AP Inter 2nd Year Civics Model Paper Set 7 with Solutions

Thoroughly analyzing AP Inter 2nd Year Civics Model Papers Set 7 with Solutions helps students identify their strengths and weaknesses.

AP Inter 2nd Year Civics Model Paper Set 7 with Solutions

Time 3 Hours
Max. Marks:100

Section – A
3 x 10 = 30


  • Answer any THREE of the following questions in 40 lines each.
  • Each question carries 10 marks.

Question 1.
Explain the differences between Fundamental Rights and Directive Principles of State Policy.
Fundamental Rights are incorporated in Part – III (Articles 12 to 35) of our Constitution. Fündamental Rights are of great significance. They serve as the best means to safeguard the life, liberty, and property of individuals. They act as the main instrument for releasing the inherent talents and capabilities of the individuals. Fundamental Rights are borrowed from the American Constitution.

These are justiciable and can be enforced by the courts. The Directive Principles of State Policy is a feature of Indian Constitution. They are included in Part -IV from Articles 36 to 51. The principles help to realize the objectives mentioned in the preamble of our Constitution. The makers of our Constitution drew them from the Irish Constitution. These are directives to different governments and agencies of our country. These principles aim at transforming our country into a Welfare State. The rulers have to respect them. They cannot be enforced through any Court of Law. The governments have to implement them subject to availability of funds. They explain the responsibilities of the State towards the people.

Differences between Fundamental Rights and Directive Principles of state policy:

Fundamental Rights Principles of state policy
1) The concept was borrowed from the American Constitution. 1) The concept was borrowed from the Irish Constitution.
2) These are enumerated in Part – III of the Constitution covering articles from 12 to 35. 2) These are enumerated in Part – IV of the Constitution covering articles from 36 to 51.
3) These are negative in character in the sense that they prohibit the Government from doing certain things. 3) These are positive in character in the sense that they direct he government to work for the attainment of certain objects.
4) These aim at establishing political democracy in the country. 4) These aim at establishing social and economic democracy in the country.
5) These have constitutional sanction and so their implementation needs no legislation. 5) These have no constitutional sanction and so their implementation needs legislation.
6) These are justicable and can be enforced by the courts. 6) These are non – justiciable and cannot be enforced by the courts.
7) A law violating a Fundamental Right can be declared by the court as unconstitutional. 7) A law violating a Directive Principle cannot be declared by the court as unconstitutional.
8) These are personal and individualistic in nature. 8) These are societarian and socialistic in nature.
9) These promote the welfare of the individual. 9) These promote the welfare of the society.
10) These have been laid down in clear legal language. 10) These are stated in general terms.

Question 2.
Examine the role of Financial Committees in Parliament.
The Financial committees of Parliament endeavour of under take the task of detailed scrutiny of governmental spending and performance, thereby securing the accountability of the administration to the Parliament in financial matters.
There are three financial committees in Indian Parliament.
They are:

  1. Public Accounts committee
  2. Estimates committee and
  3. Committee on Public Undertakings

1) Public Accounts Committee: Public Accounts Committee was set up on 1921. It consists of 22 members. Out of them, 15 members belong to the Lok Sabha and 7 members to the Rajya Sabha. Their term of office is one year. They are elected by means of proportional representation and single transferable vote. The speaker nominates one of the members as the chairman of the committee. It became a convention to appoint one of the members of the opposition in the Lok Sabha as its chairman since 1967-68.

The Committee performs the following functions:

  1. The Committee examines the annual audit reports of the Comptroller and Auditor General (CAG) of India.
  2. It examines Public Expenditure not only from legal and formal point of view to discover technical irregularities but also from the point of view of economy prudence, wisdom and property.
  3. It brings out the appropriation accounts and the finance accounts of the Union Government and any other accounts laid before the Lok Sabha.
  4. It examines whether the public funds are disbursed properly.
  5. It examines the accounts of Autonomous and Semi-Autonomous bodies, the audit of which is conducted by the CAG.
  6. It investigates the money spent on any service during the financial year in the excess of the amount granted by the Lok Sabha for that purpose.

The Comptroller and Auditor General renders assistance to this committee. The members of this committee carry out a country-wide tour and meet the concerned officers. non-officials, people and receive petitions from them and it submits a final report to the Speaker of the Lok Sabha.

