AP Inter 2nd Year Civics Question Paper March 2017

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AP Inter 2nd Year Civics Question Paper March 2017 with Solutions

Time: 3 Hours
Max. Marks: 100

Section – A
3 x 10 = 30


  • Answer ANY THREE of the following questions in 40 lines each.
  • Each question carries 10 marks.

Question 1.
Explain in brief any ten salient features of Indian Constitution.
Introduction: The Indian constitution was prepared and adopted by the Constituent Assembly which was set up in 1946. The Constituent Assembly took nearly three years (From December, 1946 to 25th November, 1949) to complete the framing of the constitution.

The Constituent Assembly approved the Indian Constitution on 26th November, 1949. The Indian constitution came into force on 26th January, 1950. Which we have been celebrating as “The Republic Day’. The following are the salient or basic features of the Indian constitution.
1. Preamble: The Indian constitution begins with a preamble. The preamble clearly defines the objectives of our constitution. It declares India as a Sovereign, Socialist, Secular, democratic Republic. It provides liberty, equality; fraternity, and justice. It states that the people of India are the chief source of the political authority;

2. A Lengthy Written Document: The Constitution of India is the most written, lengthy and detailed document in the world. In 1950, the Indian Constitution had 22 parts, 8 schedules and 395 articles. After subsequent amendments, it contains 12 schedules and 444 articles for the present.

3. A combination of rigidity and flexibility: The constitution of India is a blend of rigidity and flexibility. Our founding Fathers were programmatic enough to provide for rigidity and flexibility as the situation demands. Article 368 provides the details of the amendment procedure.

i) Some of the provisions like admission of New states (Ex: Telangana), provisions relating to citizenship, salaries and allowances of the members of the constitutional bodies like President, Vice-President, Supreme Court and High Court judges, etc. Can be amended by simple majority It is said to be flexible.

ii) Some provisions can be amended by a special majority i.e., not less than Two-thirds of the members of the House present and voting. Ex: Fundamental Rights, Directive Principles of state policy etc. It is said to be half rigid and half flexible.

iii) Some provisions can be amended by two-thirds majority of the Parliament and with the concurrence of half of the states. Ex: Election of the President, executive powers of the union and the states, distribution of legislative powers between the union and the states etc. It is said to be rigid.

4. Quasi-Federal polity: India is a states according to the constitution. Our constitution contains both the features of unitary and Federal Governments. It prescribed unitary system in emergencies and Federal system On ordinary occasions. Provisions of unitary state such as Single Citizenship, Single Integrated Judiciary; Single Election Commission, Role of All India Services Personnel, etc., are found in our constitution. At the same time certain federal features like written, rigid constitution, Dual government, Bicameralism etc., are profoundly seen in our constitution. Thus it is a Quasi-Federal. Polity like Canada.

5. Republican government: Unlike the colonial Master, the UK, India preferred a Republican government. Here all public
offices right from World member to the top president of India are open to all eligible citizens and there is no place for hereditary principles.

6) Parliamentary government: The constitution of India provided Parliamentary government of the British type but with an elected President of Irish Model. Accordingly, the features of Parliamentary government such as two executive heads, Ministerial accountability to the lower house of the legislature, Prime Minister leadership etc., are prevalent in our political system.

7. Fundamental Rights and Fundamental Duties: Part -III of the constitution, Articles from 12 to 35, provides for a set of basic human rights to all. They are justiceable and ensure basic freedoms.
They are six in number.

  1. Right to equality
  2. Right to freedom
  3. Right against exploitation
  4. Right to religion
  5. Cultural and educational right and
  6. Right to constitutional remedies.

The 42nd Amendment to the constitution in 1976 incorporated the fundamental duties in Article 51A under part – IVA. Though they are not justiciable. But they put an obligation on the citizens to render certain duties in return for the protection they have been enjoying through fundamental rights. Fundamental duties relate to respecting the constitution, the National Flag and National Anthem, safeguarding public property etc.

8. Single citizenship: Our Constitution provides for single citizenship for all persons who are born in India and who resided in India for a specific period. It enables the citizens to possess and enjoy identical rights and privileges. It also promotes unity, integrity and fraternity among the people.

9. Universal and Adult Franchise: The makers of the Indian constitution provided for the universal adult Franchise for all
citizens without any discrimination based on caste, colour, creed, community, language, religion, region, sex, property etc. At the beginning, adult Franchise was given to all the citizens who attained the age of 21 years. Later voting age was reduced to 18 years through the 61st Constitution Amendment Act in 1988.

10. Secular state: Our constitution stands for a secular state. It does not uphold any particular religion as the official religion of the Indian state. It ensures complete religious freedom to the people. It abolishes discrimination between individuals on religious grounds in the matters of employment, education and legislation. It prohibits religious instructions in state-owned or state-aided educational institutions.

11. Independent judiciary: The Judiciary performs its functions independently. The legislature or the executive shall not
interfere in the working of the Judiciary. The Judiciary carries on its obligations according to the constitutional norms and democratic principles.

12. Directive principles of state policy: Our constitution hinted out certain directive principles as the policy of the state in part IV from Articles from 36 to 51. These principles are drawn from Irish constitution. These principles reflect the welfare state concept. They are the directions to be followed by the various governments. Equal pay for equal work, provision of employment opportunities, fair distribution of wealth, old age pension, protection of ill health, provision of education, protection of women and children etc., are the some examples of these principles. Though these principles are non-justiciable, No responsible government can afford to ignore them.

13. Bi-cameralism: The constitution of India introduced Bicameralism at the National level. Accordingly, The Indian Parliament consists of two houses namely the Rajya Sabha (upper house) and the Lok Sabha (lower house). While the Rajya Sabha represents the states, the Lok Sabha represents the people.

14. Panchayati Raj and Nagar Palikas Acts: The Panchayati Raj and Nagar Palikas Acts are recent features of our constitution. The 73rd and 74th Constitutional Amendment Acts gave constitutional recognition to the Rural and Urban local governments. Which came into force in 1993 and 1994 respectively had become operative all over the territory of India. The ideals of democratic decentralisation or the grassroots democracy are realised by these acts.

