AP Inter 1st Year Civics Question Paper March 2015

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AP Inter 1st Year Civics Question Paper March 2015

Time: 3 Hours
Maximum Marks: 100

Section – A (3 × 10 = 30)

Note :

  • Answer any three of the following questions in 40 lines each.
  • Each question carries ten marks.

Question 1.
Define Political Science and explain its scope.
Introduction : Political Science is a premier social science. It is mainly concerned with the study of the state in its relation with Society, Citizens, Associations and the world at large. Aristotle is hailed as the Father of Political Science. He wrote famous book THE POLITICS”.

Origin of the word Politics : Aristotle, the Father of Political Science used the term “POLITICS” for the first time in his famous book “POLITICS”. The term “POLITICS” is derived from a greek word “POLIS” and latin word “POLITICUS” which means the city state.

Definitions of Political Science:
Political Scientists gave various definitions on Political Science. They are as follows :

  1. J.W. Garner: “Political Science begins and ends with the state”.
  2. Stephen Leacock: “Political Science deals with the government”.
  3. David Easton: “Political Science is concerned with the authoritative allocation of values for a society”.

Scope of Political Science : The scope of Political Science means the subject matter covered by it or the topics which are included in its study. It may be explained in the following ways :

i) Study of man in Relation to the Society and State : Aristotle stated that “Man is a Social Animal”. Man can satisfy his basic needs like food, clothing, shelter and protection in the society. Political Science explains the relationship beween man and society. It examines how man should adjust himself with the societys. It is imperative that the modern man should develop proper attitude towards the society. This is possible only when he identifies himself with the society.

Political Science is concerned with the perennial and central issue of establishing proper relationship between the state and the individuals. It deals with many topics of state activity, such as limitations of Political Authority and sphere of Individual Freedoms.

ii) Study of State : Aristotle also stated that man is a Political Animal. State is a human and political institution. It came into existence for the sake of man and continue in existence for providing happy and prosperous life for man. Individuals became members of the state since its inception. We can’t imagine the life of individuals outside of the state. Political Science studies the intimate Relationship between the state and the citizens. It also studies the Nature, Functions and Various theories of state authority.

It also comprises a study of the various activities of the state from that of ancient police state to the modern welfare state. Thus, Political Science deals with the Present, Past and Future aspects of the state.

iii) Study of the Government : Government is an important es-sential element of Modern State. It is an instrument which fulfills aims and goals of the state. There can be no state with out a government. Government formulates, expresses and implements the will of the state. Government consists of three organs namely Legislature, Executive and Judiciary. Legislature makes the laws, Executive implements the laws and Judiciary interpretes the laws. Political Science studies the meaning, forms, structure, nature and functions of the government. It also discusses the relationship among the various organs of the government. Hence, Political Science is treated as a science of government.

iv) Study of Associations and Institutions : Associations and Institutions help the Individuals for their moral, religious, cultural, scientific and technological progress. These carry on their activities at local, regional, national and international levels. Individuals join as members in these Associations out of their interests or purposes. There prevails a great linkage between these voluntary Associations and Institutions. Associations and Institutions in Modern times play a significant role in the Formulation and Implementation of policies of the state and government. Voluntary bodies such as trade unions, peasant groups, professional bodies etc., will have a great impact on the state and government. Political Science explains the nature, structure and functions of the various Associations and Institutions.

v) Study of Rights and Responsibilities : Scope of Political Science includes the study of Rights and Responsibilities of citizens. Citizens in democratic states enjoy certain rights such as right to life, right to liberty, right to property etc. Political Science enumerates the definition, classification and different theories of Rights. Similarly, citizens will have some Responsibilities towards the state. These include paying taxes, obeying the laws etc. It explains the significance of Rights and Responsibilities of the citizens. Hence, Political Science examines the Realtionship between Rights and Responsibilities.

vi) Study of National and International Issues : The scope of Political Science covers various issues of Modem state in relation with other states in matters of safeguarding Territorial integrity and Sovereignty. It studies the topics like Cold war, Balance of power, Disarmament, Detente etc. Modern states are not isolated. They depend upon other states in many spheres like importing raw materials, exporting finished goods, transport, technology, services and communications. This requires close relations among the states in international sphere. Political Science discusses not only the domestic policies of the state but also the issues of international dimensions. It covers a wide range of topics such as diplomacy, international politics, international law, international organisations etc.

vii) Study of Power : The behaviouralists of 20th century regarded Political Science as a study of sharing and shaping of power. They pointed out that Political Science discusses how power is grabbed, manipulated and perpetuated to have a control over the society. Morgenthau defined the power as “Man’s control over the Minds and Actions of other Men”.

viii) Study of Public Policy : Modern Political Scientists like’ David Easton and Gabriel Almond argued that Political Science is a “Policy Science”. They considered Political Science as the study of formulation, execution and evaluation of Public Policy, with the advent of Public Policy the scope of Political Science has further widened to include the dimensions of vital topics such as Industrial Policy, Agricultural Policy, Land Reform Policy, Education Policy, Population Policy etc. Public Policy of a Nation in the context of International Relations plays a crucial role in the formulation of diplomatic, economic, military and scientific strategies.
Conclusion : The above contents show the wide range of subjects that come under the purview of Political Science.

