving the health and strength of workers, men and women.
  • Protecting childhood and youth against exploitation.

3. To secure right to work and education for all people, relief in the case of unemployment; old age; sickness and disablement and in other cases of under-served want. (Article 41).

4. To make provision for just and human conditions of work and maternity relief (Article 42).

5 To secure living wage and decent standard of life so as to ensure to the workers sufficient leisure and enjoyment of social and cultural opportunities. (Article 43).

6. Raising the level of nutrition and standard of living of the people and the improvement of public health (Article 47).

2. Liberal-intellectual Princies: The principles represent the ideology of liberalism and certain obšective like provision of basic education, uniform civil code, independent judiciary and international peace. They are incorporated in Articles 44, 45, 50 and 51 of the Constitution.

  • The State shall secure for the citizens uniform civil code throughout the country (Article 44)
  • The State shall provide free and compulsory education for all the children below 14 years of age. The Constitution (Eighty-Sixth Amendment) Act, 2002 substituted the following words in Article 45. ‘The State shall endeavor to provide early childhood care and education for all children until they complete the age of six years.” (Article 45)
  • The state organize agriculture and animal husbandry on modern and scientific lines (Article 48)
  • The state protect monuments which are declared to be of national importance (Article 49)
  • The state protect and improve the environment and to safeguard forests and wildlife (Article 48 A)
  • The State shall take steps to separate judiciary from executive in public services of the State. (Article 50)

7. The State shall

  • promote international peace, justice and security.
  • Maintain just and honorable relations with other nations
  • protection of monuments and place of historical and cultural interest
  • respect for international laws and treaty obligations; and
  • encourage settlement of international dispute by arbitration. (Article 51)

3. Gandhian Principles: These principles are based on Gandhian ideology. They represent the programre of reconstruction enunciated by Mahatma Gandhi during the national movement. These principles provide ideal rule in India. They are reflected in Articles 40,43; 46 and 47. They may be enumerated as under.

1. The State shall organize village Panchayats and endow them with adequate powers and authority so as to enable them to function as the units of self-government. (Article 40)

2. The State shall strive for the promotion of cottage industries on individual or cooperative basis in rural areas. (Article 43)

3. The State shall promote the educational and economic interests of the SCs, STs and BCs of society with special care, (Article 46)

4. The State shall endeavour to bring about prohibition of intoxicating drinks and of drugs which are injurious to health (Article 47)

Other Principles: The Constitution (Forty-Second and Forty-Fourth Amendment) Acts of 1976 and 1978 added a few more subjects to the list of Directive Principles. While the Constitution (Forty Second Amendment) Act inserted Articles 39A, 43A, and 48 A the Constitution (Forty Fourth Amendment) Act included Article 39 Clause (2).

They comprise the following provisions.

  1. Providing opportunities for healthy development of children.
  2. Promotion of equal justice and legal aid to the poor.
  3. Securing participation of workers in the management of industries.
  4. Protecting the environment, forests and wild animals.

Question 3.
Discuss the powers and functions of the Prime Minister of India.
The Prime Minister is the real executive head of the Union Government. He occupies an important position in the administration of our country. Since India has a Parliamentary form of Government the real power rests with him. He is the ‘uncrowned kingt and The keystone of the Cabinet arch in the Union Government”.

1) He should be citizen of India.
2) He should have completed the age of 25 Years.
3) He should be qualified for election as a member of the Lok Sabha.
4) He should not hold any office of profit under the union or state or local governments.

Appointment: The President appoints the Prime Minister. Generally, the President has to summon the leader of the majority party in the Lok Sabha to form the Ministry. If no party gets an absolute majority the President can use his discretion and summon the leader of the party, who in his opinion can manage to form a ministry. Afterwards, the Prime Minister will be asked to prove his majority in the Lok Sabha.

Oath of Office: The President of India will administer the oath of office of the Prime Minister.

Term of Office: The Prime Minister shall remain in office during the pleasure of the President. But actually, he assumes his powers as long as he retains the confidence of the majority members in the Lok Sabha. He resigns when the Lok Sabha accepts a no confidence motion against his ministry.

Salary and Allowances: The salary and allowances of Prime Minister are decided by the Parliament from time to time. He gets his salary and allowances that are payable to a member of Parliament. At present the Prime Minister gets a salary and allowances of ₹ 1,60,000/- per month. Powers and Functions: The Prime Minister is the head of the union government. He is the real executive. The Council of Ministers cannot exist without the Prime Minister. His powers are explained here under.

1. Leader of the Union Cabinet: The Prime Minister is the leader of the Union Cabinet and Union Council of Ministers. He selects some eminent members of his party in parliament and sees that they are appointed as ministers by the President. He has a free choice of both allocating portfolios and reshuffling the ministry. All the ministers are personally and politically loyal to the Prime Minister. He decides the agenda of the cabinet meetings. Further, he presides over the cabinet meetings.

2. Leader of the Union Government:
The Prime Minister acts as the leader of the union government. The union executive (Union Council of Ministers) initiates its business after the swearing-in ceremony of the Prime Minister. All the ministers in the union ministry assume their office, owe their position and exercise their powers along with the Prime Minister.

In fact, the Prime Minister influences the nature and working of the union government. He not only has a clear understanding but holds complete control over the affairs of the union government. All the high-level officers and the entire ministry in the union government behave and act according to the wishes of the Prime Minister.

3. Leader of the parliament: The Prime Minister acts the leader of the Parliament in India. He is primarily a member of
Parliament. He extends cooperation to the presiding officers in the smooth conduct of the two Hotses. He wields complete control over his party members in the Parliament. He ensures that his party members maintain discipline during the sessions of the Parliament.