These acts provides for adequate representation for women, scheduled castes, scheduled tribes, and other weaker sections in the policy-making bodies of the local governments.

AP Inter 2nd Year Civics Question Paper March 2017

Question 2.
Explain the various types of Directive Principles of State Policy mentioned in Indian Constitution.
Directive principles of state policy are enumerated in articles from 36 to 51 in the past -IV of the Indian constitution. They are borrowed from the Irish constitution. They help in realizing the objectives mentioned in the preamble.

Types of Directive principles of State Policy: Directive principles can be classified into three broad categories namely Socialistic, Liberal-intellectual and Gandhian principles.

Article 36 defines the term “State”.
Article 37 declares that the directive principles shall not be enforceable by any court.

1. Socialist Principles: Articles 38, 39, 41, 42, 43 and 47 explains about the socialistic ideology of the directive principles of state policy.
1. Article 38 prescribes that the state shall strive to provide justice and promote welfare of the people by creating
a proper economic, social and political atmosphere.

2. Article 39 directs the state to secure its citizens.

  • Adequate means of livelihood for all citizens.
  • Equitable distribution of wealth for sub-serving the common good.
  • Equal pay for equal work for all.
  • Protection of adult and child labour.
  • Decentralization nation’s wealth.
  • Preserving the health and strength of workers, men and women. .
  • Protecting childhood and youth against exploitation.

3. To secure right to work and education for all people, relief in the case of unemployment; old age; sickness and disablement and in other cases of under-servedwant. (Article 41).

4. To make provision for just and human conditions of work and maternity relief (Article 42).

5. To secure living wage and decent standard of life so as to ensure to the workers sufficient leisure and enjoyment of social and cultural opportunities. (Article 43).

6. Raising the level of nutrition and standard of living of the people and the improvement of public health (Article 47).

2. Liberal-intellectual Principles: The principles represent the ideology of liberalism and certain objective like provision of basic education, uniform civil code, independent judiciary and international peace. They are incorporated in Articles 44, 45, 50 and 51 of the Constitution.

  1. The State shall secure for the citizens uniform civil code throughout the country. (Article 44)
  2. The State shall provide free and compulsory education for all the children below 14 years of age. The Constitution (Eighty-Sixth Amendment) Act, 2002 substituted the following words in Article 45. “The State shall endeavor to provide early childhood care and education for all children until they complete the age of six years.” (Article 45)
  3. The state organize agriculture and animal husbandry on modern and scientific lines (Article 48)
  4. The state protect monlWnts which are declared to be of national importance (Artic1e 49)
  5. The state protect and improves the environment and to safeguard forests and wildlife (Article 48 A)
  6. The State shall take steps to separate judiciary from executive in public services of the State. (Article 50)

7. The State shall

  • promote international peace, justice and security.
  • Maintain just and honorable relations with other nations
  • rotection of monuments and place of historical and cultural interest
  • respect for international laws and treaty obligations: and
  • encourage settlement of international dispute by arbitration. (Article 51)

3. Gandhian Principles: These Principles are based on Gandhian ideology. They represent the programme of reconstruction inundated by Mahatma Gandhi during the national movement. These principles provide ideal rule in India. They are reflected in Articles 40,43, 46 and 47. They may be enumerated as under.

  • The State shall organize village Panchayats and endow them with adequate powers and authority so as to enable them to function as the units of self-government. (Article 40)
  • The State shall strive for the promotion of cottage industries on individual or cooperative basis in rural areas. (Article 43)
  • The State shall promote the educational and economic interests of the SCs, STs and BCs of society with special care, (Article 46).
  • The State shall endeavour to bring about prohibition of intoxicating drinks and of drugs which are injurious to health (Article 47)

Other Principles: The Consitution (Forty-Second and Forty-Fourth Amendment) Acts of 1976 and 1978 added a few more subjects to the list of Directive Principles. While the Constitution (Forty Second Amendment) Act inserted Articles 39A, 43A., and 48 A, the Constitution (Forty Fourth Amendment) Act included Article 39 Clause (2). They comprise the following provisions.

  1. Providing opportunities for healthy development of children.
  2. Promotion of equal justice and legal aid to the poor.
  3. Securing participation of workers in the management of industries.
  4. Protecting the environment, forests and wild animals.

Question 3.
Write briefly the Emergency Powers of the President of India.
Articles 352 to 360 of part XVIII of Indian constitution deals with three types of emergency powers of the Indian President.
They are:

  1. National Emergency,
  2. Constitutional Emergency,
  3. Financial Emergency

They may be explained as follows.
1. National Emergency: (Article 352)
The President exercises this power during the period of war, external aggression or armed rebellion. He declares emergency if he is satisfied that the sovereignty and security of India or any part there of is threatened by external aggression. When National Emergency is in force, the federal provisions of pure Constitution ceases to operate. So far, National Emergency was proclaimed on four occasions in our country.

They are :

  1. Chinese Aggression (1962),
  2. Indo – Pak war (1965),
  3. Indo-Pak war in the context of Bangladesh Liberation Movement (1971),
  4. Oppositions call for blocking Parliament (1975).

2. Constitutional Emergency’: (Article 356)
Article 356 of Indian constitution empowers the President to proclaim the constitutional emergency If the President, on receipt of a report from the Governor or otherwise, is satisfied that a situation has arisen in which the government of a state cannot be carried on according to the constitutional provisions. He is empowered to proclaim this emergency. It is also called as the President’s Rule. So far this type of emergency was proclaimed for over 100 times.

3. Financial Emergency: (Article 360)
If the President is satisfied that a situation has arisen where by the financial stability or credit of India is threatened, then he may proclaim financial emergency in the countly During the period of financial emergency, the President enjoys the following powers.