AP Inter 1st Year Civics Question Paper March 2015

Question 2.
Define Nationality and explain the essential elements of Nationality.
Meaning : The Word “Nation” is derived from a latin word “NATIO” which means “BORN” (BIRTH) or “Common Descent”.

Definitions :

  1. R.G. Gettle : “Nationality is a population having the common bonds of Race, Language, Religion, Traditions and History.
  2. J.H. Rose : “Nationality is a union of Hearts once made and never unmade”.
  3. J.W. Garner : “Nationality is a group or portion of population which is united by Racial and other bonds”.

Essential Elements of Nationality :
1) Purity of Race: Racial purity helps in the formation and strengthening of the idea of Nationality. Race is a physical phenomenon. It depends on certain distinctions of skull, stature, hair, complexion etc. These distinctions serve as a cementing bond among the members of a group.

But we should remember that common race is not an indispensable factor in the growth of Nationality. Modern races are so mixed that none of them can claim to be pure. Pure races have disappeared because of wars and migrations. Racial purity is now a myth only.

Ex : Canada and United states have transformed into single nations inspite of their racial diversities in their respective populations. Similarly, Australia and Britain are two distinct Nations although they belong to one racial stock.

2) Common Language : Language plays a key role in the promotion of nationality. The philosophers and scientists said that common language is essential for the development of nationality. Language is a medium to express all their feelings. It helps to express one’s ownselves to have cordial relations and to share the miseries and happiness in a group languages also promotes common feelings and traditions. Common language promotes the feeling of oneness and keeps the entire race on single track.

3) Common Religion : Religion is one important factor to strengthen nationality. There are many instances when people of different nationalities with common religion remain citizens in the same state. For instance, the main reason for the partition of Indian subcontinent into India and Pakistan in 1947 lies in the religion.

4) Geographical Unity : Geographical unity is necessary for the emergence of nationality. Nationality sentiments prevail and develop among the people living in a single geographical area. The people residing in such an area love, worship their country and make sacrifices for the sake of their motherland. People, who belong to one religion, converse the same language, same race living in a geographical area inculcate and improve their nationality sentiments. The formation of Israel in 1946 was purely due to the feelings of the hitherto wandering Jewish people to live in a single geographical area. Hence their desire of live in a territory made them united. This ultimately transformed them as patriotic persons.

5) Common History : Common History is considered as an important element of Nationality. It invokes an inspiration among the people and binds them together. Some historical incidents may give a chance to the people to develop national sentiments.
Ex : Indians have learnt the lessons of Nationalism from the British legacy.

6) Common Culture : Culture in its broad sense means a way of life. It is reflected through certain common elements like dress, customs, conventions, food habits, religious beliefs, ethical values etc. They easily develop into a single Nation. These elements bind the people together and hold together.

7) Common Political aspirations : Nationality sentiments prevail and develop among the people having common political aspirations. The political ideas, conventions and institutions which were formed due to the single political rule will have a considerable impact and influence over the people. For instance, the Swiss people love very much their direct democratic devices in political matters. Similarly the Americans express the feeling of worship towards their constitution. The British people also feel proud of their political and judicial institutions like rule of law, parliamentary democracy and judicial review etc.

8) Common Economic ties : This element of nationality has been stressed by ‘Karl Marx’. Since then onwards the importance of this element has been increasing. The Russians have great regard for their economic system, eventhough there exist diversities. Their unflinching love for socialism inspired nationalism among them. They successfully repulsed the attacks of Germany’during the Second World War. Thus the common economic ties made them united and integrated them into a nation.

AP Inter 1st Year Civics Question Paper March 2015

Question 3.
Identify the safeguards of Rights.
Introduction : Rights are the essential conditions for the development of the personality of individuals. They are upheld by the laws of the state. Individuals cannot achieve progress in the absence of the Rights.


  1. T.H. Green: “Rights are those powers claimed and recognized as contributory to the common good.”
  2. H.J. Laski: “Rights are those conditions of social life without which no man can seek in general to be himself at his best.”

Safeguards of Rights : Individuals enjoy their rights only when they were fully protected or safeguarded by the State. In this regard, the following elements act as the safeguards of the rights.

1) Democratic Rule : Democratic rule safeguards the rights of the people to a great extent. People can enjoy their rights perfectly in democratic states only. This system makes constitutional and legal provisions for safeguarding the right of the people.

2) Written and Rigid Constitution: A written constitution clearly defines the powers and functions of the government. It also explains about the various limitations of governmental authority. Besides, a rigid constitution will guarantee the rights of the people by making it difficult for the rulers and legislators to make amendments on flimsy grounds.

3) Constitutional Incorporation : Incorporation of fundamental rights in the constitution will prevent the encroachment of individual rights by the government. Such an arrangement protects the rights of the individuals to a great extent.

4) Separation of Powers : The powers of the government should be separated among the three organs of the government. Such as measure would act as a check against other organ. Ultimately, it serves as a safeguard of individual liberty.