He informs out the cabinet decisions to the Parliament. He communicates the major domestic and foreign policies of the union government to the members of Parliament. He maintains rapport with the opposition leaders and discusses the major issues confronted by the nation with them.

4. Link between the President and the Council of Ministers:
The Prime Minister acts as the main link between the President and the Union Council of Ministers. It is his duty to communicate to the President about the decisions of the Union Council of Ministers. He furnishes the every information required by the President concerning the affairs of union government. All the ministers shall formally meet the President only with the consent of the Prime Minister.

5. Leader of the Majority Party: The Prime Minister acts as the leader of the majority party or group in the lower House of Parliament. He participates in the meetings of the party and acquaints his party members on various issue and steps taken by his ministry in implementing the party promises. He utilizes the services of the senior party leaders in running the government. He acts as the main link between the part and the government.

6. Leader of the Nation: The Prime Minister is the leader of the nation. He takes initiative in finding solutions to several problems in the internal matters of the country. He plays an important role in the development of the nation.

7. Maker of Foreign Policy: The Prime Minister plays a dominant role in shaping the foreign policy of the nation. He keeps in touch with the developments in all countries. He meets Heads of various countries and maintains friendly relations with them.

8. Chairman of Nm Aayog: ‘The Prime Minister heads the NITI Aayog (National Institution for Transforming India) NITI Aayog means policy commission. It is a policy think tank of government of India that replaces planning commission which aims to involve the states in economic policy-making in India. It will provide strategic and technical advice to the central and state governments. It will have a governing council comprising Chief Ministers of all the states and it governors of Union Territories. Union government set up the NITI Aayog on January 1, 2015.

AP Inter 2nd Year Civics Question Paper May 2016

Question 4.
Explain the powers and functions of Parliament.
Introduction: The Union Legislature (Parliament) is the highest legislative organ of the Union government. Articles 79 to 129 in part V of Indian Constitution deals with the composition, organization, powers, and functions of the Indian Union Legislature.

Composition: Indian Parliament consists of the

  • President
  • Rajya Sabha (Council of States)
  • Lok Sabha (House of People)

The upper house Rajya Sabha represents the states and union territories.
The lower house Lok Sabha represents the people.
The President of India has the power to summon or prorogue
the two houses of Parliament though he is not a member of either house.

He can dissolve the Lok Sabha on the advice of the Union Council of Ministers headed by the Prime Minister. Powers and functions of the Union Legislature (or) Indian Parliament: The Parliament enjoys extensive powers and performs variety of functions. These powers and functions are under the following points.

1. Legislative Powers and Functions: The main function of the Indian Parliament is law-making. It makes laws on all the subjects mentioned in the Union List and Concurrent List. Under certain circumstances, it also makes laws on the subjects mentioned in the State List. Further, it also makes laws on the matters that are not included in any of the three Lists i.e., on residuary matters.

2. Executive Powers and Functions: Another important function of the Indian Parliament is controlling the Executive
(Union Council of Ministers). Parliament controls the Executive through various ways, such as by asking questions, supplementary questions and by introducing adjournment motions and no confidence resolutions against the Ministry. Hence the survival of the Government depends upon the will of the members in the Lower House. The executive remains in office so long as it enjoys the confidence of the Lok Sabha.

3. Financial Powers and Functions: The Parliament controls the financial resources of the nation. It accepts the budget and other money bills required by the government. Its permission is needed for the government for imposing and collecting tax and for revising the existing tax rates. In this regard the Lok Sabha has more financial powers than the Rajya Sabha. All money, bills shall at first be introduced in the Lok Sabha. The Rajya Sabha has to accept all money bills sent by the Lok Sabha within 14 days. It approves the railway budget, appropriation bill and other money bills.

4. Judicial Powers and Functions: The Parliament has certain judicial powers and functions. It has the power to remove the President and Vice President. The procedure is called impeachment. It has also the power to recommend to the President the removal of the higher officials of the country such as the Chief justice and Judges of Supreme Court, High Court and the Chairman and other members of U.PS.C., Chief Election Commissioner etc. for violation of certain principles.

5. Constitutional Powers and Functions: The Parliament takes initiative for changing the provisions of the Constitution according to the changing times. Bills relating to the Constitution amendments may be introduced in either House. The State legislatures also join with the Parliament in accepting certain important Constitutional amendment bills. There are three methods of amending the Constitution.

6. Electoral Powers: The Parliament also serves as an electoral college. It participates in the election of the President and Vice President. The Speaker and Deputy Speaker who act as the presiding officers are elected by the members of Lok Sabha. The Deputy Chairman is elected by the members of the Rajya Sabha.

7. Deliberative Powers and Functions: The Parliament acts as the highest forum and direct agency of public opinion. Its members discuss various issues of national and international significance. They demand the government to solve the people’s problems.

8. Miscellaneous Powers: In addition to the above, the Indian Parliament has also the power to

  • create or abolish Legislative Councils
  • change the names and boundaries of the States etc.

Conclusion: A look at the powers and functions of the Indian Parliament shows that it is the centre of legislative activity and political activity of our country.

Question 5.
Estimate the powers and functions of the District Collector.
Power and Functions of District Collector: The District Collector enjoys vast power and performs several functions as the head of the district administration. These may be explained as follows:
A) The Collector as District Revenue Officer: The Collector is the Chief District Revenue Officer. He, in that capacity, serves as the chief guide to the farmers in the district by fulfilling several obligations. His revenue functions include various activities such as collection of land revenue, sanction of agricultural loans to farmers, rescuing the farmers in times of natural calamities by assessing the loss incurred by them, rendering assistance to the union and state authorities in emergency relief measures etc.

