AP Inter 1st Year Civics Model Paper Set 3 with Solutions

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AP Inter 1st Year Civics Model Paper Set 3 with Solutions

Time: 3 Hours
Maximum Marks: 100

Section – A (3 × 10 = 30)

Note :

  • Answer any three of the following questions is not exceeding 40 lines each.
  • Each question carries 10 marks.

Question 1.
Define Political Science and explain its nature.
Political Science is a premier Social Science. It is mainly concerned with the study of the state in it’s relation with society, citizens, associations and the world at large. Aristotle is hailed as the Father of Political Science. He wrote famous book “THE POLITICS”. The term “politics” is derived from a greek word ” “POLIS” and latin word “POLITICUS” which means the city state.

Definition of Political Science : Political Scientists gave various definitions on Political Science. They are as follows :

  1. J.W. Garner : “Political Science begins and ends with the state”.
  2. Stephen Leacock : “Political Science deals with the government”.

Nature of Political Science : There prevailed a controversy among the political scientists in regard to the nature of Political Science. Some viewed Political Science as a science others treated it as an art. Let us examine the two aspects (Science and Art) of Political Science.

i) Political Science is a SCIENCE : According to political philosophers like Aristotle, Bluntschli, Hobbes, Montesque and others Political Science is considered as a science on the following grounds.

  1. Political Science is studied in a systematic manner.
  2. Experimentation is possible in politics. Principles are applied in the actual organisation of Political institutions.
  3. Political Science, like other sciences, has absolute and universal laws.
  4. Predictions are easily applicable in politics.
  5. Certain generally agreed principles can be incorporated into the study of political science.
  6. Political Science, like other sciences, gives scope for esta-blishing relationship between cause and effect.

ii) Political Science is an ART : According to political writers like Barker, JS. Mill, Laski and others Political Science is considered as an art on the following grounds.

  1. Political Science has no absolute and universal laws like physical sciences.
  2. The phenomena studied in Political Science are interpreted in various ways depending upon the context and situation. So, it lacks uniformity in the interpretation of various concepts.
  3. Political Science is not evolutionary in nature as its concepts are not developed in a steady, regular and continuous manner.
  4. Scientific methods of observation and experimentation are not applicable in political science.
  5. Complete objectivity and detachment are not found in the case of various phenomena in Political Science.
  6. Political Science gives no scope for accuracy.

AP Inter 1st Year Civics Model Paper Set 3 with Solutions

Question 2.
Define state and explain its essential elements.
Introduction : State is an important political organisation. The study of political science begins and ends with the state. The term state for the first time, was used by an Italian political thinker, Machiavlly in his famous book “The Prince” in 16th century.

Meaning : The word state is derived from a Tuetonic word “status” which means political organisation.

Definitions :

  1. “State is a people organised for law within a definite Territory”. – Woodrow Wilson.
  2. “State is a politically organised people of a definite Territory”. – Bluntschlli.
  3. “State is a territorial society divided into government and subjects claiming within its allotted physical area, a supremacy over all other institutions”. – Harold. J. Laski.

Essential elements of state : State is the predominant and superior politico – social institution existing in the society. It consists of 4 essential elements. These elements of state may be explained in a detailed way in the following paragraphs.

1) Population : Population is the fundamental and essential element of state. There can be no state without population. Plato, Aristotle, Rousseau and others considered this feature as an important one. The famous poet Sri. Gurajada Apparao also states that it is the people, rather than the land, that comprise the state. Political writers differ in their opinions regarding the exact size of population possessed by the state. While Plato fixed 5,040, Rousseau fixed 10,000 to be an ideal population for a state. But today we can find the countries like China and India which have more than 100 crores of population, on one hand and the countries like Andora, San Marino are having small number of people on the other hand is the modern world.

2) Territory : Territory is another essential element of the state. It is necessary for the origin and existence of the state. There can be no state without territory. Every state must have more or less territory of its own. There is no unanimous opinion among the political writers regarding the size of territory of the state. Some preferred vast territory, where as others preferred small territory. But today we can find the countries like America and Canada having large territory on one hand, and the countries like Vatican, Monaco having very less territory on the other hand in the modern world.