  • The President may reserve all the money bills or other financial bills of the state after they are approved by the state legislature.
  • He may reduce the salaries and allowances of all or any person serving in the states.
  • The President can reduce the salaries allowances of the persons working at the union level including the judges of the Supreme Court and the State High Courts. But so far the financial emergency has not been yet imposed in the Country.

Question 4.
Explain the powers and functions of the Union Legislature.
Introduction: The Union Legislature (Parliament) is the highest legislative organ of the Union government. Articles 79 to 129 in part V of Indian Constitution deals with the composition, organization, powers and functions of the Indian Union Legislature.

Composition: Indian Parliament consists of the

  • President
  • Rajya Sabha (Council of states)
  • Lok Sabha (House of People)

The upper house Rajya Sabha represents the states and union territories.
The lower house Lok Sabha represents the people.
The President of India has the power to summon or prorogue the two houses of Parliament though he is not a member of either house. He can dissolve the Lok Sabha on the advice of the Union Council of Ministers headed by the Prime Minister.

Powers and functions of the Union Legislature. (or) Indian Parliament: The Parliament enjoys extensive powers and performs variety of functions. These powers and functions are under the following points.
1. Legislative Powers and Functions: The main function of the Indian Parliament is law making. It makes laws on all the
subjects mentioned in the Union List and Concurrent List. Under certain circumstances, it also makes laws on the subjects mentioned in the State List. Further, it also makes laws on the matters that are not included in any of the three Lists i.e., on residuary matters.

2. Executive Powers and Functions: Another important function of the Indian Parliament is controlling the Executive (Union Council of Ministers). Parliament controls the Executive through various ways, such as by asking questions, supplementary questions and by introducing adjournment motions and no-confidence resolutions against the Ministry. Hence the survival of the Government depends upon the will of the members in the Lower House. The executive remains in office so long as it enjoys the confidence of the Lok Sabha.

3. Financial Powers and Functions: The Parliament controls the financial resources of the nation, It accepts the budget and other money bills required by the government. Its permission is needed for the government for imposing and collecting tax and for revising the existing tax rates. In this regard the Lok Sabha has more financial powers than the Rajya Sabha. All money, bills shall at first be introduced in the Lok Sabha. The Rajya Sabha has to accept all money bills sent by the Lok Sabha within 14 days. It approves the railway budget, appropriation bill and other money bills.

4. Judicial Powers and Functions: The Parliament has certain judicial powers and functions. It has the power to remove the President and Vice President. The procedure is called impeachment. It has also the power to recommend to the President the removal of the higher officials of the country such as the Chief justice and Judges of Supreme Court, High Court and the Chairman and other members of U.PS.C., Chief Election Commissioner, etc., for violation of certain principles.

5. Constitutional Powers and Functions: The Parliament takes initiative for changing the provisions of the Constitution according to the changing times. Bills relating to the Constitution amendments may be introduced in either House. The State legislatures also join with the Parliament in accepting certain important Constitutional amendment bills. There are three methods of amending the Constitution.

6. Electoral Powers: The Parliament also serves as an electoral college. It participates in the election of the President and Vice President. The Speaker and Deputy Speaker who act as the presiding officers are elected by the members of Lok Sabha. The Deputy Chairman is elected by the members of the Rajya Sabha.

7. Deliberative Powers an Functions: The Parliament acts as the highest forum and direct agency of public opinion. Its members discuss various issues of national and international significance, They demarked the government to solve the people’s problems.

AP Inter 2nd Year Civics Question Paper March 2017

8. Miscellaneous Powers: In addition to the above, the Indian Parliament has also the power to

  • create or abolish Legislative Councils
  • change the names and boundaries of the States etc.

Conclusion: A look at the powers and functions of the Indian Parliament shows that it is the centre of legislative activity and political activity of our country.

Question 5.
Describe the various types of Urban Local Governments in India.
As per the 74th Constitution Amendment Act, eight types of Urban Local Bodies are existing in India. They are mentioned as follows:

  1. Municipal Corporation
  2. Municipality
  3. Nagar Panchayat
  4. Notified Area Committee
  5. Town Area Committee
  6. Cantonment Board
  7. Township
  8. Port Trust
  9. Special Purpose Agency

These may be explained as follows:
1. Municipal Corporation: Municipal Corporation is an Important category of urban local government. It is the highest local government institution working in each large urban area. it is constituted by a special Act of the State Government. The first Municipal Corporation was set up in the former presidency town of Madras in 1687. It was followed by similar Corporations in Bombay and Calcutta. The state government can declare the transformation of a Municipality into a Municipal Corporation when the population is at least three lakhs and annual income is four crores rupees.

Composition: The number of members of each Municipal Corporation is determined on the basis of the population of the city concerned by the law passed by the state legislature. Every Municipal Corporation consists of four organs, namely

  • Corporation Council,
  • Mayor,
  • Commissioner and
  • Standing Committees.

2. Munlcipalitles: Municipalities are a type of urban local bodies functioning below the level of Municipal Corporation and above that of the Nagar Panchayat/Notified Area. Normally, Municipalities are constituted for a population of 20,001 and above or when annual income is above ₹ 60 lakhs. They are also constituted when annual income is above 20 lakhs acquired from Trade Licenses, Profession taxes and non-agricultural sectors.

Sometimes Panchayats are upgraded as Municipalities on the basis of population density and employment opportunities. Municipalities are classified into five grades basing on their annual income. They are:

  1. Selection Grade Municipalities – Annual income over and above ₹ 4 Crores.
  2. Special Grade Municipalities – Annual income varying between ₹ 3 and 4 Crores.
  3. First Grade Municipalities – Annual income varying between ₹ 2 and 3 Crores.
  4. Second Grade Municipalities – Annual income varying between ₹ 1 and 2 Crores.
  5. Third Grade Municipalities – Annual income below ₹ One crore.