B) The Collector as District Magistrate: The Collector acts as the District Magistrate. He will have supervision over the
activities of the district police personnel. He sees that law and order conditions in the district are normal. For this purpose he will be assisted by a large number of police personnel. The district superintendent of police and other police officers owe responsibility to the Collector in matters such as supervision over police personnel prisons etc,. The Collector can inspect the police stations in the district. He is empowered to issue prohibitory orders on the occasion of breakdown of law and order. He can issue firing orders when all peaceful efforts failed in the restoration of normal.

C) The Collector as Chief Coordinator: The District Collector acts as the chief co-ordinator of various government departments in the district. He acts as the chief counsel and co-ordinator of the departments such as agriculture, irrigation, co-operation and labour affairs. The heads of these departments shall oblige and implement the suggestions and guidelines of the collector in the district. Even though these heads formulate th.ir policies independently, they are answerable to the District Collector in their discharge of their obligations.

D) The Collector as District Electoral Officer: The Collector acts the chief district electoral officer. He serves as the main agent of the Election Commission of India for conducting elections to the various representative bodies in the district. He takes steps for conducting the elections in fair and impartial manner. These include preparation of electoral list and its modification, hearing public grievances on voters list, registration of new voters, appointing returning officers assistant returning officers etc.

E) The Collector as the Chief Census Officer: The Collector acts as the chief census officer in the district. He on behalf of the union and state governments, takes steps for holding census operations in the district for every ten years. He also sees that the statistical data regarding the number of milch Caille, trees, and domesticated animals in the district is collected properly. He also compiles such other information as required by the higher authorities in regard to the construction of houses for the poor, family welfare, women empowerment, rural infrastructure etc.

F) The Collector as Permanent invitee of Local Bodies:
The District Collector is a permanent invitee to the meetings of Panchayat Raj and urban local bodies in the district. He acts as a main link between the union and state governments and district local bodies on various matters. He participates in the normal emergency meetings of Zilla Parishad and mandal parishads in the district. He sends confidential reports to the state government on the nature of functioning of these bodies. He conducts the meeting meant for considering the no-confidence motion against the Zilla Parishad chairman.

Other Functions: This District Collector also performs the following functions.

  1. Matters concerning the welfare of Ex-servicemen
  2. Provision of irrigation facilities.
  3. Supervision over sub-treasuries.
  4. Co-ordinating the activities of various government departments.
  5. Supervising the training programmes for Junior Officers.

Role of District Collector in Local Government: The District Collector plays a crucial role in the affairs of local governments in the district. He serves as the friend, philosopher, and guide to the common men living in the district. He also serves as a link between people and local bodies in the district. Normally the common men seek guidance and solace from the Collector in times of natural calamities and other unforeseen contengencies.

The Collector makes recommendations to the state government in regard to the working of the local bodies in the district. His valuable remarks are required for constituting new gram panchayats and mandal parishads in the district. The entire administrative, revenue, police, health, educational, and agricultural personnel working in rural areas depend to a great extent upon the advice and suggestions forwarded by the Collector on may occasions.

He sees that the farmers in the district receive sufficient agricultural inputs such as fertilizers, water, rural credit, marketing facilities etc. He supervises the activities of village extension officers and sees that the farmers receive various types of assistance for carrying on their agricultural operations smoothly. He also sees that all persons below poverty line will receive, ration and pension facilities.

The fact that the Collector heads more than one hundred committtes at the district level demonstrates his role in district
affairs. He, like the Chief Minister at the state level, will have tremendous influence and powers in the district. Many programmes of union and state governments like National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme (NREGS), Pradhan Mantri Gram Sadak Yojana (PMGSV), Janani Suraksha Yojana (JSY), Aam Admi Bima Yojana (AABY), Rural Landless Employment Guarantee Programme (RLEGP), Prime Ministers Employment Generation Programme (PMEGP).

The union and state governments rely on the District Collector in tackling the financial, political and cultural matters of the people living in local areas. They nominate the District Collector as the chairman, co-ordinator or secretary of the above programmes at the district level. People regard the Collector as a repository of authority functioning independently with dedicated spirit. Even- though some states like Gujarath and Maharashtra relieved the Collector from the perspective.

AP Inter 2nd Year Civics Question Paper May 2016

Section – B
8 x 5 = 40


  • Answer ANY EIGHT of the following questions in 20 lines each.
  • Each question cames 5 marks.

Question 6.
Write a note on the sources of Indian Constitution.
1. A combination of rigidity and flexibility: The constitution of India is a blend of rigidity and flexibility. Article 368 provides the details of the amendment procedure. Some of the provisions like Admission of New states (Ex: Telangana), provisions relating to citizenship, salaries and allowances of the President, Vice president, Supreme Court and High Court judges etc., can be amended by simple majority. It is said to be flexible.

Some provisions can be amended by a special majority i.e., not less than two-thirds of the members of the House present and voting. Ex: Fundamental Rights, Directive principles of state policy etc. It is said to be half rigid and half flexible. Some provisions can be amended by two-thirds majority of the Parliament and with the concurrence of half of the states. Ex: Election of the President, Distribution of Legislative powers between the union and the states etc. It is said to be rigid.

2. Republican government: Unlike the colonial master, the U.K., India preferred a Republican government. Here all public
offices right from ward member to the top President of India are open to all eligible citizens and there is no place for hereditary principle.

3. Single citizenship: Our constitution provides for single citizenship for all persons who are born in India and who resided in India for a specific period. It enables the citizens to possess and enjoy identical rights and privileges. It also promotes unity, integrity, and fraternity among the people.