3) Government: Government is the third essential element of the state. There can be no state without government. State enforces its authority through the government. Government consists of 3 organs namely
Legislature – which makes laws
Executive – which implements laws and
Judiciary – which interpretes laws.
Government are of different kinds namely, Unitary, Federal, Parlia-mentary and Presidential governments. Governments are at different levels like Local, State level and National level.

4) Sovereignty : Sovereignty is the most essential element of the state. It is spirit and soul of the state. There can be no state without sovereignty. It distinguishes the state from other associations and institutions. Sovereignty is the supreme political power of the state over citizens and subjects.

Question 3.
Write a short note on demand for National-self-determination.
The theory of National self-determination was advocated by the former president of the United States of America, Woodrow Wilson in 1917. It was much publicized and generated hope among the people of the world to form Nation states.

From then onwards, Demands for National self-determination has been raising in different parts of the world. The Right to national self determination has also asserted the national liberation movements in Asia and Africa, when they were struggling against colonial rule. Nationalist movements maintained that political independence would ensure dignity and recognition to the colonised people. They also helped the people by protecting their collective interests. Many Nationalist movements were inspired by the goal of bringing justice and prosperity to the nation.

However, it proved almost impossible to ensure that each cultural group, which claimed to be a distinct nation, could acheive political independence and statehood. As a result, migration of people, border wars and violence have continued to plague many countries in the region. Thus we have the paradoxical situation of nation-states which themselves had acheived independence through struggle now acting against minorities with in their own territories which claim the right to national self-determination.

Virtually every state in the world today faces the dilemma of how to deal with the movements of national self-determination and raised doubts about the right to national self-determination. More and More people began realising that the solution does not lie in creating new states but in making existing states more democratic and equal. That is in ensuring that people with different cultural and ethmic indentives live and co-exist as partners (arising) and equal citizens with in the country. This may be essential not only for resolving problems arising out of new claims for self-determina¬tion but also for building a strong and United State.

AP Inter 1st Year Civics Model Paper Set 3 with Solutions

Question 4.
Define secuFar state and elaborate the features and importance of secular state.
Introduction : A State following secular policy in administrative, educational and employment matters is known as Secular State. The government in Secular State follows a neutral policy in religious matters of the people. Ex : India

Definition : D.E.Smith defined secular state as “none while guaranteeing individual and corporate freedom of religion, which deals with the individual as a citizen irrespective of his religion”.

Features.of Secular State : Secular State comprises the following features.
1) No place for religion : Secular States does not assign significance to any particular religion. It will not make laws or implement them on religious grounds.

2) Equal status : Secular State accords equal status to its people. It makes no differentiation between individuals on the grounds of their caste, colour, community, religion, race, region, language etc. As a result, people will have satisfaction and extend co-operation to the government in the implementation of various policies and programmes. They live together with the fellow members of other religious denominations.

3) No state religion : Secular state does not recognize any particular religion as the state religion. It adopts neutral policy in religious matters. It implements various laws and social welfare measures without basing on the religious feelings of the people. It will not assign special role to any particular religion in public activities. All public places like educational institutions, government offices and judicial organizations will carry on their activities with out aligning to a particular religion.

Importance of Secular State : The concept of Secular State became more important in recent years. Factors like spread of democratic spirit, science and technology, development of transport and communication facilities, rational thinking, welfarism etc., led to the growing importance of Secular State. On the whole, importance of Secular State may be explained with the following points.

  1. Secular state strengthens the non-religious forces in different fields in the State.
  2. It drives away the social evils and superstitions from the minds of the people.
  3. It contributes to social reformation by driving away the communal bigotry and religious fundamentalism.
  4. It promotes scientific temper and helps intellectual progress of the people.
  5. It gives priority to reason over faith, logic over magic and fact over fiction.
  6. It provides security and protection to religious minorities.
  7. It accommodates every individual with his personal religious beliefs.