There are four organs in every Municipality, namely,

  1. Municipal Council,
  2. Municipal Chairman,
  3. Municipal Commissioner and
  4. Standing Committees.

3. Nagar Panchayat: Nagar Panchayats are created for transitional areas (the area which is fast changing from a rural to an urban area) or for a very small urban area. For this purpose, several factors are taken into consideration; the density of the population therein, the revenue generated for local administration, the percentage of employment in non-agricultural activities, the economic importance of the area and some others.

Composition: The strength of the members of Nagar Panchayat is fixed by the State Legislature from time to time. They are directly elected by the people of the area on the basis of adult franchise, For the purpose of election, the areas of Nagar Panchayat is divided into wards and each ward elects one member. Besides the elected members, the Member of the State Legislative Assembly (M.L.A). representing that area is also the ex-officio member of Nagar Panchayat. Every Nagar Panchayat elects one President and one Vice-President amongst its members. They are elected by all the elected members. The President presides over its meetings.

4. Notified Area Committee: This is constituted either for a fast-developing town or an area not fulfilling the conditions for the creation of Municipality As it is created through a special notification of the state government, it is known as Notified Areas Committee. It does not possess statutory position. It wifi have a Chairman and some members who are nominated by the state government. Its functions are more or less same as that of a Municipality.

5. Town Area Committee: Town area committee is setup by an act of State Legislature. It fulfils the public needs of a small town. It will have a chairman and members nominated by the state government. It performs limited functions like street lighting, drainage etc. Its authorities take steps for improving the condition of the people living i.n the town area.

6. Cantonment Boards: Canonment Boards are established in India under the Cantonment Act of 1924. At present there are 62 Cantonment Boards in India. These bodies take steps for improving the conditions of civilian population and military personnel in their jurisdiction. There are three types of Cantonment Boards in India. They are created by an Act of the defense minister Each Board comprises some members belonging to the elected, nominated and ex-officio categories. There will be a General Officer on Command (GOC) for every Cantonment Board.

7. Township: Township is established by the public sector undertakings to provide basic civic amenities to its personnel. It has no elected members. There will be a Town Administrator for every Township. He is appointed by the concerned ministry of union government. Its services are meant not for the general public but for the personnel working in the public sector undertakings.

8. Port Trust: Port Trust is set up in the areas where port personnel are in considerable members. It manages the affairs of ports. It takes proper steps for protecting the interests of personnel in the port areas. The union government constitutes port affairs committee. The committee comprises both nominated and elected members.

9. Special Purpose Agencies: These agencies are meant for tackling some special issues faced by the people. They perform some peculiar functions for the people residing in municipalities and other notified urban areas. They are established by the special Acts of state legislature. Sometimes they came into vogue through a special order of the state government. Housing Board, Water Supply, Undertakings, Electricity Generation and distribution grids, Urban Development Authorities, etc., are some examples of these Agencies.

Section – B
8 x 5 = 40


  • Answer ANY EIGHT of the following questions in 20 lines each.
  • Each question carries 5 marks.

Question 6.
Write a note on the source of the Indian Constitution.
The constitution of India was formulated on the basis of various experiences. Almost all the noble features of the world constitutions have been incorporated in it. Similarly, the peculiar political, social and cultural conditions present in India have been taken into account at the time of drafting the constitution. The makers of Indian constitution ignored those conditions prevalent in other countries which are contrary to the socio-economic and political background of India.

On the whole the following sources figure prominently in making the Indian constitution.
1. Many provisions of Indian constitution have been drawn on the basis of West Minister Model (British). These include parliamentary traditions, rule of law, cabinet government, legislative-executive relations, single citizenship, nominal executive head, etc.

2. Some provisions like fundamental rights, judicial review, federal system, president’s election, impeaching the president, etc., have been taken from the American constitution.

3. Items relating to Directive Principles of State Policy have been drawn from the constitution of Ireland.

4. The emergency powers of the President have been taken basing on the German constitution.

5. Matters such as Concurrent List, Business, Commerce, Inter-State trade, Special privileges of legislators etc., have been added on the model of Australia.

6. The Union-State relations mentioned in Indian constitution have been designed basing on the Canadian Constitution.

7. Matters of constitutional amendment procedure were drawn from South African constitution.

8. The idea of republic and the ideals of liberty, equality, and fraternity have been taken from the constitution of France.

9. Most of provisions of Indian constitution were drawn from the Government of India Act, 1935.

AP Inter 2nd Year Civics Question Paper March 2017

Question 7.
Describe the six freedoms of a citizen.
Our constitution in Chapter III under Article 19 (clause 1) guarantees certain fundamental rights subject to certain restrictions. They are also known as fundamental freedoms. They are:

  • Freedom of speech and expression.
  • Freedom of Peaceful Assembly without Arms.
  • Freedom of Associations and Unions.
  • Freedom of movement throughout the territory of India.
  • Freedom of residence and settlement in any part of the Territory of India.
  • Freedom of profession, trade occupation or business.

These freedoms would facilitate the progress of Indian citizens in social, political and economic spheres. These freedoms are not absolute. The state may, if necessary, impose certain reasonable restrictions on the enjoyment of the above freedoms by the Indian citizens. These restrictions relate to the maintenance and safeguarding of the independence, sovereignty, integrity, law and order.

Question 8.
What is meant by Public interest Litigation?
The institution of Public Interest Litigation originated in USA during the mid-1960s. PIL or Social Action litigation is an offshoot of liberalized locus-stand rules. The traditional rule of locus-stand was based on the fact that judicial remedy can be sought only by those who have suffered an injury on account of violation of legal right by some public authority The PIL choose liberalize this rule by making it clear that any person who suffers an injury but is unable to reach the court cali take help of public-minded citizens to reach the court to seek justice.

Public Interest Litigation Movement in India emerged during post-emergency years intending to make the judicial system accessible to the socially and economically lower sections of the society. In most of cases, Judicial Activism has occurred through public interest litigation. In public interest litigation, any person or group can approach the Supreme Court and High Court for the redressal of grievances on behalf of the victim or victims who were incapable of approaching the court. Under this new arrangement, a destitute citizen can file a writ petition even through a simple letter written on the postcard. This derives authenticity from the “right be heard” as implied by Article 32 of the Constitution.