Question 7.
Explain any three fundamental rights of a citizen.
1. Right to freedom of Religion: This right denotes the secular nature of Indian political system. It aims at transforming India into a secular state. Both the citizens and aliens of India enjoy this right. Article 25 empowers every persons to profess, practice and propagate a religion of this liking. Article 26 guarantees the following rights to every person.

  1. To establish and maintain religious and charitable institutions.
  2. To mange his their religious affairs.
  3. To own and acquire movable and immovable properties and
  4. To maintain such properties in accordance with the provision of the law.

Article 27 prohibits the state to impose or collect taxes from individuals purely on religious grounds. It also prohibits the state to impose and collect taxes for the benefit and maintenance of any particular religion or religious denominations. Article 28 bans religious instructions in educational institutions wholly or partly maintained by the state funds.

2. Educational and Cultural Rights: Indian constitution provided several cultural and educational opportunities for Indian
citizens through this right. Article 29 enables every citizen to preserve and protect his own language and culture irrespective of one’s religion, language or region.

Article 30 prohibits special treatment to any citizen in the admission into educational institutions either wholly or partly
funded by the state on the grounds of caste, religion, region, colour, language or sect. However, it allowed the minorities some special facilities for preserving and promoting their language and culture. The state can grant financial assistance to them in this regard.

3. Right to Constitutional Remedies: This right enables the individuals to approach a high court under article 226 or the
Supreme Court under article 32 to get any of the fundamental rights restored in case of their violation. The Supreme court and the state High courts issue various writs for the implementation of Fundamental Rights. Dr. Ambedkar described this right as the Heart and Soul of the constitution.

Question 8.
Mention three jurisdictions of the Supreme Court.
1. Original Jurisdiction :
The original jurisdiction of the Supreme Court is purely of federal in nature. This power is confined to disputes between

  • the Government of India and any of the States in India.
  • The Government of India and any State or States on one side and other States on the other side or
  • two or more States.

This power exclusively belongs to the Supreme Court and no other court in India is empowered to entertain any such suit. However, disputes arising out of any treaty agreement, covenant, engagement, etc., do not come under this Jurisdiction unless referred to by the President for advisory opinion. The Supreme Court can directly hear the disputes concerning the election of the President and the Vice-President.

2. Appellate Jurisdiction: The Supreme Court is the highest court of appeal in India. Its appellate Jurisdiction may be divided into three heads.

i) Cases involving interpretation of constitution,
ii) Civil cases and.
iii) Criminal cases.

i) The Supreme Court hears cases involving a substantial question of Law as the interpretation of the constitution. It requires the certificate of the High Court for hearing such a case. Sometimes the Supreme Court can take up the appeal if it is satisfied that the case has do with certain intepretation of the constitution.

ii) In case where no constitu4ional question is involved, the Supreme Court hears appeals on the.basis of a certificate of the High Court. Such cases, in the opinion of High Court involve (a) a substantial question of law and (b) the decision of the Supreme Court.

iii) In case of the criminal matters the Supreme Court hears appeals from any Judgement, whether they are in the form of final order or sentence of the High Court. It hears two specified cases namely.

  • Where the High Court has on an appeal reversed on order of acquittal of an accused and sentenced him to death and
  • Where the High Court has tried the appeals from any of its subordinate courts convicted the accused and sentenced him to death.

Question 9.
Explain any three powers and three functions of the Governor.
1) Legislative Powers and Functions: Article 168 describes that the Governor is an integral part of the State Legislature. In that capacity he exercises certain powers and performs functions related to the State Legislature.

  • The Governor inaugurates the first sessions of the State Legislative Assembly after the general elections are over.
  • He also addressing the first session of State Legislative Assembly every year i.e. budget session.
  • He appoints Pro-tern Speaker of the State Legislative Assembly.
  • He summons and prorogues the sessions of the two houses of the State Legislature.
  • He addresses the Members of the state legislature and sends messages in relation to the state legislature.
  • The Governor gives his assent to the bills passed by the State Legislature.
  • He may return a bill senty the State Legislature for its reconsideration.
  • He dissolves the State Legislative Assembly when he feels no party is in a position to form a stable and viable Government and the advice of the Chief Minister.
  • He may promulgate Ordinances to meet an emergency which require immediate action during the recess of the State Legislature.
  • He nominates members of Anglo-Indian community to the Legislative Assembly of the state if he feels that community is not represented in the house.
  • The Governor nominates 1/6 of the total members of the State Legislative Council.

2. Executive Powers and Functions: The Governor has the following executive powers.

  1. The Governor appoints, the Chief Minister and the members of the Council of Ministers on the advice of the Chief Minister.
  2. He allocates Portfolios among the ministers and reshuffles their portfolios.
  3. He removes the Ministers on the advice of the Chief Minister.
  4. He appoints the Vice-Chancellors of the Universities in the State. He acts as the Chancellor of the universities.
  5. He appoints the Chief Secretary and Advocate General of the State Government.

6. He appoints the Chairmen and other members of the State Commissions such as

  • State Public Service Commission
  • State Election Commission
  • Official Language Commission
  • Commission for Women
  • Minorities Commission
  • Backward Classes Commission and
  • SC & ST Commission

7. He regulates the postings and transfers of the All India Services personal working in the state.

3. Judicial Powers and Functions: The Governor also exercises the following judicial powers and functions.

  • The Governor renders advice to the President of India in the appointment of Chief Justice and other judges of the High Court of the State.
  • The Governor appoints the Advocate General of the State.
  • He makes appointments, postings and promotions of the District Judges in consultation with the Chief Justice of High Court of the State.
  • He also appoints persons to the judicial services of the state (other than the district courts) in consultation with the Chief Justice of High court and State Public Service Commission.
  • He can grant pardon, retrieve, remit and commute the sentence of any person convicted of any offence against any law of the concerned state.