Question 5.
Point out the functions of the Judiciary.
The Judiciary is the third orgar(sof the government. It refers to those officers of Government whose function is to apply the existing law to individual cases. It consists of the magistrates and judges charged with the duty of administering justice. In brief, it is that branch of the Government which settles disputes and administers justice.

Functions of the Judiciary :
1) Interpretation of Laws : The primary function of judiciary is interpretation of laws. Judiciary interprets laws and applies them to specific cases that come before it. It applies the elements of customs, statutes and constitutional provisions to specific cases.

Whenever the existing law is inadequate for delivering justice, it applies the principles of justice, equity and morality. As Gettle remarks, “Constitution and laws are always rigid. Flexibility must be given to them by judges”.

2) Custodian of the Constitution : Judiciary acts as guardian of the Constitution in federal system. It protects the spirit and sanctity of the constitution. Judiciary, in a federation, is empowered to declare a law as unconstitutional if it is inconsistent with the provisions of the Constitution.

3) Guardian of Civil Liberties : Judiciary acts as guardian of civil liberties of the people. It protects individual liberties by punishing those who encroach upon it. It also protects the people against the arbitrary actions of the government.

For instance, in the case of India, the Constitution under Articles 32 and 226 empowered the Supreme Court and High Courts to act as the guardians of fundamental rights of the citizens. These courts can issue injunctions to prevent the arbitrary acts of some individuals and organisations. Such injunctions include Habeas Corpus, Mandamus, Prohibition, Quo-warranto and Certiorari.

4) Federal equilibrium : Judiciary plays a key role in the federal system. It solves disputes between the Centre and the State Governments and also between States. It sees that neither the Central Government nor the State Government exceed the constitutional limitations.

5) Advisory Functions : Judiciary renders advice on the request of the executive or the legislature. For instance the President of India may seek the advice of the Supreme Court on any question of constitutional Law. In England, the practice to request a court to give declaratory judgement is very common. The Crown sometimes asks the judicial committee of the Privy Council to give its advisory opinion upon questions of law.

6) Appellate Jurisdiction : The highest court of justice hears appeals over the judgements of the lower courts. At times, it ratifies the judgements pronounced by the lower courts. Sometimes, it may reverse some of their judgements.

7) Maintenance of records : Judiciary maintains all the records of the cases along with their judgements. These records will help the advocates and judges in the trial of similar cases that may occur in future.

8) Acting as Head of the State : In some countries, under certain conditions, the Chief Justice of the highest Court assumes the powers of the acting head of the State in the absence of President and Vice-President in office.

9) Administrative Functions : The Supreme Court and High Courts are entrusted with some administrative functions. They make suggestions to the executive head in appointing the judges of the lower courts. The higher courts supervise the functioning of the lower courts. For instance the high courts in India are given the obligation of supervising the activities of the subordinate courts in their jurisdiction.

AP Inter 1st Year Civics Model Paper Set 3 with Solutions

Section – B (8 × 5 = 40)

Note :

  • Answer any eight of the following questions is not exceeding 20 lines each.
  • Each question carries 5 marks.

Question 6.
What do you know about Government and sovereignty as the two essential elements of the state ?
Government : Government is the third essential element of the state. There can be no state without government. State enforces its authority through the government. Government consists of 3 organs namely.
Legislature – which makes laws
Executive – which implements laws and
Judiciary – which interpretes laws.

Government are of different kinds namely, Unitary, Federal, Parliamentary and Presidential governments. Governments are at different levels like Local, State level and National level.

Sovereignty : Sovereignty is the most essential element of the state. It is spirit and soul of the state. There can be no state without sovereignty. It distinguishes the state from other associations and institutions. Sovereignty is the supreme political power of the state over citizens and subjects.

Question 7.
Describe the relative importance of Nation and Nationality.
The concepts of Nation and Nationality laid formidable foundations to several modern political systems. These concepts promoted the bonds of unity, fraternity and integrity among the people of a particular country. The existence of the modern states is by and large, rooted in these zealous concepts.