2. Estimates Committee: The origin of this committee can be traced to the Standing Financial Committee set up in 1921. The Estimates Committee was at first constituted in April 1950 in free India. It consists of 30 members of the Lok Sabha. The Rajya Sabha has no representation in this Committee. These members are elected by the I.ok Sabha every year from among its own members according to the principle of proportional representation by means of single transferrable vote. The members hold their office for a year. The Speaker of the Lok Sabha appoints the Chairman of the Committee.

If the Duty Speaker is a member of this Committee, the Speaker appoints him as the Chairman of the Committee. One
third of the total members belong to newly elected members. The Chairman of the Committee will be appointed invariably from the ruling party. Mr. M. Ananthasayanam Ayyangar acted the first chairman of this committee in the first Lok Sabha. The members of this committee may visit different projects and hold discussions with the officers, non-officials, business groups and receive suggestions from them. The committee functions on permanent basis.

The committee performs the following four important functions:

  1. It offers suggestions in regard to the economy in expenditure, improvement in organization and efficiency of the Union Government.
  2. It examnes as to whether the public funds are disbursed as per the estimates.
  3. It also examines the matters assigned to it by the Speaker of the Lok Sabha.
  4. It examines whether the money is well laid out within the limits of the policy implied in the estimates. Hence, it has been described as a ‘continuous economy committee’.

3. Committee on Public Undertakings: The Committee on Public Undertakings was created in 1964 on the recommendations of Krishan Menon Committee. It consists of 22 members out of which 15 are from Lok Sabha and 7 from Rajya Sabha. The members of the committee are elected by the Parliament every year from amongst its own members according to the principle of proportional representation by means of single transferable vote.

The purpose of the committee is to lighten the burden of Public Accounts Committee. The Chairman of the committee is appointed by the speaker from amongst its members who are drawn from the Lok Sabha only. The members of Rajya Sabha are not be appointed as a Chairman of the committee.

The functions of the committee are:

  1. To examine the reports and accounts of Public Undertakings.
  2. To examine the reports of the Comptroller and Audit of General on undertakings.
  3. To examine whether the affairs of the public undertakings are being managed in accordance with sound business principles and practices.
  4. To exercise such other functions vested in the Public Accounts Committee and the Estimates Committee.

AP Inter 2nd Year Civics Model Paper Set 7 with Solutions

Question 3.
Describe Judicial Review.
Judicial Review is perhaps the most important power of the Supreme Court. The purpose of Judicial Review is to maintain the supremacy of the Constitution. There is no explicit mention of Judicial Review in the Indian Constitution. The higher courts derive this power from the provisions of Article 13 of the Constitution.

This Article empowers the Supreme Court to validate those laws and executive orders which infringe upon the Fundamental Rights. The makers of our constitution adopted this concept from the American Constitution keeping in view the written nature of the Indian Constitution and federal character of Indian polity.

Judicial Review means the power of the Supreme Court or High Courts to examine the Constitutional validity of the legislative enactments and executive actions of both Central and State Governments and to declare them ‘null and void’ if found repugnant of the provisions of the Constitution. As M.V. Pylee stated, “Judicial Review is the competence of a court of law to declare the Constitutionality or otherwise of a legislative enactment”.

Article 13 declares all laws that are inconsistent with or disrespectful of the fundamental rights, or void to the extent of their inconsistency. Hence, the Supreme Court being responsible for protecting fundamental rights, can declare any legislative act or executive decision that is inconsistent with provisions on fundamental rights as ultra vires or null and void, meaning un-constitutional and inapplicable.

Besides, in case of federal relations, the Supreme Court can avail this power if a law is inconsistent with the provisions concerning the distribution of powers between the governments as laid down by the Constitution.

In this context, the Supreme Court and High courts reviews legislations on the grounds that
(a) they violate fundamental rights or
(b) they violate the federal distribution of powers. The Supreme Court’s power of Judicial Review extends to the

  • Laws passed by the union and state legislatures,
  • Executive actions of the union and states,
  • Decisions of the public sector undertakings and
  • Constitutional Amendments. The Supreme Court for the first time utilized this power in 1950 itself by declaring Section 14 of the Preventive Detention Act as unconstitutional.