5) Decentralisation of Powers : Individuals enjoy their rights, when powers are decentralised among the governmental institutions. This involves allocation of powers at various levels – national, provisional, local either on functional or territorial basis.

6) Rule of Law : Rule of law implies equality before law. It also denotes equal application of laws to the citizens. It gives no scope for discrimination between citizens on the grounds of region, religion, caste, colour, community etc.

7) Independent and Impartial Judiciary : Independent and impartial judiciary is another safeguard of rights. Judges in higher judicial bodies will deliver judgement with impartial and independent outlook. In the process of delivering justice, they issue certain writs for immediate protection of the rights.

8) Indepedent Press : Independent and honest press is another essential safeguard of rights of individuals. Such agency will be able to disseminate news and views impartially and without fear or favour to anybody. In this regard the state should not try to threaten and silence the press. Then only individuals enjoy their rights to the maximum extent.

9) Social and Economic Equalities : Social and economic equalities’ are necessary for enjoying one’s rights. People will be able to utilize their rights properly and positively when there are social and economic equalities in the state. These equalities include absence of casteism, communalism, linguism, wide spread economic inequalities, exploitation etc.

10) Eternal Vigilance : Eternal vigilance is said to be the most important safeguard of rights of individuals. Individuals must be vigilant and cautious about the policies of the government. They should oppose the despotic tendencies of the government through democratic and constitutional methods. Under no circumstances they should allow the self seeking politicians to acquire power. Besides several other elements like judicial review, recall, strong opposition etc., are considered as the safeguards of rights.

AP Inter 1st Year Civics Question Paper March 2015

Question 4.
Suggest the conditions required for the successful functioning of democracy.
The following conditions are essential for the success of democracy.
1. Sound system of Education : The success of democracy requires adequate edcation for the citizens. Ignorance, innocence and uneducation prevent them from adopting right attitudes and large-scale reforms. Education sharpens the intellect of individuals. It develops a proper understanding of various things. It makes the citizens vigilant. Besides, this enables them to assess and criticise the policies of government.

2. Enlightened Citizenship : Enlightened citizens are an asset to the democratic state. They can excise proper vigilance. They can actively participate in public affairs and help their fellow citizens in the exercise of their rights and discharge of their reponsibilities. They extend co-operation to the government in all its good work.

3. Independent Press : An independent press is a prerequisite of democracy. It enables the people to receive accurate and unbiased information regarding the activities of the government. It not only keeps the people in touch with government activities but also ventilates their grievances. It strives to promote harmonious relationship between the people and the government.

4. Strong Opposition: The success of parliamentary democracy depends to a great extent on the strong and effective opposition. Such an opposition will act as a check against the government by pointing out its lapses. In this regard, the role of opposition in some advanced states.

5. Decentralization of powers: Decentralization of powers and establishment of democratic institutions at the grass roots level is indispensable for the healthy organisation of democratic institutions. The representative bodies at the grass roots level (as known as Panchayat Raj Institutions (PRIs) in India) will act as the mini legislatures. The residents of local areas will be able to know how to exercise their franchise.

6. Absence of economic disparities : Democracy can not function smoothly when there are economic disparities in a country. When a country comprises a large number of poor people and a few wealthy persons, democracy could not work successfully.

7. Social Equality : Social equality is another pre-requisite of democracy. Caste, class and racial differences will impede the healthy working of democracy. Such elements encourage of democratic polity. To be successful, democracy must open its doors to everybody on equal basis by providing equal social opportunities to all in social sphere. Social equality must not only be proclaimed but also be practiced.

8. Faith in democracy : Certain democratic beliefs and values like individual’s worth, need for tolerance of differences, decisions through discussions etc., should be inculcated among the people.

9. Sagacious Leadership : Sagacious leadership is another essential condition of democracy. Sagacious leaders, by dint1 of their administrative acumen, political propriety, social commitment and economic perspective, will be able to lead the democratic state to greater heights of glory.

10. Honesty and transparency : Honest persons belonging to various walks life, when entrusted with major responsibilities of the government, will strive for the success of democracy. Similarly transparency in administration also acts as a basic ingredient for the success of democracy.

11. Absence of militarism : Democracy functions mostly in countries which are relatively free from militarism. In rules out the use of force and believes in the worth of individuals. It provides adequate opportunities to the people basing on worth, ablility and dedication militarism, on the other hand, demands concentration of authority and favours despotism.

Question 5.
Describe the merits and demerits of Unitary Government.
Meaning : The word ‘Unitary’ consists of two words, namely, ‘Uni’ and ‘Tary’, uni means one and tary means ‘rule’. Unitary Government is a single integrated government with all executive powers.
Ex : Britain, France, China, Japan, Italy.

Definition : According to A.V. Dicey “Unitary government is one in which one central power habitually exercises the supreme Legislative Authority”.

Merits of Unitary Government: Unitary Government has many merits. Some of them may be identified in the following lines as below.