The two concepts have similarity in their origin. Both the words were derived from a latin word “Natio” which means birth or descent. Some political writers like lord Bryce and Hayes described that people will form into a nation when they achieve political independence. Such a nation originates when people had sentiments.

A state emerges due to the influence of nationality and nation. Nationalism and nationality profoundly influenced the people of a nation in building their own states and moulding their economic prosperity. The concepts of the nation and nationality transformed the people of Europe, Afro-Asian-and latin American countries into nation states hence, these great ideals strengthened understanding and unity among the people.

Question 8.
Distinguish between Law and Morality.

Law Morality
1. Law is concerned with the external behaviour of individuals. 1. Morality is concerned with the whole life of individuals.
2. Law is a concern of the State. 2. Morality is concerned with individual conscience.
3. Law is backed by the coercive power. 3. Public opinion and individual conscience lie behind morality.
4. Law is definite and precise. 4. Morality is vague and uncertain.
5. Law acts within the Territory of a State. 5. Moral principles are universal in Nature.
6. Law is enacted with a specific objective. 6. Moral principles are inherent in Society.
7. Laws are sanctioned by the Sovereign. 7. Moral principles are sanctioned by the society.
8. Law is the subject matter of political science. 8. Moral principles are the subject matter of ethics.
9. Violation of law leads to punishment. 9. Violation of moral principles does not leads to punishment.
10. There is a definite agency to make and implement the law. 10. There is no such agency in the case of moral principles.

Question 9.
What are the characteristics of liberty ?
Meaning : The term Liberty is derived from the Latin word “LIBER” which means free from restraints.
Definition : “Liberty means the absence of restraints”. – J.R. Seely
Characteristics of Liberty : The following are the important characteristics of Liberty.

  1. Liberty is a dynamic concept. Its interpretation varies according to time, place and wishes of the people.
  2. Liberty always opposes political subjugation, imprisonment and slavery.
  3. It always aims at realizing the aspirations of the individuals.
  4. Liberty always means absence of irrational restraints and presence of favourable conditions.
  5. It is the product of rights.
  6. It is essential for the realization of human personalities.
  7. It is found only in democratic states.
  8. It is manifest in the form of rights.
  9. It does not mean license to do whatever a person wants. It is always subject to limitations.

AP Inter 1st Year Civics Model Paper Set 3 with Solutions

Question 10.
What are the features of Rights ?
Rights are the essential conditions for the development of the personality of individuals. They are upheld by the laws of the state. Individuals cannot achieve progress in the absence of rights.

Definition : “Rights are those conditions of social life without which no man can seek in general to be himself at his best.”

Features of Rights : Rights comprise the following features.
1) Rights are possible only in society : Rights originate in society. They denote human social behaviour. They do not exist outside of the society.

2) Rights are social in nature : Rights are the claims of individuals. These claims can be established only when the society or the state recognises and maintains them. So they are social in nature.

3) Rights are inherent in nature : Rights are inherent in the social nature of men. The social contractualists stated that rights are inherent in nature. Their views are accepted to some extent in modern times.

4) Rights are enforced and protected by the state : Rights are enforced and protected by the state. The various judicial organisations act as the custodians of the rights of individuals. In other words, rights are protected by the courts of law. Individuals enjoy several rights fully only in a democratic state.

5) Rights are not absolute : Rights are not absolute. Society and state impose some restrictions on the enjoyment of rights by the individuals. These restrictions are meant for maintaining peace and other in the society. Further, rights are meant for contributing social welfare and security.

6) Every right has a corresponding responsibility : Rights and responsibilities are interdependent. Every right has a corresponding responsibility. It is the responsibility of every individual to see that his neighbours also enjoy the same rights. Rights without responsibilities or responsibilities without rights cannot exist. Both are essential for leading a peaceful social life.

7) Rights are universal : Rights are universal in nature. They are applicable to all. They are given to all without any discrimination.