But the court has to ensure that the petitioner who approaches the court with PIL, is acting bonafide and not for personal gains private profit, political or other oblique considerations. The. court should not allow this process to be abused by politicians and others to delay legitimate administrative action or to gain a political objective.

Question 9.
Point out any three powers of the State Council of Ministers.
The three of the following are the important powers of the State Council of Ministers.
i) Policy Formulation: The State Council of Ministers for emulates policies suitable for the progress of the people and development of the State. It is an intellectual and laborious process. The Cabinet Ministers meet frequently under the leadership of the Chief Minister, discuss thoroughly various matters of the State administration and finalize the policies along with the necessary decisions.

ii) Enactment of Laws: The State Council of Ministers takes Legislative initiation on different nlàtters of State Government. It is the Council of Ministers that drafts and finalizes the public Bills and pilots them in the State Legislature at different stages in order to get them approved by the Legislature. Once the bills are approved by the Legislature, the Council of ministers advises the Governor to assent them so that they become laws. The Council of Ministers may propose amendment to the existing laws or enactment of new laws for the administrative convenience.

iii) Provision of Good Administration: The State Council of Ministers i.e., the real executive is voted to power to provide good administration and promote the well-being of the people of the State. The chief responsibility of the Council of Ministers is running the administration in accordance with the Constitutional cardinals and democratic doctrines. The total administrative work is divided into different miñistries. Each minister has one or more departments under his control and is responsible for the effective and the transparent administration of such departments. It formulates and implements different developmental programs and welfare schemes.

Question 10.
What do you know about Public Accounts Committee in the State Legislature?
Public Accounts Committee consists of 20 members out of which 15 members belong to Assembly and 5 members belong to Legislative Council. They are elected through indirect election by following the principle of proportional representation for a period of one year. The Chairman is normally the member of Opposition Party. The Ministers of Cabinet cannot be member of Public Accounts Committee.

Functions: Public Account Committee performs the following functions.

  1. The committee examines the accounts showing the appropriation of sums granted by the house for expenditure of the state government.
  2. It scrutinizes the appropriation accounts of the state and the reports of the Comptroller and Auditor General.
  3. It shall be the duty of the Public Accounts Committee to examine such a trading, manufacturing, and profit and loss accounts and balance sheets and the accounts of the state government and also to consider the report of the Comptroller and Auditor General.
  4. The committee carefully considers the accounting and audit procedures.
  5. The committee is not concerned with the question of policy approved by the legislature.
  6. The committee investigates expenditure after it has already incurred. An overall, this committee is generally described as a post-mortem committee’.

Question 11.
Discuss the powers and functions of State Advocate General.
Every State in Indian Union shall have an Advocate General, an official corresponding to the Attorney-General of India. He performs similar functions for the State that of the Attorney-General of India. He is the highest law officer in the State.

Appointment: The Advocate General is appointed by the Governor of the State under the Article 165 of the Constitution. A person to be appointed as Advocate General must possess the following qualifications.

  1. He should be a citizen of India.
  2. He must have held a judicial office for ten years or an advocate of a High Court for ten years.
  3. He must be a person who is qualified to be appointed a judge of a High Court.

Tenure and Removal: The constitution of India did not mention the texture of Advocate General. Further, the Constitution does not contain the procedure and grounds for his removal. He holds office during the pleasure of the Governor. He may be removed by the Governor at any time. He may also quit his office by submitting his resignation to the Governor. Conventionally, he resigns when the government resigns or is replaced, as he is appointed on the advice of the government.

Salary: His remuneration is not fixed by the Constitution. He receives such remuneration as the Governor may decide from time to time.

Powers and functions: As the highest law officer of the State Government, he exercises the following powers and functions.

  • He advises the State Government upon such legal matters which are referred to him by the Governor.
  • He performs such other duties of a legal character that are assigned to him by the Governor.
  • He discharges the functions and conferred on him by the Constitution.
  • He appeared before any court of law within the State.
  • He has a right to speak and to take part as member in the proceedings of the house(s) but no right to vote.
  • He can also attend any of the Standing Committee meetings of State Legislature.

AP Inter 2nd Year Civics Question Paper March 2017

Question 12.
Discuss any five Administrative Relations between the Union and the States in India?
Articles 256 to 263 in Part XI of our Constitution deal with the administrative relations between the Union and States. They are discussed under the following heads:
(a) during emergencies
(b) in normal times.

In normal times: :
In normal times, our ConsItution has devised techniques of control over the states by the Union to ensure that the State Governments do not interfere with the legislative and executive policies of the Union. The Union Government exercises its influence over the State Governments in the following ways.

The Union Government is empowered to issue directions to the State Governments in the following matters:

  • To ensure due compliance with the Union laws in the implementation of the State laws.
  • To ensure that the exercise of the executive power of the State does not impede the implementation of the Union laws.
  • The ensure the Constitution and the Maintenance of the means of communication of military or national importance.
  • To ensure protection of Railways within the state.
  • To devise and execute schemes for the welfare of the tribal communities as mentioned in the directions.
  • To secure the provisions of the adequate facilities for the instruction in the mother tongue at the primary stage to linguistic minorities.
  • To ensure the development of Hindi language.
  • To entrust certain functions of the Centre to the State and its officers and the Centre. will meet the additional expenditure involved in carrying out such functions.
  • To issue directions to the State for the welfare of the scheduled castes and scheduled Tribes.
  • The State Governments have to see that the laws made by the Parliament and other laws prevalent in the State are properly executed. The Union Government is empowered to give directions to the States for this purpose.
  • The Parliament can framer rules regarding the settlement of disputes between two States with regard to the use of water and boundaries.
  • The President is empowered to constitute an Inter-State Council to advise the State in settling their disputes.
  • The personnel belonging to All India Services working in the State are governed by the rules, regulations and service conditions laid down by the Central government only. They can be removed only by that government.
  • The Central Government dispatches the central resource power to the States for tackling any situation of disturbances affecting law and order conditions in the State.
  • The Union can impose presidential rule in any State if there is a breakdown of the Constitutional machinery in the State.
  • The Election Commission, an independent Constitutional body constituted by the Central Government conducts elections of the Union and State legislatures.
  • The Parliament can empower to make grants in aid to any State which is in need of such assistance.