  • Powerful Government : Unitary Government brings uniformity in administrative and legislative matters. As there is only one central government having single legislature, executive and judicial wings, the central government will remain most powerful in its working. So this government provides stable and integrated rule.
  • Efficient Rule: In a unitary set up all the regional or Provincial Governments strictly follow the instructions of the Central Government. The Central Government tackles all issues efficiently and effectively. This is due to the concentration of governmental powers in the Central Government.
  • Less expensive and time saving : These will be only one Government in a Unitary System. Provincial units may or may not exist. As a result, the formation and maintenance of Unitary Government requires less amount of finances. There will be no duplication of institutions. As a result public money and time are saved in Unitary System.
  • Administrative Uniformity : In unitary system the entire country is placed under the direct rule and control of the Central Government. As a result there will be uniform laws, rules and regulations throughout the country. This secures uniformity in law¬making and administrative process.
  • Quick decisions possible : Unitary system comprises one government for the entire State. That Government takes decisions quickly and promptly. As a result Unitary Government will tackle any unforeseen events in times of emergency.
  • Single citizenship : The citizens in a unitary state will have single citizenship. So, there will be no discrimination between them within the four corners of the country. Ultimately, single citizenship promotes national unity, integraty and solidarity among the people.
  • Useful for small countries : Unitary Government is suitable to the small countries having limited population and geographical area. Moreover, it embodies the element of homogeneity in respect of culture, language, race, religion etc.

Demerits of Unitary Government : Unitary Government has several demerits. They may be listed out as follows.

  • Scope for Despotism : As all the powers are vested with the Central Government in a Unitary System, the persons at the helm of affairs may adopt despotic policies thereby affecting the freedoms of individuals.
  • More burden on Central Government : There will be no distribution of powers between the Central and State Governments in this system. Only the Central Government carries on all the functions. As a result, there will be a scope for more burden on Central Government leading to negligence and delay.
  • Growth of inefficiency : The local or regional governments do not have much autonomy and independence in this system. So the former depend upon the Central Government. People too lose their political initiative at local levels. This leads to the growth of inefficiency in administration.
  • Not suitable for large countries: Unitary Government is not suitable to large countries having extensive population, vast territory, diverse cultures and religions. So unity in diversity is difficult to achieve in large countries.
  • Irresponsibility: The Centrel Government is not responsible to anybody in a unitary set up. The units cannot dictate terms to the Central Government. So there is a scope for the Central Government to behave irresponsibly.

AP Inter 1st Year Civics Question Paper March 2015

Section – B (8 × 5 = 40)

Note :

  • Answer any eight of the following questions is not exceeding 20 lines each.
  • Each question carries five marks.

Question 6.
What are the other elements of State
Introduction : State is an important political organization. It was established for regulating and improving the relations between individuals.

Definition : “State is a people organised for law within a definite territory”. – Woodrow Wilson
Besides essential elements namely, population, territory, government and sovereignty, state will also have the other elements.

Other elements of the state :
1) International recognition: It implies recognition of the sovereign status of a state by other states. This feature has gained currency due to the immerse technologlical and scientific advancements. The man of today is not only a member in his state but also a member of the entire world at large. Today majority of the countries of the world are joining in one or the other international associations to obtain certain benefits. The United Nations Organisation is the best example for such associations. It’s membership is considered to be necessary for attaining perfect and complete statehood. Whenever a new state comes into existence, it’s recognition by other states and by UN is considered as very essential.

2) Permanence : State is a permanent institution. If the state surrenders to the other states during war or Aggression. It loses its significance but not the feature of permanence. Sometimes through the process of integration or disintegration, the states will change the form of their existence for instance. In 1990’s Soviet Union (Former USSR) got disintegrated and new 15 independent states came into being.

3) General obedience : General obedience implies the supreme power of the state overall the individuals and institutions within its territorial limits. No person or association can deny the power or authority of the state. People can criticise the policies and programmes of the government but not the state. The obedience to the state is mandatory on the part of the people.

4) Popular will : Willoughby stated that the will of the people is an important element of the stae. State continues to exist as long as it is supported by the majority of the people. The strong desire for protecting the state against invasions and internal revolutions is compulsory for the continuation of the state.

Question 7.
Point out the differences between State and Society.
Introduction : State and society are two important human organizations. Maclver described that blood relationship (kinship) created society and society in turn led to the state.

State: State is a people organized for law within a definite territory.

Society : Society is a group of men brought together by a system of common ideas, interests and aspirations.

Differences between State and Society : Inspite of close relationship, state and society differ from one another. This may be informed through the following table.

State Society
1. State is a political organization. 1. Society is a social organization.
2. State regulates only the external relation of men in society. 2. Society controls both internal and external activities of men in society.
3. State has definite territory. 3. Society has no definite territory.
4. State has sovereignty. 4. Society has no sovereignty.
5. Membership of the state is compulsory. 5. Membership of the society is voluntary.
6. State is permanent. 6. Society is not permanent.
7. Laws of the state are uniform. 7. Rules of society are not uniform.
8. State came into existence after the origin of society. 8. Society is much older institution than the state.

Question 8.
Is India a Nation State ? Explain.
It is interesting to know whether India is a Nation-State. Some say that India is a uni-national state. As against this some state that it is a Multi-National State. It is argued that India is a Uni-National State rather than a Multi-National State due to the following reasons.