8) Rights vary : Rights vary from time to time according to the needs of the people. They also grow with the changes in time and conditions. Some rights which were not found in the past may exist now. The socio economic, political and cultural conditions will have an influence over the rights.

9) Rights precede the state: Rights are the products of history. Rights originated in course of time. They were prevalent even before the origin of the state. However, they were guaranteed only after the origin of the state.

10) Rights are meant for common good : Rights always exist and flourish as long as they are meant for common good. Only those rights which promote common good of the people are recognised by the society and the state. They are essential for leading a prosperous life by the individuals.

Question 11.
How is justice developed ?
In ancient India, Justice, being associated with dharma as enunciated in Hindu scriptures, was considered to be the duty of the King. The King used to maintain a just social order based on dharma. It was the primary duty of the King to maintain justice by punishing the wrong doers and rewarding the virtuous persons.

Justice normally means giving each person his due. However, its understanding differs from person to a person. Justice is viewed from the human aspect of every individual. Immanuel Kant, a German philosopher, stated that human beings possess dignity. When all persons ‘are endowed with dignity, they will be entitled to adequate opportunities for developing their talents and for pursuing their goals. Thus, Justice demands that each individual should be given equal consideration.

In Medieval age St. Augustine derived the concept of Justice from Plato. He emphasized on the proper relations between individuals for the harmonious working of society. Thomas Aquinas was considered as the first political philosopher who.separated Justice from religion: By 16th century, the concept of justice got completely secularized. The social contractualist like Hobbes identified Justice with the orders of the sovereign. His successors John Locke, Rousseau, Emmanuel Kant and others regarded Justice as a synthesis of liberty and equality. The advocates of Natural law developed the idea of individual justice. The Socialists conceived justice from economic point of view. While the conventionalists explained the concept of justice from individual perspective, the modernists viewed it from social perspective.

There is no single precise definition to the concept of justice. It was defined and discussed by various writers in different ways basing on the place, time context, culture etc. It is considered as the sum total of the principles and beliefs advanced for the survival of the society. These principles and beliefs in turn led to the making of rights, freedoms and laws.

AP Inter 1st Year Civics Model Paper Set 3 with Solutions

Question 12.
What are the differences between citizen and Alien ?
Citizen : Aristotle defines a Citizen as “One who has a share in the deliberative functions of the state and in the election of its officials.

Alien : An alien is a person living in a state but owing allegiance to another state.
Differences between Citizen and Alien :

Citizen Alien
1. A citizen resides in a particular State on permanent basis. 1. An alien resides in a State on temporary basis.
2. A citizen owes loyalty to the State in which he resides. 2. An alien owes allegiance to the State to which he belongs.
3. A citizen is entitled to enjoy civil and political rights. 3. An alien will have civil rights only.
4. A citizen can criticize the policies and programmes of the government. 4. An alien has no right to criticize the policies and programmes of the government.
5. A citizen will have both the rights and responsibilities. 5. An alien has more responsibilities than the rights.

Question 13.
What are the different aspects of democracy ?
Aspects of Democracy : Democracy has three aspects, namely,
1) Social,
2) Economic and
3) Political. Democracy does not exist if any of the aspects are not prevalent in a society.

1) Social aspect of democracy implies the abolition of all discriminations on the grounds of class, colour, caste, creed, religion, nationality etc. All people irrespective of men or women, rich or poor are treated equally. In other words, democracy in its social aspect, means the prevalence of rule of law, equality of treatment, abolition of discrimination and absence of special privileges.

2) The economic aspect of democracy implies the equal distribution of wealth in society and removal of glaring disparities on the basis of wealth. Economic democracy becomes real through the provision of right to work, leisure, adequate arid fair wages. It implies the workers’ participation in the management of the factories or democracy in industry. Economic democracy also involves the provision of adequate opportunities to all people in economic matters.

3) Lastly, the political aspect of democracy means the provision of rights, namely, right to vote, right to contest elections, right to hold public offices and right to criticism. It also implies the provision or right to freedoms of speech, expression, criticism, associations, assembly, residence and movement.