AP Inter 2nd Year Civics Question Paper May 2016

Question 10.
Write the powers and functions of Vidhan Sabha Speaker.
The powers and functions of the Speaker of State Legislative Assembly are almost the same as those of the Speaker of Lok Sabha. His powers and functions are as follows.

  1. The speaker preserves order and decorum in the House for conducting legislative business.
  2. He allocates time for different kinds of business in the House.
  3. He interprets the rules and piocedure.
  4. He puts matters to vote and announces the results.
  5. He has the right of casting vote in case of a tie.
  6. He admits motions, resolutions and points of order.
  7. He is empowered to adjourn the meeting of the House in the absence ot a quorum.
  8. He can order for removal of indecent and incriminatory references from the records.
  9. He allows the members to speak in the House.
  10. He may name a member and ask him to leave the House in case of disorderly behavior.
  11. He can adjourn the House in case of grave disorder or serious matter.
  12. He accepts and rejects the resignation of a member of the House after ascertaining whether it was submitted under due process or not.
  13. He appoints the Chairmen of all the committees of the assembly and supervises their functioning. He himself is a Chairman of Business Advisory Committee, Rules Committee and the General Purpose Committee.
  14. He decides where a bill is a Money Bill or not. His decision on this question is final.

Question 11.
Explain the administrative functions of the High Court.
The High Court exercises certain administrative functions within its territorial jurisdictions.
1. Under Article 227, every High Court has the power of supervision over all Courts and Tribunals functioning in its territorial jurisdiction except Military Courts or Tribunals in the State.

2. It ensures the proper working of these courts. It exercises the power to make and issue general rules and regulations for securing the efficient working of the court.

3. The High Court can transfer any case from one court to another court under Article 228 and can even transfer the case itself and decide the same.

4. The High Court has the power to investigate or enquire into the records or other connected documents of any court subordinate to it.

5. It appoints its administrative staff and determines the salaries and allowances and other conditions of the personnel working in subordinate courts.

6. It is empowered to withdraw any case involving the interpretation of the Constitution and dispose of the case itself.

7. The High Court is the Highest Court of Justice in the State. All other Courts and Tribunals (except Military Courts and Tribunals) in State function under the direct supervision and control of the State High Court.

Question 12.
Mention any five recommendations of the Sarkaria Commission.
The Union Government appointed a three-member Commission on Centre-State relations under the Chairmanship of R.S.Sarkaria, a retired judge of the Supreme Court. B.Sivaraman, S.R.Sen, and Rama Subramaniam were appointed as other members. The Commission was asked to overhaul and review the working of existing arrangements between the Union and States in all spheres as and recommend such changes and measures as may be appropriate. It was initially given one year time to complete its work, but its term was extended four times. The final report was submitted on October, 27, 1987 and the summary was later officially released in January, 1988.

The Sarkaria Commission made 247 recommendations to improve the center-state relations. The important recommendations are mentioned below:

  1. A permanent Inter-State Council called the Inter-Governmental Council should be set up under Article 263.
  2. Article 356 (Presidents Rule) should be used very sparingly in extreme cases as a last resort when all the available alternatives fail.
  3. The institution of All India Services should be further strengthened and some more such services should be created.
  4. The residuary powers of taxation should continue to romain with the Parliaent, while the other residuary powers should be placed the Concurrent List.
  5. When the President withhold his assent to the State bills, the reasons should be comnunicated the State Government.
  6. The National Development Council (NDC) should be renamed and reconstituted as the National Economic and Development Council (NEDC).
  7. The zonal councils should be constituted afresh and reactivated to promote the spirit of federalism.
  8. The Union should have powers to deploy its armed forces, even without the consent of States. However, it is desirable that the States should be consulted.
  9. The Centre should consult the States before making a law on a subject of the Concurrent List.
  10. The procedure of consulting the Chief Minister in the appointment of the State Governor should be prescribed in the Constitutional itself.
  11. The net proceeds of the Corporation tax may be made permissibly shareable with the States.
  12. The Governor cannot dismiss the Council of Ministers so long as it commands a majority in the assembly.
  13. The Governor’s term of five years in a State should not be disturbed except for some extremely compelling reasons.
  14. No commission of enquiry should be set up against a State Minister unless a demand is made by the Parliament.
  15. The surcharge on income tax should not be levied by the Centre except for a specific purpose and or a strictly limited period.
  16. The present division of functions between the Finance Commission and the Planning Commission is reasonable and Should continue.
  17. Steps should be taken to uniformly implement the three language formula in its true spirit.
  18. No autonomy for radio and television but decentralization in their operations.
  19. No change in the role of Rajya Sabha and the Centre’s power to reorganize the States.
  20. Giving powers to the Municipalities to issue tax-free bonds.

The Union Government has implemented 180 (out of 247) recommendations of the Sarkaria Commission. The most important is the establishment of the Inter-State Council in 1990 but it has not served the purpose.

Question 13.
Explain the administrative relations between Union and States.
Articles 245 to 255 in Part Xl and Chapter 1 of the Indian Constitution deal with the legislative relations between the Union and the States. The Constitution of India makes three fold distributions of legislative powers between the union and the States viz.

  • The union list
  • The state list and
  • The concurrent list.
  • They can be explained in the following way.