  • It consists of people who posses* the features of uni-national state like common history, common culture and traditions.
  • The Indians showed their spirit of National integration on many occassions after independence.
  • They stood as one and extended support to their government when our country was faced with wars from Pakistan and China in 1962 and 1965 respectively.
  • They stood united under the leadership of Mahatma Gandhi throughout the freedom struggle against the British rule in India.
  • From the begining, our country won name and fame for its unity in diversity. Even- though the people of India belong to different regions, they are Indians first and Indians in the last resort i.e., they owe indebtedness to their respective religions and languages.
  • Some common elements concerning national anthem, national heritage, culture, constitution, national flag and the government inspire the nationalist feelings and inculcate the national integration among the people.
  • People celebrate all the national festivals with great enthusiasm and spirit.
    Hence we may say that India is a nation state with the characteristic features of unity in diversity.

AP Inter 1st Year Civics Question Paper March 2015

Question 9.
Write about any three sources of Law.
Definitions: The English word ‘Law’ originates from the ancient Teutonic word ‘Lag’ which means “something that lies fixed or uniform”. Political thinkers defined law in different ways which are listed below :

  1. “Law is the command of the sovereign”. – John Austin
  2. “Law is the system of rights and obligations which the State enforces”. – T.H. Green

Sources of Law :
1) Customs, Practices and Traditions : These are one of the important sources of law. In primitive societies, there were no laws in written form. All disputes were settled in accordance with social customs and traditions. Customs regulated the social life in the early societies. Customs and traditions cannot be laws in political sense. But, when the State recognises certain traditions, they in turn become laws. Ex : The laws relating to marriage, divorce etc., found in our Country are based on traditions, the common law of England.

2) Religion : In ancient times customary laws and religious laws were intermixed. The religious teachers enjoyed unlimited powers in those times. Their decisions were treated on par with laws. The primitive men believed that the judgements of the religious teachers had divine sanction. The ancient Roman laws were merely the religious laws. The Hindu and Muslim laws derived inspiration mainly from religion.

3) Judicial Decisions / Adjudication / Judgement of the Courts : The judgements of the judges also serve as a source of law. Generally, judges interpret laws, apply them to particular cases and deliver judgements. Their judgements become precedents and are usually followed by other judges in similar cases. In course of time such judgements acquire the status of law. In this way judges add to the law of the country. There are many instances that new laws have evolved by way of interpretation. Many of the laws in Britain, America and India have originated from the judgements of the Judges of the respective countries.

Question 10.
What Is equality ? Explain any three types.
The concept of Equality is of great significance in the study of political science. The term ‘Equality’ implies absolute equality of treatment.

Definitions :

  1. “Equality means first of all the absence of special privilege. In the second place “It means that adequate opportunities are laid open to all”. – H.J. Laski
  2. “Equality implies equal rights for all the people and abolition of special rights and privileges”. – Barker

Types of equality: There are many types of equality. They may be analysed in the following.
1. Natural equality : This kind of equality existed in the “State of Nature”. It is based on the principle that nature has created everyone as equal. But natural equality exists no where in the world. Nature has not created all people with the same qualities. So by natural equality we generally mean the provision of equal opportunities to all. It implies the abolition of man-made and artificial inequalities.

2. Political equality : Political equality is an important kind of equality. It means that all citizens will have equal access to the avenues of authority. All of them possess the same political rights, an equal voice in government and equal right to hold public offices. It may be noted that political equality is enjoyed by the citizens only. It is not given to aliens and foreign nationals living in a state. Citizens have to utilise the opportunities given by political equality with great case, farsighted outlook and broad-mindedness. Then only political equality brings the required fruits. Then only political equality brings the required fruits. Political equality prevails and flourishes when all citizens were provided with political rights like Right to vote, Right to contest elections, Right to make petitions and Right to criticism. That means political equality flourishes only in democratic countries.

3. International equality : International equality means that all the states are treated equally irrespective of their geographical, economic or military composition. According to this element all nations of the world are equal whether they are large or small. For instance, the United Nations have extended equal dignity and status to all the nations in its Charter. International Equality reflects the traits of humanism. It emphasizes the peaceful settlement of disputes between the nations.

Question 11.
Explain Political Rights.
Political rights are those rights which enable the individuals to participate in the political affairs of the state.

The following are the important political rights :
1) Right to vote : Right to vote is the most important political right enjoyed by the citizens in modern democratic states. It serves as a powerful weapon for adult citizens in choosing their representatives to various legislative bodies. It makes them as real sovereign. All the citizens are entitled to this right without any discrimination based on creed, colour, language, race, region, religion, sex etc. However, persons such as aliens and minors are deprived of this right.

2) Right to contest in elections : This right empowers the citizens to contest as candidates to various legislative bodies in the state. Especially this right enables those, who have political sagacity, enthusiasm and dynamic nature, to actively participate in the political dynamics of the state. As a result, it increases political enthusiasm among the citizens. Such an element is considered as a base of democratic polity.