Question 14.
Write about the origin of secularism.
The ancient Roman emperors denied recognition to the Christian religion. In the medieval period social and religious reformers like Martin Luther and Calvin Zwingle challenged the spiritual monopoly of religious heads. They advocated that religion and spiritual matters are purely personal and private matters. Their speeches marked a break through in religious matters. In modern period, political thinkers like Machiavelli and Jean Bodin emphasized the need for the separation of religion from politics.

John Locke and other liberal thinkers advised the people to follow religious tolerance. In course of time, the writings of the above thinkers influenced the people who began to treat religion as a private and personal affair. In the United States, President Thomas Jafforson explained the real meaning of Secularism by stating that there exists a wall of separation between the State and the Religion.

Question 15.
What are the merits and de-merits of a written constitution ?
Written Constitution : A written constitution is formulated and adopted by a Constituent Assembler a Convention. It comprises several principles and rules of the Government in a written form or document. The Constitution of India is an example of written constitution. The American Constitution is the first written constitution in the world.

Merits :

  1. A written constitution carries more simplicity. It gives no scope for confusion and ambiguity among the people in understanding the structure and organization of various institutions.
  2. It protects the fundamental rights of the people.
  3. It puts limitations on the powers of the Government.
  4. It renders political stability due to its rigid nature.
  5. It embodies the aspirations of the people. It cautions the Government about the importance of the accomplishment of popular needs.
  6. It maintains equilibrium between the centre and the states by allocating powers in a judicious manner.
  7. It safeguards the sanctity and spirit of a federation.

Demerits :

  1. A written constitution cannot provide a better Government as it imposes some stipulated conditions on the party in power.
  2. It makes the judiciary a predominant one.
  3. Its provisions cannot be changed according to the needs and wishes of the people. So, the progress of the nations lags behind.
  4. Its rigid nature is not helpful to the development of the state.
  5. It gives scope for conflicts among the governmental organs.
  6. It may not be conductive to the formation of a welfare state.

AP Inter 1st Year Civics Model Paper Set 3 with Solutions

Question 16.
Discuss the features of Federal government.
Governments are classified into Federal and Unitary on the basis of the distribution of powers between the Centre and the States. A federal system is one in which the powers of the government are distributed constitutionally between the Centre and the State Governments. Ex America, Switzerland etc.

Meaning : The term “Federation” is derived from a Latin word “Foedus” which means ‘Treaty of Agreement”.

Definitions :

  1. A.V. Dicey : “A federal government is a political contrivance intended to reconcile national unity with the maintenance of State’s rights.
  2. J.W. Garner : Federal government is a system in which the totality of governmental power is divided and distributed between the Centre and the States by the National Constitution”.
  3. Hamilton : “Federation is an association of states that forms a new one”.
  4. K.C. Wheare: “A federal government is a method of dividing powers so that the regional and Central Government are each within their sphere, co-ordinate and independent.”

Features of Federal Government :
Federal Government comprises several features. They may be denoted as follows :
1) Written Constitution : A Federal Government normally has a Written Constitution. Such a Constitution is considered as the supreme law of the land. It defines, decides and devises powers between the Central and State Governments. Hence, it became a practical necessity of Federal Government.

2) Dual Citizenship : Federal State provides dual citizenship to the citizens. Accordingly, the citizens will have membership in both the Centre and the States simultaneously. As a result, they participate in the election of representatives to both the national and provisional bodies.

3) Division of Powers : In a Federation, the Powers of Govern-ment are divided between the Centre and the States. The Central Government exercises control over matters of national importance like defence, external affairs, customs, exports and imports etc. On the other hand, certain matters like education, agriculture, health, irrigation etc.’, having provincial importance are allocated to the State Governments.

4) Bicameralism : Bicameralism is another important feature of a federation. In a federal state, we observe two chambers in the union legislature and some of the provincial legislative organisations. The first or lower chamber represents the interests of the people. The second chamber or upper house comprises the members representing the States.