During Emergencies: During the operation of a national emergency, the Union Government will work as a powerful body. The state governments are brought under its complete control. However, they can’t be suspended by the union. When the President’s rule is imposed in a state the President can assume to himself the functions of the state government. He can assign such functions to the Governor. During the financial emergency, the union can direct the states to observe canons of financial propriety. The President can issue directions including the reduction of salaries of persons serving in the state government and the High Court Judges.

Question 13.
Evaluate any five recommendations of the Sarkaria Commission.
The Union Government appointed a three-member Commission on Centre-State relations under the Chairmanship of R.S.Sarkaria, a retired judge of the Supreme Court. B.Sivaraman, S.R.Sen, and Rama Subrahmaniam were appointed as other members. The Commission was asked to overhaul and review the working of existing arrangements between the Union and States in all spheres as and recommend such changes and measures as may be appropriate. It was initially given one year time to complete its work, but its term was extended four times. The final report was submitted on October, 27, 1987 and the summary was Later officially released in January, 1988.

The Sarkaria Commission made 247 recommendations to improve the center-state relations. The important recommendations are mentioned below:

  1. A permanent Inter-State Council called the Inter-Governmental Council should be set up under Article 263.
  2. Article 356 (President’s Rule) should be used very sparingly in extreme cases as a last resort when all the available alternatives fail.
  3. The institution of All India Services should be further strengthened and some more such services should be created.
  4. The residuary powers of taxation should continue to remain with the Parliament, while the other residuary powers should be placed in the Concurrent List.
  5. When the President withholds his assent to the State bills, the reasons should be communicated the State Government.
  6. The National Development Council (NDC) should be renamed and reconstitute as the National Economic and Development Council (NEDC).
  7. The zonal councils should be constituted afresh and reactivated to promote the spirit of federalism.
  8. The Union should have powers to deploy its armed forces, even without the consent of States. However, it is desirable that the States should be consulted.
  9. The Centre should consult the States before making a law on a subject of the Concurrent List.
  10. The procedure of consulting the Chief Minister in the appointment of the State Governor should be prescribed in the Constitutional itself.
  11. The net proceeds of the Corporation tax may be made permissibly shareable with the States.
  12. The Governor cannot dismiss the Council of Ministers so long as it commands a majority in the assembly.
  13. The Governor’s term of five years in a State should not be disturbed except for some extremely compelling reasons.
  14. No commission of enquiry should be set up against a State Minister unless a demand is made by the Parliament.
  15. The surcharge on income tax should not be levied by the Centre except for a specific purpose and or a strictly limited period.
  16. The present division of functions between the Finance Commission and the Planning Commission is reasonable and should continue.
  17.  Steps should be taken to uniformly implement the three-language formula in its true spirit.
  18. No autonomy for radio and television but decentralization in their operations.
  19. No change in the role of ‘Rajya Sabha and the Centres power to reorganize the States.
  20. Giving powers to the Municipalities to issue tax free bonds.

The Union Government has implemented 180 (out of 247) recommendations of the Sarkaria Commission. The most important is the establishment of the Inter-State Council in 1990 but it has not served the purpose.

Question 14.
Write a note on the Electoral Reforms.
The Electoral Reforms will ensure the free and fair elections in the country The successful functioning of Indian democracy depends on the electoral reforms.

Some Electoral Reform proposed:

  1. The donation of companies to the political parties should be strictly banned.
  2. The accounts of the political parties are to be audited by the Election Commission periodically.
  3. The number of members of the Election commission shall be raised.
  4. The limit on election expenditure of the candidates must be proper, practical and realistic.
  5. The announcement of new policies, projects and programmes by the party in power during elections should be banned.
  6. The members of the election commission should be appointed by the president on the advice of the prime minister, leader of the opposition in the Lok Sabha and the chief justice of India.
  7. The government should meet the election expenditure of the candidates.
  8. The election commission should be authorised to invalidate the election of a candidate if it was proved that he had used government machinery during elections.
  9. Notification should be issued to the voters and electronic voting machines should be introduced after fool-proof arrangements.
  10. The candidate who secures 51 percent of the polled votes shall be declared as winner.

Question 15.
Estimate the significance of Regional Parties in India.
In India’s federal democratic polity, regional and local parties would continue to have relevance and appeal, especially for certain dominant social and economic interests. The growing presence of regional parties is, undoubtedly, the most outstanding aspect of political development in India over the past few years.

Till 1967, there was only one party ruling the nation that was ‘Congress Party, but after 1967 a lot of other political parties came to the forefront along with power and started to play an imperative and persuasive role in government. With the regional parties coming to the forefront the development of the state’s responsibility has gone to the regional parties as opposed to the Central Government taking care in the initial stages. Regional parties are playing a major role in influencing decisions and thought process in the government planning process and decisions.

After 1996, several regional parties have been emerging as key players in national politics in India. As partners of the NDA, 23 regional parties shared power at the Centre during 1999 and 2004. Some of the regional parties are ruling the states – AIADMK, TDP, JDU, BJD, UDF, NCP, SAD etc. All this reflects the continued and continuously growing importance of regional parties in the Indian politics.

During 1999 to 2004 the BJP, and several regional parties shared power at the Centre as constituents of the BJP-led National Democratic Alliance (NDA). Later, the Congress-led UPA was in power, and in it along with Congress, several regional and local parties shared the power. The present BJP-led NDA government is also a coalition government supported by several regional and local parties including Telugu Desam Party.