The Union List: The Legislative relations have been divided between the Union and States in a unique way. The Union list is a longest list. In the beginning of the constitution it consists of 97 subjects. This list has at present 100 subjects. The Union Parliament has exclusive power to make laws with respect to any of the matters enumerated in the Union List. The subjects in this list include Defence, atomic energy; matters related to the UN, Foreign Affairs, diplomatic representation, treaties with foreign states, war and peace, citizenship, Railways, National Highways, airways, shipping, regulation and control of air traffic, post and Telegraph, Telephones, currencies, commerce and Banking, Interstate Trade, Insurance, foreign loans, patents, weights waters, Union Public Service Commission, All India Services, election to Parliament etc. The laws made on these subjects are applicable to all the State and to all the citizens equally.

State List: Under normal circumstances, the State Legislature has exclusive powers to make laws with respect to any of the matters enumerated in the State List. It consists of 66 subjects of provincial importance. After the 42nd Amendment, this number was reduced to 62 subjects. The State Legislatures have exclusive power to make laws on matters enumerated in this list. Some of the important subjects included in the State list are law and order, justice, jails, police, agriculture, irrigation, public health, local self-government, pilegrimages, libraries, fisheries, markets and fairs and land revenue etc. These laws are only applicable to the individuals or institutions within that state only.

The Concurrent List: Both the Parliament and the State Legislatures are authorized to make laws over the subjects included in this list. There are 47 subjects of local and national importance. After the 42nd Amendment Act, 1976, their number was increased to 52. Both the Union and State Governments may enact laws on these matters. But the Union law prevails upon the laws of the States in case of conflict between the two. Some of the subjects under the Concurrent List are – forests, protection of wild animals and birds, population control and family planning, education including technical and medical education, criminal law and procedure, marriage and divorce, trusts and trustees, adulteration, trade unions, electricity, press and newspapers and weights and measures except establishment of standards etc.

The Union Parliament is empowered to amend and repeal the laws made by the States or any subjects mentioned in the Concurrent List. It has power excLusively to mase any law with respect of any subject not enumerated in the Cencurrent List or State List. But under certain special circumstances, the Union Government is empowered to abolish the powers of the states over the subjects included in the State List.

Residuary Powers: The powers which are not included in any of the above lists are called Residuary Powers. They are assigned to the union government. Ex: The power of the Parliament to impose taxes on the services sector of the economy.

Question 14.
Write a short note on the functions of Election Commission of India.
Article 324(1) of the constitution provides the Election Commission to supervise and conduct the elections to parliament, state legislatures, the offices of the President and the Vice-President of India.

Composition: The Election Commission of India consists of the Chief Election Commissioner and Two other Commissioners.

Appointment: The Chief Election Commissioner and other commissioners are appointed by the president of India.

Tenure: The Chief Election Commissioner and other commissioners hold office for a period of 6 years or until they attain
the age of 65 years whichever is earlier.

Removal: The Chief Election Commissioner and other commissioners can be removed by the president on the basis of a
resolution passed to that effect by both the Houses of Parliament with special majority either on the ground of proved misbehaviour or in capacity.

Salary and Allowances : The Chief Election Commissioner and two other commissioners shall reçeive salary and Allowances which are similar to that of a Judge of the Supreme Court.

Powers and Functions of Election Commission: The Constitution of India in its Articles 324-.328 enumerates the powers and functions of the Election Commission. These can be mentioned here under.

  1. It prepares all periodically revised electoral rolls.
  2. It makes every effort to ensure that the voters’ list is free of errors like non-existence of names of registered voters or existence of names of that non-eligible or non-existent.
  3. It notifies the dates and schedules of election and scrutinizes nomination papers.
  4. During this entire process, the Election Commission has the power to take decisions to ensure a free and fair poll.
  5. It can postpone or cancel the election in the entire country or a specific State or constituency on the grounds that the atmosphere is vitiated and therefore, a free and fair election’ may not be possible.
  6. The Commission also implements a model code of conduct for parties and candidates. It can order a re-poll in a specific constituency.
  7. It can also order a recount of votes when it feels that the counting process has not been fully fair and just.
  8. The Election Commission accords recognition to political parties and allots symbols to each of them.
  9. It advices the President whether elections can be held in a state under Presidents rule in order to extehd the period of emergency after one year.
  10. It advices the Governor on matters relating to the disqualifications of the members of State Legislature.

Question 15.
Estimate the significance of Regional Parties in India.
In Indias’ federal democratic polity, regional and local parties would continue to have relevance and appeal, especially for certain dominant social and economic interests. The growing presence of regional parties is, undoubtedly, the most outstanding aspect of political development in India over the past few years.

Till 1967, there was only one party ruling the nation that was Congress Party’, but after 1967 a lot of other political parties came to the forefront along with power and started to play an imperative and persuasive role in government. With the regional parties coming to the forefront the development of the state’s responsibility has gone to the regional parties as opposed to the Central Government taking care in the initial stages. Regional parties are playing a major role in influencing decisions and thought process in the government planning process and decisions.

After 1996, several regional parties have been emerging as key players in national politics in India. As partners of the NDA, 23 regional parties shared power at the Centre during 1999 and 2004. Some of the regional parties are ruling the states – AJADMK, TDP, JDU, BJD, UDF, NCP, SAD etc. All this reflects the continued and continuously growing importance of regional parties in the Indian politics.

During 1999 to 2004 the BJP, and several regional parties shared power at the Centre as constituents of the BJP led National Democratic Alliance (NDA). Later, the Congress led UPA was in power and in it along with Congress, several regional and local parties shared the power. The present BJP-led NDA government is also a coalition government reported by several regional and local parties including Telugu Desam Party.

Question 16.
How is the Central Information Commission constituted?
The Central Information Commission (CIC) is constituted by the central government through a Gazette Notification.
Composition: The Central Information Commission consists of one Chief Information Commissioner (CIC) and 10 other information Commissioners (IC). The Commission shall have its headquarters in Delhi. Other offices may be established in other parts of the country.