5) Rigidity : Generally, the Constitution of a federation is very rigid. So it cannot be amended easily. The concurrence of the Centre and States is required for amending some of the important provisions. So, neither the Centre nor the states unilaterally can amend the constitutional provisions.

6) Independent Judiciary : Independent judiciary is another essential feature of a Federal Government. Such an organisation will settle disputes between the Centre and the States. The Judges in Judiciary constitutionally enjoy independent position. Once appointed, they could not be removed by any body under normal conditions. They will be there to safeguard the fundamental rights of citizens. They can check the misuse of powers by the executive and legislative authorities.

Question 17.
Discuss the traditional form of Governments.
The ancient Greek political philosophers like Aristotle held detailed deliberations on the classification of States. The modern political scientists prefer to call such classification as ‘classification of governments’. On the whole, governments are classified into three types namely monarchy, aristocracy and democracy. Some of the traditional and modern classifications are mentioned below.
AP Inter 1st Year Civics Model Paper Set 3 with Solutions 1
Aristotle classified Governments on the basis of two elements, namely, (i) Number of persons holding power and (ii) end of the State. He again classified Governments into normal and perverted forms.

He mentioned monarchy, aristocracy and polity as the normal form of governments. Tyranny, Oligarchy and Democracy are the perverted form of Governments. According to him monarchy is a rule by one person, who exercises powers himself. When that person rules the state with good intensions, such government is known as monarchy. Otherwise it will degenerate into tyranny.

Aristocracy is a noble form/of government in which few persons by virtue of their birth, talents, status, wealth etc., will act as rulers. When these persons exercise powers with selfish motivatjpns, such a government is known as oligarchy. Polity is a form of government comprising many persons who have noble qualities such as set honesty impartiality, wisdom etc., on the other hand democracy is a perverted form of government in the sense that the rulers always assign priority to their self interests thereby ignoring popular wishes.

Section – C (15 × 2 = 30)

Note :

  • Answer any fifteen of the following questions in not exceeding 5 lines each.
  • Each question carries 2 marks.

Question 18.
Write about any two modern definitions of Political Science.

  1. Lasswell and Kaplan: “Political Science as an empirical discipline, is the study of shaping and sharing of power”.
  2. William A.Robson : “Political Science is primarily concerned with the power in society”.

AP Inter 1st Year Civics Model Paper Set 3 with Solutions

Question 19.
How many other elements does the state possess ? Name them.
Besides Population, Territory, Government and Sovereignty, state will also possess four other elements.
They are :

  1. International recognition
  2. Permanence
  3. General obedience and
  4. Popular will.

Question 20.
What is meant by Nationality ?
Nationality is derived from the Latin word “Natio”. which means birth. It is a spiritual sentiment or feeling of oneness. This emotional feeling of oneness or unity is caused due to factors like common race, common language, common religion, common territory, common history and culture, common political aspirations etc. Nationality is not politically organised. There can be no nation without nationality.

Question 21.
What are the features of Law ?
The following are some important features of law :

  1. It is enforced by the State.
  2. It is definite, precise and universal.
  3. It reflects the will of the people.
  4. Laws are compulsory and cohesive in nature.
  5. Any violation of law leads to punishment.

Question 22.
What is Natural Law ?
Natural Law is also known as Divine Law. It is abstract. It is not created by any human agency. It is considered as the gift of nature, based on metaphysical power. It refers to the use of reason to analyse human nature. It is written in the heart of human beings by the finger of God.

Question 23.
Give any two definitions of Liberty.

  1. “Liberty means the absence of restraints”. – J.R. Seeley
  2. “Liberty is the freedom of an individual to express without any external hindrance to his personality”. – G.D.H. Cole

Question 24.
What is meant by political equality ?
Political equality implies the provision of adequate conditions for the people in the political affairs of the state. It is enjoyed by the citizens only. It could be achieved by granting various political rights such as

  1. Right to vote
  2. Right to contest in elections
  3. Right to hold public offices
  4. Right to criticise the government etc.