Question 16.
What are the powers and functions of Information Commissions?
The following are the powers ahd functions of information commissions both at central and state levels.
1. The Central Information Commission/State Information Commission (CIC/SCIC) has a duty to receive complaints from any person

  • Who was not been able to submit an information request because a PTO has not been appointed?
  • Who has been refused information that was requested?
  • Who has received no response to his/her information request within the specified time limits;
  • Who thinks the fees charged are unreasonable;
  • Who thinks the information given is incomplete or false or misleading; and
  • Any other matter relating to obtaining information under this law.

2. Power to order inquiry if there are reasonable grounds.

3. The Central Information Commission / State Information Commissions (CIC/SCIC) will have powers of Civil Court
such as –

  • Summoning and enforcing attendance of persons, compelling them to give oral or written evidence on oath and to produce documents or things.
  • Requiring the discovery and inspection of documents.
  • Receiving evidence on affidavit.
  • Requisitioning public records or copies from any court or office.
  • Issuing summons for examination of witnesses or documents
  • Any other matter which may be prescribed.

4. All records covered by tiis law (including those covered by exemptions) must be given to Central Information Commission / State Information Commission (CIC / SCIC) during inquiry for examination.

5. Power to secure compliance of its decisions from the Public Authority includes

  • Providing access to information in a particular form.
  • Directing the public authority to appoint a PIO / APIO where none exists.
  • Publishing information or categories of information.
  • Making necessary changes to the practices relating to management, maintenance, and destruction of records.
  • Enhancing training provision for officials on RU
  • Seeking an annual report from the public authority on compliance with this law.
  • Require it to compensate for any loss or other detriment suffered by the applicant.
  • Impose penalties under this law.

Question 17.
What are the different options suggested by Sri Krishna Committee regarding the status of Andhra Pradesh State?
The government of India constituted a Committee for consultations on the situation in Andhra Pradesh on 3 February, 2010 headed by Justice B.N.Sri Krishna. It examined two main issues namely:

  • The demand for separate statehood of Telangana.
  • Keeping the state united in the present form, Andhra Pradesh.

The Committee submitted its report on 30 December, 2010 to the unionhome ministry. The committees’ report contained the following six options.

  1. Maintaining the status quo.
  2. Bifurcation of the state into Seemandhra and Telangana. Each state is to develop its own capital. Hyderabad is to be converted into a union Territory.
  3. Dividing A.P into two states – one of Rayala Telangana with Hyderabad as its capital and the second one of the coastal Andhra Pradesh.
  4. Dividing Andhra Pradesh into Seemandhra and Telangana with Hyderabad metropolis as a separate union Territory. It will be linked geographically to Guntur district in coastal Andhra via Nalgonda district in the southeast. and via Mahaboob Nagar district in the South to Kurnool district in Rayalaseema.
  5. Bifurcation of the state into Telangana and Seemandhra as per existing boundaries with Hyderabad as capital of Telangana and Seemandhra to have new capital.
  6. Keeping the state united and providing for creation of statutorily empowered Telangana Regional Council for Socio-economic development and political development of Telangana Region.

AP Inter 2nd Year Civics Question Paper March 2017

Section – C
15 x 2 = 30


  • Answer ANY FIFTEEN of the following questions in 5 lines each.
  • Each question carries 2 marks.

Question 18.
The Indian constitution begins with a preamble. The preamble clearly defines the objectives of our constitution. It declares India as a sovereign, as a socialist, Secular Democratic Republic. It provides liberty, equality fraternity, and justice. It states that the people of India are the chief sources of the political authority.

Question 19.
Significance of Fundamental Duties
Fundamental duties are considered most significant from the following viewpoints.

  1. The Fundamental Duties,act as a reminder to the citizens that while enjoying their frights, they should also be conscious of duties they owe to their country, their society and to their fellow citizens.
  2. They serve as warning against anti-national and anti-social activities.
  3. They serve as the source of inspiration for the citizens and promote sense of discipline and commitment among them.
  4. They help the courts in examining and determining the constitutional validity of a law

Question 20.
Chairman of Rajya Sabba
The Vice President is the ex-officio chairman of the Rajya Sabha. As such he enjoys the same powers like the speaker of Lok Sabha such as

  1. Presiding over the meetings of Rajya Sabha.
  2. Maintaining discipline, decency and decorum in the House.
  3. Exercising casting vote in case of a tie.
  4. Protecting the privileges and rights of the members.

Question 21.
Categories of Union Council of Ministers
There are three kinds of ministers in the Union Council of ministers. They are

  1. Cabinet Minister
  2. Ministers of State
  3. Deputy Ministers

1. The Cabinet Ministers are entrusted with the maintenance of some important ministries like Finance, Home, Defence, etc.
2. The Ministers of state act as the heads of some important sections in the Ministry. They are directly responsible to the Prime Minister for their activities.
3. The Deputy Ministers have no independent and discretionary powers. They assist the Cabinet Ministers.

Question 22.
Committee on Public Undertakings.
The Committee on Public Undertakings was created in 1964. It consists of 22 members out of which 15 are from Lok Sabha and 7 from Rajya Sabha. It examines whether the autonomy and efficiency of public sector undertakings are being managed in accordance with sound business principles and prudent commercial practices.

AP Inter 2nd Year Civics Question Paper March 2017

Question 23.
Every political party whether ruling or opposition has its own whip in the Parliament. He is appointed by the concerned party to serve as an assistant floor leader. He is charged with the responsibility of ensuring the attendance of his party members in large numbers. He regulates and monitors their behaviour in the Parliament. The members are supposed to follow the directives given by the whip, otherwise, disciplinary action can be taken against those members.

Question 24.
Seat of the Supreme Court
The Supreme Court ordinarily shall sit at New Delhi. The Supreme Court of India was inaugurated on January 28, 1950. All general cases are adjudicated by a division Bench comprising two or more judges. Cases involving the constitutional matters are heard by a constitutional bench consisting five judges. For considering special causes larger benches consisting of five or more than five judges are constituted.