It may be noted that the Supreme Court of India is prominent in the world by exercising the power to determine the validity of the Constitutional Amendment Acts. However, Judicial Review is inevitable due to the following reasons.

  1. The Supreme Court has to uphold the supremacy of the Constitution.
  2. It has to maintain the federal equilibrium.
  3. It has to protect the fundamentals rights of the citizens.

A part from the above, the power of Judicial Review is a resultant of the position of the Supreme Court as the guardian of the Constitution. As such it has the final say in interpretation of the Constitution and by such an interpretation, the Supreme Court has extended its power of Judicial Review to almost all the provisions of the Constitution.

Question 4.
Explain the functions of Election Commission in India.
Article 324(1) of the constitution provides the Election Commission to supervise and conduct the elections to parliament, state legislatures, the offices of the President and the Vice-President of India.

Composition: The Election Commission of India consists of the Chief Election Commissioner and Two other Commissioners.

Appointment: The Chief Election Commissioner and other commissioners are appointed by the president of India.
Tenure: The Chief Election Commissioner and other commissioners hold office for a period of 6 years or until they attain the age of 65 years whichever is earlier.

Removal: The Chief Election Commissioner and other commissioners can be removed by the president on the basis of a
resolution passed to that effect by both the Houses of Parliament with special majority either on the ground of proved misbehaviour or in capacity.

Salary and Allowances: The Chief Election Commissioner and two other commissioners shall receive salary and Allowances which are similar to that of a Judge of the Supreme Court.

Powers and Functions of Election Commission: The Constitution of India in its Articles 324-328 enumerates the powers and functions of the Election Commission. These can be mentioned here under.

  1. It prepares all periodically revised electoral rolls.
  2. It makes every effort to ensure that the voters’ list is free of errors like non-existence of names of registered voters or existence of names of that non-eligible or non-existent.
  3. It notifies the dates and schedules of election and scrutinizes nomination papers.
  4. During this entire process, the Election Commission has the power to take decisions to ensure a free and fair poll.
  5. It can postpone or cancel the election in the entire country or a specific State or constituency on the grounds that the atmosphere is vitiated and therefore, a free and fair election may not be possible.
  6. The Commission also implements a model code of conduct for parties and candidates. It can order a re-poll in a specific constituency.
  7. It can also order a recount of votes when it feels that the counting process has not been fully fair and just.
  8. The Election Commission accords recognition to political parties and allots symbols to each of them.
  9. It advices the President whether elections can be held in a state under President1s rule in order to extetd the period of emergency after one year.
  10. It advices the Governor on matters relating to the disqualifications of the members of State Legislature.

Question 5.
Define Human Rights. Describe the structure of National Human Rights Commission of India.
Introduction: People are human so they are entitled to human rights. Human Rights determine standards to states and governments to protect the vulnerable Individuals and groups against oppression.

1. Section 2(d) of the Protection of Human Rights Act, 1993 defines Human Rights as “Rights relating to Life, Liberty, Equality and dignity of the Individual, guaranteed by the constitution or embodied in the International covenants and enforceable by the courts in India”.

2. According to UNO Human Rights are freedom to all irrespective of place, sex, religion, language etc. As per the U.N. Declaration of Human Rights, the government of India too steps for its implementation. In 1993, it appointed National Human Rights Commission and also passed Human Rights Act in 1998.

Composition: National Human Rights Commission is a multi-member body. It consists of four members, headed by the former chief justice of the Supreme Court. There will be a Supreme Court judge (or former Judge). A high court judge (or former high court chief justice) and two other members who actively participated in the human rights activities. The chairman of scheduled castes, scheduled tribes, minorities commissions, chair person of national women commission act as the ex-officio members of the commission.

There will be a General Secretary having the status of Secretary general in the commission.
Appointment: The chairman as well as members of the commission are appointed by the President of India.

Tenure: The Chairman and members shall hold their office for five years or until the superannuation age of 70 years which ever is earlier.

Functions: The following are some of the important functions of National Human Rights Commission.

  1. The national human rights commission makes enquiry into the cases of violation of human rights by the public authorities.
  2. It enquires into the cases of human rights violation as permitted by the judicial organizations.
  3. It review the various legislative measures in regard to the implementation of human rights.
  4. It makes suggestions for averting terrorist operations affecting human rights.
  5. It makes research into the matter of human rights.
  6. It takes steps for creating awareness of human rights among the people.
  7. It gives encouragement to voluntary organizations in the matters of preserving human rights.