Question 25.
Define Rights.

  1. “Rights are those powers claimed and recognized as contributory to the common good.” – T.H. Green
  2. “Rights are those conditions of social life without which no man can seek in general to be himself at his best.” – HJ. Laski

AP Inter 1st Year Civics Model Paper Set 3 with Solutions

Question 26.
Classification of Responsibilities.
Responsibilities are broadly classified into
(i) Moral responsibilities
(ii) Legal responsibilities.

Legal responsibilities are further classified into
(i) Positive responsibilities
(ii) Negative responsibilities.

Question 27.
What is distributive justice ?
Distributive justice implies the distribution of goods and wealth of citizens by the state on merit basis. Aristotle stated that Justice is a sort of proportion. He regarded it as the most powerful instrument against revolutions. But modern writers like John Rawls denied Aristotle’s view. He pointed out that inequalities are inherent in the society. He remarked that inequalities must be balanced by some restrictive arrangements in the political system.

Question 28.
In what respect is religion considered as a source of justice ?
Religion is regarded as another source of Justice. This source has been in force since medieval age. The church authorities held the notion that it was, God who propounded the notions of justice, right and wrong. God, through church, initiated the concept of justice as the rule of the theory of might. Thomas Acqinas a philosopher turned saint believed that the Church is the manifestation of religion. According to him, life based on laws is the best one. The king must lead the people in right directions. He must exercise his authority in compliance to the church authority.

Question 29.
Define citizenship.
i) Prof. Laski defines “Citizenship is one’s contribution of instructed judgement to the public good”,
ii) T.H. Marshall defines “Citizenship is a status bestowed on those who are full members of a community. All who possess this status are equal with respect to the rights and duties with which the state is endowed”.

Question 30.
In what way do ignorance and illiteracy act as hindrances to good citizenship ?
Ignorance and illiteracy are regarded as the greatest obstacles to the good citizenship. Ignorant and illiterate citizens do not know their rights and responsibilities properly. They are unable to make any contribution to the State. Democracy degenerates into mob rule in the hands of ignorant and illiterate persons.

Question 31.
What are the features of democracy ?
The features of democracy are
a) Popular government
b) Significance to ordinary man
c) Regular elections
d) Popular responsibility
e) Fundamental rights

Question 32.
What do you mean by plebiscite ?
Plebiscite means ascertaining public opinion on certain important issues. This is not applicable to the laws and the Constitution. People’s verdict is sought on certain public problems and policies of the government. This method was first used in 1804 by Napoleon in France.

Question 33.
What are the types of secularism ?
Secularism is of two types, namely,

  1. Subjective
  2. Objective

Subjective Secularism means the gradual separation of religious feelings from everyday transactions of tjie people. Objective Secularism implies the elimination of religious rituals and institutions from public life and government activity.

AP Inter 1st Year Civics Model Paper Set 3 with Solutions

Question 34.
Mention any two elements that justify India as a secular state.

  1. The term ‘Secular’ was included in the Indian Constitution in the year 1976 through the 42nd Constitutional Amendment Act.
  2. Indian Constitution guarantees six fundamental rights out of which, the most promising right i.e., right to freedom of religion from articles 25 to 28, is enough to justify India as a Secular State.

Question 35.
What is an enacted constitution ?
Enacted constitution is also known as Conventional constitution. It is consciously made. It is the outcome of the deliberations of the Constituent Assembly specially constituted for that purpose. It is promulgated by the Sovereign Authority i.e., king or queen or Parliament. Ex : The Constitutions of India and the U.S.A.

Question 36.
Define government.
Prof. J. W. Garner defined “Government as the agency or machinery through which common policies are determined and by which common affairs are regulated and common interests are promoted.”

Question 37.
What are the other names of Presidential Government ?
The other names for Presidential Government are :

  1. Single Executive Government,
  2. Fixed Tenure Government and
  3. Non Responsible Government.

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