3) Right to hold public offices : This right provides opportunities to the citizens to hold various public offices for a definite period. It gives no scope for exclusion of citizens or conferring special privileges to some at the cost of others. This helps the citizens to exercise authority in a dignified manner.

4) Right to petition : This right enables the citizens to forward petitions denoting their requirements or grievances. It is considered as a vital political right in the modern.state. The citizens could be able to find solutions to their immediate or long pending issues by bringing them to the notice of the government through this right. It also helps the public authorities to know the grievances of the people and attend to them properly and promptly.

5) Right to criticism : This right gives opportunity to the citizens to criticize the various public policies and programmes. It also enables them to highlight the omissions and commissions of the leaders, and administrative personnel at various levels. It also gives scope for the citizens to render positive and constructive criticism about the on goings in the government from time to time. Ultimately it keeps the administrative authorities and policy makers to be vigilant in discharging their obligations.

AP Inter 1st Year Civics Question Paper March 2015

Question 12.
Point out any three sources of Justice.
Meaning : The word “Justice” is derived from a Latin word “JUS” which means “to bind”.

Definition : “Justice means speaking the truth and paying one’s debts” – Caphalous

Sources of Justice : Earnest Barker gives four sources of Justice. They are mentioned as below.
1. Nature
2. Ethics
3. Religion
4. Economic elements

1. Nature : The Greek stoics perceived nature to be a source of Justice. Their perception of nature was a combination of moral philosophy and religious beliefs. For them nature, God and reason were inseparable entities. They pointed out that men who lived according to nature shared similar views of reason and God. They viewed that nature embodies three things. They are

  1. Man should be free,
  2. Man should be treated equally,
  3. Man should be associated with his fellow beings by the common element of reason. These three things in turn have remained as a basis for liberty, equality and fraternity in society in course of time.

2. Ethics : Idealist thinkers like Plato, Emanuel Kant, Thomas Hilly Green, Earnest Barker and other propounded that justice originated from ethical practices. They pointed out that values accepted by the society over a period of time have inturn become the impersonal source of positive Justice. The state enforced this positive justice in course of time.

3. Religion : Religion is regarded as another source of Justice. This source has been in force since medieval age. The church authorities held the notion that it was God who propounded the notions of justice, right and wrong. God, through church, initiated the concept of justice as the rule of the theory of might. Thomas Acqinas a philosopher turned saint believed that the Church is the manifestation of religion. According to him, life based on laws is the best one. The king must lead the people in right directions. He must exercise his authority in compliance to the church authority.

Question 13.
How citizenship is lost ?
Citizens loose their citizenship under the following conditions :

  • Renunciation : A person is deprived of his citizenship, if he wishes to become the citizen of another state. One will lose the citizenship of one’s parent state and may become the citizen of a foreign state by naturalization. In India, the Constitution prescribes that a person who voluntarily acquires Citizenship of any other state will no longer be an Indian citizen.
  • Marriage : Generally a woman loses her citizenship when she marries an alien. However some states allow retention of citizenship. For instance in Britain, there is an option to retain British citizenship who marries an alien.
  • Accepting Foreign Service : A person may lose his citizenship when he enters into the service of another state. If a person accepts a permanent job in the government of a foreign state, he foregoes the citizenship of his native state.
  • Obliging Foreign Decorations or Titles : When a citizen obliges to receive foreign decorations or titles, it may lead to the forfeiture of his Citizenship.
  • Prolonged Absence : Prolonged absence in the native state beyond a certain period may lead to the loss of citizenship. In some states like France and Germany citizens who are absent themselves from their native country for more than ten years will loose their citizenship.
  • Treason or Crime : Involvement of a citizen in a serious crime and subsequent proof of his action will also lead to the loss of citizenship. Especially those persons who directly or indirectly participate or extend assistance to anti-state, anti-social and anti-governmental activities, will loose their Citizenship by a special notification to that effect.
  • Desertion from Army : Desertion from army thereby jeopardizing the security of a state leads to the forfeiture of citizenship.

Question 14.
Describe the various types of Democracy.
Democracy is mainly classified into two types, Namely
1. Direct or Pure Democracy
2. Indirect or Representative Democract.

These two types are explained as below :
1. Direct or Pure Democracy :
Direct Democracy : Direct Democracy is said to prevail when people themselves directly express their views and participate in the deliberative and administrative affairs of the government. People in direct democracy assume all powers of making laws. They formulate laws at a meeting attended by all the people. Direct Democracy is prevalent in Switzerland. In Switzerland, the citizens living in some small cantons meet together on a Sunday in April or May to elect their representatives and to make laws.

2. Indirect or Representative Democracy: Indirect democracy is also known as representative democracy. According to J.S. Mill “Representative democracy is one in which the whole people or some numerous portion of them exercise the governing power through deputies periodically elected by themselves”. This type of democracy for the first time, came into vogue in England. Later on, France, Germany, Italy and India adopted this system. At present representative democracy is prevalent in several countries like India, France, Japan, America, Canada, Holland, Sri Lanka etc.