Question 25.
Special Responsibilities of the Governor
The Governor has certain special responsibilities to discharge according to the directives issued by the President under Articles 371 (Z) 371 (A) (1) b, 371 (C) in case special responsibility through the Governor is to consult the Council of Ministers the final decision shall be in his individual judgment which no court can question.

The Governor of Assam. Maharashtra, Gujarat, Wouga-land, Manipur, and Sikkim have special responsibility on specific matters related to their respective states.

For example: The Governor of Assom shall in his discretion determine the amount payable by te state of Assom to district council as the royalty accruing from licenses of minerals decides the amount of money received from mineral resources and which has to be allocated to the District Council.

Question 26.
The Chief Minister
The Chief Minister is the centre of the real executive authority at the state level. He plays a decisive role and occupies a key position in the State Government. The progress of the people and development of the state largely depends upon the Cabinet, Personality, Preservance and political stature of the Chief Minister.

Question 27.
Qualifications of M.L.C.
A person who wishes to contest for the membership of the State Legislative Council must possess the following qualifications.

  • He should be a citizen of India.
  • He should have completed 30 years of age.
  • He should possess such other qualifications as laid down by an Act of Parliament.

Question 28.
Brief history of A.P. Legislature
The Andhra state was formed on October 1, 1953 Andhra State legislature initially had 140 MLAs. Elections were held to the Andhra State Legislative Assembly for the first time in 1955. As per the recommendations of states re-organization committee, Hyderabad State was merged with Andhra State on linguistic basic and formed into Andhra Pradesh State which had 245 MLAs Including 150 MLAs of Hyderabad State.

Elections were held to the Andhra Pradesh Legislative Assembly in 1957. The State Legislative Council was established on July 1, 1958. Since then it continued to exist till June 1, 1985, before being abolished. Again on March 30,2007, the Andhra Pradesh Legislature became again bicameral after the revival of the legislative council.

Question 29.
Appointment of High Court Judges
The Chief Justice of High Court is appointed by the President after consultation with the Chief Justice of India and the
Governor of the concerned State. The other judges of High Court are appointed by the President with the consultation of the Chief Justice of High Court of the concerned State. In case of a common High Court for two or more States, the Governors of concerned States are consulted by the President.

Question 30.
NITI Aayog
The NITI Aayog (National Institute for Transforming India) is tasked with the role of formulating policies and directions for the government. It’s governing council will consist of the Chief Ministers of all the states in Indian Union and the Lieutenant Governors of the Union Territories.

Question 31.
Collector as the District Revenue Officer
The collector is the Chief District Revenue Officer. He in that capacity, serves as the chief guide to the farmers in the district by fulfilling several obligations. His revenue functions include various activities such as collection of land revenue, sanction of agricultural loans to farmers, rescusing the farmers in times of natural calamities by assessing the loss to incurred by them, rendering assistance to the union and state authorities in emergency relief measures, etc.

AP Inter 2nd Year Civics Question Paper March 2017

Question 32.
Smart Village
The concept of smart village is the recent development in Panchayat Raj System in A.P. inaugurated by the Chief Minister of A.P to achieve holistic, inclusive and sustainable development of the state. The state has a vision ‘Swarnandhra vision 2029”. To realize this vision, the Government has adopted the mission-based approach to create the social and economic infrastructure; has adopted initiated campaigns to create awareness seeking participation of the shareholders. A smart village/ward ‘ displays sustainable and inclusive development with all sections of its community enjoying a high standard living.

Question 33.
Functional Representation
It is based on occupation. People engaged in the same kind of occupation have more things in cwnmon than people living in the same locality. Doctors, farmers, industrial workers, traders, journalists, lawyers, teachers etc., have more in common than those
who live as neighbours. One man cannot represent all traders.

Hence, representation should be on functional basis. A legislature representing such different occupational groups would be a properforum where different interests would be projected and pleaded for. But it is not possible to provide representation to each and every occupation which are innumerable in number and the classification of profession is a touch task.

Question 34.
Role of the Election Commission of India
Over the years, the Election Commission of India has emerged as an independent authority which has asserted its powers to ensure fairness in the election process. It has acted in an important and unbaised manner in order to protect the sancity of the electoral process. The record of EC also shows that every improvement in the functioning of institutions does not require legal or constitutional change. It is widely agreed that the Election Commission is more independent and assertive now than it was till twenty five years ago.

This is not because the powers and constitutional protection of the Election commission have increased. The Election Commission has started using more effectively the powers it always had in the constitution. In the past sixty five years, sixteen Lok Sabha Elections have been held. Many more state assembly elections and bye-elections have been conducted by the Election Commission.

Question 35.
Functions of a Political Party
The following are the main functions of Political Parties:

  1. They articulate and aggregate social interests of people
  2. Political recruitment
  3. Means of Public Opinion
  4. They promote political socialization and participation of citizens.
  5. Making laws
  6. Role of opposition
  7. Access to government machinery and welfare schemes
  8. They contribute legitimacy to the political system.

Question 36.
Types of Party System
There are different types of party system which are discussed below. They are classified into a single party system, Bi-Party system and Multi-Party System.

  1. Single party system: Single party system only one political party is an existence. Ex: Nazi party in Germany, Fascist party in Italy, Communist party in China and in former USSR.
  2. Bi-Party System: Under Bi-party system, two major political parties are in working in a political system; one forms the government, and the other functions as opposition. Ex: Viz, the labour and the conservative parties in UK or republican and democratic parties in U.S.A.
  3. Multi-party System: In Multi-party system there are more than two parties operating in a political system. Ex: This type of party system is in existence in India, Sweden, Norway, France etc.

Question 37.
Criteria to be followed to be appointed as the Chairperson of NHRC.
The Chairperson of the NHRC is appointed by the president of India, on the recommendations of a six (6) member committee consisting of further a sitting judge of the Supreme Court or a sitting chief justice of High Court can be appointed only after consultation with the chief justice of India. This high-level and politically balanced committee, together with the statutory requirements relating to the qualifications of the chairperson.

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