Appointment: The Chief Information Commissioner and Information Commissioners will be appointed by the president of India, basing on the recommendations of the appointment committee headed by the Prime Minister.

Eligibility (or) Qualifications: The persons who wish to be appointed as chief information commissioner and information commissioner must possess the following Qualifications:

  • He must be person of eminence in public life with wide knowledge and experience in law, science and Technology, Social service management, Journalism, Mass media or Administration and governance.
  • He shall not be a member of either union or State Legislature
  • He shall not hold any other office of profit
  • He shall not be connected with any political party
  • He shall not carrying on any business or pursuing any profession.

Tenure: The Chief Information Commissioner and Information Commissioners shall remain in office for a period of 5 years or till they attains the age of 65 years, which ever is earlier.

Salary: The salary of CIC and i.e will be the same as that of the chief Election Commissioner and the Election Commissioner. The Commission will exercise its powers without being subjected to directions by any other authority.

AP Inter 2nd Year Civics Question Paper May 2016

Question 17.
What are the different options suggested by Sri Krishna Committee regarding the status of Andhra Pradesh State?
The government of India constituted a Committee for consultations on the situation in Andhra Pradesh on 3rd February, 2010 headed by Justice B.N.Sri Krishna. It Examined two main issues namely:
i) The demand for separate statehood of Telangana.
ii) Keeping the state united in the present form, Andhra Pradesh.

The Committee submitted its report on 30 December, 2010 to the union home ministiy The committee’s report contained the following six options.

  1. Maintaining the status quo.
  2. Bifurcation of the state into Seemandhra and Telangana. Each state is to develop its own capital. Hyderabad is to be converted into a union Territory.
  3. Dividing A.P into two states – one of Rayala Telangana with Hyderabad as its capital and the second one of the coastal Andhra Pradesh.
  4. Dividing Andhra Pradesh into Seemandhra and Telangana with Hyderabad metropolis as a separate union Territory.

It will be linked geographically to guntur district in coastal Andhra via Nalgonda district in the south East and via Mahaboob Nagar district in the South to Kurnool district in Rayalaseema.

5. Bifurcation of the state into Telangana and Seemandhra as per existing boundaries, with Hyderabad as capital of Telangana and Seemandhra to have new capital.

6. Keeping the state united and providing for creation of statutorily empowered Telangana Regional council for the Socio-economic development and political development of Telangana Region.

Section- C
15 x 2 = 30


  • Answer ANY FIFTEEN of the following questions in 5 lines each.
  • Each question carries 2 marks.

Question 18.
The Indian constitution begins with a preamble. The preamble clearly defines the objectives of our constitution. It declares India as a sovereign, as a socialist, Secular Democratic Republic. It provides liberty, equality, fraternity and justice. It states that the people of India are the chief sources of the political authority.

Question 19.
Habeas Corpus.
Habeas corpus literally means ‘‘To produce the body of ” It is in the nature of calling upon a person who has detained another to produce the latter before it. The court wants to know on what grounds a person has been detained. This writ frees a person whose detention has no legal justification.

Question 20.
Qualifications of President.
Qualifications: A person to be eligible to contest the office of the President shall possess the following qualifications:

  1. He should be a citizen of India.
  2. He should have completed the age of 35 years.
  3. He should be qualified for election as a member of the Lok Sabha.
  4. He should not hold any office of profit under the union, state or local Governments (Article 59 (i))
  5. Possess such other qualifications as prescribed by the Parliament.

Question 21.
Article 352.
Article 352 of the Indian constitution empowers the President to impose National Emergency during the period of war, External Aggression, Armed Rebellion or internal disturbance. So far National Emergency was proclaimed on Four occasions.
They are:

  • Chinese Aggression (1962)
  • Indo – Pak war (1965)
  • Indo – Pak war in the context of Bangladesh Liberation movement (1971) and
  • Oppositions call for blocking Parliament (1975).

Question 23.
Question Hour
In both houses of Parliament fist hour is allotted to question hour. The members, by giving notice to the presiding officer, can ask questions pertaining to public issues, administrative inefficiency or about the role of the government.

Question 24.
Public Interest Litigation (PIL).
The institution of Public Interest Litigation originated in USA during the mid 1960s. Ph. or Social Action Litigation is an offshoot of liberalized rules of locus – stand. The traditional rule of locus stand was based on the fact that judicial remedy can be sought only by those,who have suffered an injury on account of violation of legal right by some public authority. The PIL choose liberalize this rule by making it clear that any person who suffer an injury but is unable to reach the court can take help of public-minded citizens to reach the court to seek justice.

Public Interest Litigation Movement in India emerged during post-emergency years intending to make the judicial system accessible to the socially and economically lower sections of the society. In most of cases, Judicial Activism has occurred through public interest litigation. In public interest litigation any person or group can approach the Supreme Court and High Court for the redressal of grievances on behalf of the victim or victims who were incapable of approaching the court. tender this new arrangement, a destitute citizen can file a writ petition even through a simple letter written on the. postcard. This derives authenticity from the “right be heard” as implied by Article 32 of the Constitution.

But the court has to ensure that the petitioner who approaches the court with PIL, is acting bona-fide and not for personal gains private profit, political or other oblique considerations. The court should not allow this process to be abused by politicians and others to delay legitimate administrative action or to gain a political objective.

Question 25.
Chief Minister
The Chief Minister is the centre of the real executive authority at the state level. He plays a decisive role and occupies a key position in the State Government. The progress of the people and development of the state largely depends upon the Cabinet, Personality, Preservance and political stature of the Chief Minister.

Question 26.
Composition of State Council of Ministers
Article 163(1) of the Indian Constitution provides for the State Council Ministers with the Chief Minister at its head, to aid and advise the Governor in the exercise of his powers and in running the State administration.