Under this system, citizens who attained the age of maturity elect their representatives in times of elections. These representatives will assume the deliberative and legislative powers of the government on behalf of the people. They formulate different legislative policies in accordance with the wishes and aspirations of the electorate. They are responsible and responsive to the people for their acts. They continue in office only for a definite period of time. They can be removed by the citizens in times of elections when they fail to promote the welfare of the people. Hence in indirect democracy the people rule the country not themselves directly but indirectly through the periodically elected representatives.

AP Inter 1st Year Civics Question Paper March 2015

Question 15.
Explain any four merits of Secularism.
Merits of Secularism : The following are some of the important merits of secularism.
1. Equality: Secularism forms as the basis of equalitarian society. It treats the people belonging to all religious denominations as equal. It gives no recognition to the man made inequalities and discriminations based on caste, colour, community, region, religion, language, race etc. People will have a strong favourable impression towards the nation.

2. Religious freedom : Secularism enables the individuals to enjoy their religious freedom to their full extent. The state will not interfere in the religious affairs of individuals. The Constitution and various laws in a Secular State will provide individuals with complete freedom to embrance, profess, practice and propagate any religion as they like.

3. Law and order : Now a days one can observe unhappy, miserable and pro-religious movements that are organized by different sections of government, state and other department. The maintenance of communal harmony became a challenging task for the state in pacifying the feelings the people belonging to various religious denominations. Secularism avoids communal clashes and religious bigotry and animosities in the society. This is due to the fact that secularism ultimately promotes religious harmony among the people.

4. Rule of law: Secularism accords recognition to the concept of Rule of Law. A state following secularism will enact laws and implements them keeping in view the interest of not a particular religious denomination, the people belonging to all religious denomi¬nation. It will not take into account the religious dogmas while making laws. Similarly it makes no discrimination between the people on the ground of religion.

Question 16.
Distinguish between written and unwritten Constitution.
Written Constitution : A written constitution is formulated and adopted by a Constituent Assembly or a Convention. It comprises several principles and rules of the Government in a written form or document. The Constitution of India is an example of written constitution. The American Constitution is the first written constitution in the word.

Unwritten Constitution : Unwritten constitution is one whose provisions are not written in a single document. It includes several customs and traditions which are manifested in the form of the laws. The Constitution of Britain is the best example of unwritten constitution.

Differences between Written and Unwritten Constitutions

Written Constitution Unwritten Constitution
1. Written constitution implies a document or few documents in which the rules regulating the main institutions of Government are written down. 1. Unwritten constitution denotes a sum of customs, conventions and usages which have not been systematically documented.
2. All the basic principles of the State are clearly written. 2. All the basic principles of the State exist in the form of customs and traditions.
3. Written constitution is framed by a special assembly convened at a particular point of time. 3. Unwritten constitution contains some written elements also in the form of enactments of fundamental charters made from time to time.
4. It is suitable to the educated and literate people. 4. It is suitable to the uneducated and illiterate people.
5. Courts of law protect the liberties of the citizens. 5. Courts of law cannot provide much protection.
6. It is formulated at a particular time. 6. It is evolutionary in nature.
7. It provides political stability. 7. It could not ensure political stability.
8. It cannot be easily amended. 8. It can easily be amended.
9. It is useful to federal states. 9. It is advantageous to the unitary states.

Question 17.
Discuss any three functions of Legislature.
Legislature is the law-making branch of the government. Its functions may be discussed under the following heads :

Functions of Legislature :

  1. Legislative functions : The legislature frames new laws, changes or revises or cancels them as per the circumstances. Lawmaking is the most important activity of legislature.
  2. Deliberative functions : The legislature discusses various matters of public concern and formulates domestic and foreign policies. It ventilates public grievances and offers solutions to different problems of the people.
  3. Executive functions : In a Parliamentary Government, the legislature exercises control on the Council of Ministers through different resolutions and questions. If necessary, it can pull down the Government through a no-confidence motion.

AP Inter 1st Year Civics Question Paper March 2015

Section – C (15 × 2 = 30)

Note :

  • Answer any fifteen of the following questions in not exceeding 5 lines each.
  • Each question carries two marks.

Question 18.
Write about ancient city states.
Ancient Greece consisted of a large number of city states. They were small both in size and population. For examples, Athens, Sparta, corinth. Each city state had its own government. The greeks based their political philosophy on the concept of city-state. The population of the city-state was divided into three groups :

  1. Citizen
  2. Aliens and
  3. Slaves

Question 19.
How many organs of Government are there ? Explain their functions briefly.
Government is the third essential element of the state. It is an instrument which fulfills aims and goals of the state. Government consists of three organs viz.,

i) Legislature : Law making organ.
Ex: Parliament.

ii) Executive : Law implementing organ.
Ex : Council of Minister,

iii) Judiciary : Justice administering organ.
Ex : Supreme court and high courts.

Question 20.
Define the term “Rule of Law”.
Rule of Law is an important type of administration of justice. It originate in England. It implies :

  1. Legal Equality: All are equal before law.
  2. No Arbitary action : Punishment is given only when an existing law is violated.
  3. No Special Rights : No individual is above law and law does not recognise any special privileges.