The State Council of Ministers is generally a three-tier body. It consisting of.

  1. ‘Cabinet Ministers
  2. Ministers of State and
  3. Deputy Ministers.

There will be some only Parliamentary Secretaries in some Statës on rare occasions. It constitutes the fourth wing of the hierarchy of the Council of Ministers.

i) Cabinet Ministers: The cabinent is a small body consisting of ministers holding the most important portfolios such as Home, Finance, Planning and Industries etc. They enjoy independence in taking and implementing decisions concerning their ministry. They attend the Cabinet meetings, concerned by the Chief Minister. Sometimes the Ministers of state and deputy ministers may attend the cabinet meetings, in case their presence is needed during deliberations. They meet frequently and determine the policies of the State Government under the stewardship of the Chief Minister.

ii) Ministers of State: The Ministers of State hold portfolios of less importance compared to the Cabinent Ministers. They may be attached to the individual Cabinent Ministers or might be given independent charge of crucial departments in the major Ministries. In such a case they enjoy independence. They are answerable directly to the Chief Minister. They are not subject to the control of Cabinet Ministers.

iii) Deputy Ministers: The Deputy Ministers are attached to the Cabinet Ministers. They performs such functions which are assigned by the Cabinet Ministers. His role is mainly to relieve the burden of the Cabinet Minister. He assists the Cabinet Minister in the administrative and legislative affairs of the Ministry the Constitution (91st Amendment) Act 2003 fixes a ceiling on the size of the Council of Ministers. The total number of the Ministers cannot be more than 15% of the total strength of the State Legislative Assembly.

AP Inter 2nd Year Civics Question Paper May 2016

Question 27.
Qualifications of M.L.A.
A person who wishes to contest for the membership of the State Legislative Assembly must be possess the following qualifications.

  1. He should be a citizen of India.
  2. He should have comp1ete1 the age of 25 years.
  3. He should possess such other qualifications as prescribed by any act of Parliament.
  4. However, no person can simultaneously be a member of any House of the Parliament and of a State Legislature.

Question 28.
Chairman of Legislative Council
There will be a chairman in the Legislative Council for conducting the meetings. He is elected by the members of the Legislative council among themselves. Dr. A. Chakrapani Yadav is the Present Chairman of Legislative council of Andhra Pradesh.

Question 29.
High Court as a Court of Record
The State High Court acts as a court of Record. It records all its decisions and judgements. Such records are of great significance. They carry evidentiary value. They are taken as Judicial precedents to the Judges and Advocates in legal matters.

Question 30.
NITI Aayog
The NITI Aayog (National Institute for Transforming India) is tasked with the role of formulating policies and directions for the government. It’s governing council will consist of the Chief Ministers of all the states in Indian Union and the Lieutenant Governors of the Union Territories.

Question 31.
Cantonment Boards
Cantonment Boards are established in India under the Cantonment Act of 1924. At present there are 62 Cantonment Boards in India. These bodies take steps for improving the conditions of civilian population and military personnel in their jurisdiction. There are three types of Cantonment Boards in India.

They are created by an Act of the defense ministry. Each Board comprises some members belonging to the elected, nominated and ex-officio categories. There will be a General Officer on Command (GOC) for every Cantonment Board.

Question 32.
Smart Village.
The concept of smart village is the recent development in Panchayat Raj System in A.P inaugurated by the Chief Minister of A.P to achieve holistic, inclusive and sustainable development of the state. The state has a vision Swarnandhra vision 2029. To realize this vision, the Government has adopted the mission based approach to create the social and economic infrastructure; has adopted initiated campaigns to create awareness-seekin  participation of the share holder. A smart village/ward “ displays sustainable and inclusive development with all sections of its community enjoying a high standard of living.

Question 33.
Electronic Voting Machines.
An Electronic voting machine is a simple electronic device used to record votes in place of ballot papers and boxes which were used earlier in conventional voting system. The advantages of the EVM over the traditional ballot paper system are given below.

  • It eliminates the possibility of invalid and doubtful votes.
  • It makes the process of clothing of votes much faster that the conventional system.
  • It reduces to a great extent the quantity of paper used, thus saving a large number of trees.
  • It reduces cost printing as only one sheet of ballot papers required for each polling station.

Question 34.
Any two Electoral Reforms.
The various committees and commissions have recommended various reforms that have to be introduced in our electoral system, election machinery, and election process. These can be mentioned briefly here under.

  1. Lowering of voting age
  2. Deputation to Election commission
  3. Electronic voting machines
  4. Prohibition on the sale of liquor
  5. Number of proposers.

Question 35.
Types of Party System
There are different types of party system which are discussed below. They are classified into a single-party system, Bi-Party system and Multi-Party System.
1. Single party system : Single party system only one political party is an existence. Ex: Nazi party in Germany, Fascist party in Italy, Communist party in China and in former USSR.

2. Bi Party System: Under Bi-party system, two major political parties are in working in a political system; one forms the
government and the other functions as opposition. Ex: Viz, the labour and the conservative parties in UK or republican and democratic parties in U.S.A.

3. Multiparty System: In Multi-party system there are more than two parties operating in a political system. Ex: This type of party system’ is in existence in India, Sweden, Norway, France etc.

AP Inter 2nd Year Civics Question Paper May 2016

Question 36.
Any four examples for National Parties
Indian National Congress, BJP, CPI, CPM, BSP, NCP

Question 37.
What is information?
Information is any material in any form. It includes Records, documents, memos, e-mails, opinions, advice, press releases, circulars, orders, log books, contracts, reports, papers, samples, models and data material in any electronic form.

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