Question 21.
Define the term “JUS &JUNGERE”.
The word law had its roots in the latin words “Jus and Jungere” which mean bond or tie.

Question 22.
What is Economic Liberty ?
Economic Liberty means the right of everyone to learn his livelihood. Economic liberty ensures everyone freedom from want and fear, hunger and starvation, unemployment and insufficiency. It will be secured by adopting the following measures.

  1. Provision of minimum wages.
  2. Guarantee of the right to work.
  3. Protecting the workers from unemployment, sickness and other types of insecurity.
  4. Providing adequate leisure etc.

Question 23.
What is Equality ?
According to H.J. Laski “Equality means first of all the absence of special privilege. In the second place “It means, that adequate opportunities are laid open to all”.

AP Inter 1st Year Civics Question Paper March 2015

Question 24.
Classify Rights.
Rights are broadly classified into three categories namely.

  1. Natural rights
  2. Moral rights and
  3. Legal rights.

Legal rights inturjn classified into
(a) Civil rights
(b) Political rights and
(c) Economic rights.

Question 25.
Give some examples of Responsibilities.
The following are some examples of responsibilities.

  1. Payment of taxes.
  2. Cooperation in law and order matters.
  3. Honest exercise of franchise etc.

Question 26.
Define Justice.
“Justice is giving to every man his due. It is a combination of reason, courage, appetite and will in the terms of the state”.

Question 27.
What do you know about Social Justice ?
Social justice envisages a balance between rights of individual and social control. It facilitates the fulfillment of the legitimate expectations of the individuals under the existing laws. It ensures several benefits and extends protection to the individuals against the interference or encroactment from others in society.

It is consistent with the unity and the integrity of the nation. It fulfills the needs of society.

Social justice enforces the principle of equality before law. It also ensures eradication of social evils like poverty, unemployment, starvation, disease etc. It also extends protection to the downtrodden and weaker sections of society. Ultimately it provides those conditions essential for the all round development of individuals.

Question 28.
Who is an alien ?
An Alien is a person living in a state but owing allegiance to another state. Aliens are entitled to such rights and obligations which are incorporated in the convenants of the Foreign State.
Ex : In America, Aliens must obey the laws and pay taxes just like the American citizens.

AP Inter 1st Year Civics Question Paper March 2015

Question 29.
Mention any two qualities of a good citizen.

  1. Good character : Good character is essential for a good citizen. A good citizen should be courageous just, helpful, kind-hearted, sympathetic, truthful and virtuous in letter and spirit.
  2. Sound health : A good citizen should have good health and strength. Healthy citizens .make the nation healthy and wealthy.

Question 30.
What is meant by Democracy ? Write two definitions.
Democracy is form of government in which the people rule themselves directly or indirectly through their periodically elected representative.


  1. Abraham Lincoln: “Democracy is a government of the people, by the people and for the people”.
  2. J.R. Seely: “Democracy is a government in which every one has a share”.

Question 31.
What is meant by Recall ?
Recall means to call back. The representatives will be called back by the people in case they are inefficient. Hence, this method help the representatives in discharging their responsibilities properly for fear of being called back on the grounds of inefficiency.

Question 32.
What are the types of Secularism ?
Secularism is of two types namely,

  1. Subjective,
  2. Objective

Subjective secularism means the gradual separation of religious feelings from everyday transactions of the people.
Objective secularism implies the elimination of religious rituals and institutions from public life and government activity.

Question 33.
What do you meant by Theocracy ?
The state having an official religion is called a theocratic state. In such states all other religions or religious activities are either prohibited or discouraged or highly regulated or controlled by the state. All the official and important offices of the state are either appointed or elected only those from the official religion. State officially participates in the religious affairs and rituals.

Question 34.
What is an enacted Constitution ?
Enacted constitution is also known as conventional constitution. It is consciously made. It is the outcome of the deliberations of the constituent assembly specially constituted for that purpose. It is promulgated by the sovereign authority i.e., king or queen or parliament.
Ex : The constituion of India and the U.S.A.

AP Inter 1st Year Civics Question Paper March 2015

Question 35.
Mention any two differences between Flexible and Rigid Constitution.
Differences between Flexible and Rigid constitution.

Flexible constitution Rigid constitution
1. Constitutional matters are not clearly mentioned. 1. Constitutional matters are clearly written.
2. Constitution can be easily amended. 2. Constitution cannot be easily amended.

Question 36.
Write about Aristotle’s Classifications on Government.
Aristotle classified governments on the basis of two elements, namely:

  1. Number of rulers
  2. Aims of the state.

He again classified Governments into normal and perverted forms. He says monarchy, aristocracy and polity as the normal form of governments. Tyranny oligarchy and democracy are the perverted form of Governments.

Question 37.
Write briefly about the theory of separation of powers.
Theory of separation of powers is propounded by Montesquieu in his famous book ‘The Spirit of Laws’. The powers among the three organs of the Government in presidential executive will be distributive on the basis of the theory of separation of powers. Its main feature is Checks and Balance’. Which means the three organs of the Government possess equal powers and each organ checks the other two organs from crossing their limits.

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