AP Inter 2nd Year Civics Model Paper Set 7 with Solutions

Section – B
8 x 5 = 40


  • Answer any EIGHT of the following questions in 20 lines each.
  • Each question carries 5 marks.

Question 6.
Examine the implementation of Directive Principles of State Policy.
Keeping in view the fact, Directive Principles of State Policy are fundamental in the governance of the country. The Union as well as the State Governments, since 1950, have been continuously taking various steps to implement them from to time.

These are mentioned below:

  1. Abolition of Zamindari, Jagirdari and Inamdari systems.
  2. Introduction of Land Ceiling Acts.
  3. Abolition of Privy Purses.
  4. Nationalization of 14 leading commercial banks.
  5. Establishment of Khadi and Village Industries Board etc.
  6. Organization of Village Panchayats.
  7. Reservation of seats are reserved for SCs and STs in educational institutions and representative bodies.
  8. Enactment of Ancient and Historical Monuments and Archeological Sites Remains Act 1951.
  9. Separating criminal procedure code from the executive.
  10. Prohibition of cow slaughter, calves, and bullocks in some States.
  11. Establishment of primary health centers and hospitals throughout the country.
  12. Implementation of Non-Alignment and Panchasheel Principles.
  13. Initiation of old-age pension schemes.
  14. Introduction of unemployment schemes.
  15. Enactment of Minimum Wages Act.
  16. Enactment of Wild Life Act.

Question 7.
How is the Prime Minister Appointed?
Article 75 (1) of the Indian constitution deals with the appointment of the Prime Minister of India.
Appointment: The constitution simply lays down that the Prime Minister shall be appointed by the President. After the conduct of General Elections to the Lok Sabha, the President has to invite the majority party leader of the Lok Sabha to form the Government.

When no single party is able to secure majority seats in Lok Sabha, the President invites the leader of a coalition to form the Government. The president uses his discretionary powers in this regard. The President appoints the leader of the coalition as the Prime Minister on the condition that he has to prove his majority in the Lok Sabha within a specified period. Being the leader of the majority in Lok Sabha to be the Prime Minister, the person has to be a member of Parliament. If he is not a member at the time of appointment, he has to acquire it within six months from the date of his appointment as Prime Minister. The powers of the President in choosing, inviting, and appointing the Prime Minister cannot be questioned in any court of Law.

Question 8.
What do you know about the composition and qualifications of members of the Rajya Sabha?
The Rajya Sabha is the upper chamber in Indian Parliament. Article 80 stipulates that the Rajya Sabha shall consist of

  • 12 members nominated by the President and
  • Not more than 238 representatives of the states and of the union territories. Thus its maximum membership shall be 250 only.

At present there are 245 members in the Rajya Sabha of them

  • 229 members belong to the elected from the 29 states.
  • 3 members belong to the National capital territory of Delhi.
  • 1 member represents the union territory of Pondicherry and the remaining.
  • 12 members nominated by the President having practical experience in respect of matters such as literature, science, arts and social service. The members are elected in accordance with the proportional representation by means of single transferable vote system.


  1. He shall be a citizen of India.
  2. He shall have completed 30 years of age.
  3. He should not hold any effect of profit under union, state, or local government.
  4. He shall possess such other qualifications as prescribed by the Parliament.

The Raja Sabha is a permanent house of which 1/3rd of its total members shall retire for every two years.

Question 9.
What is meant by Public Interest Litigation? (PIL)
The institution of Public Interest Litigation originated in USA during the mid-1960s. PIL or Social Action litigation is an offshoot of liberalized rules of locus – stand. The traditional rule of locus stand was based on the fact that judicial remedy can be sought only by those who have suffered an injury on account of violation of legal right by some public authority. The PIL choose liberalize this rule by making it clear that any person who suffers an injury but is unable to reach the court can take help of public-minded citizens to reach the court to seek justice.

Public Interest Litigation Movement in India emerged during post-emergency years intending to make the judicial system accessible to the socially and economically lower sections of the society. In most of cases, Judicial Activism has occurred through public interest litigation. In public interest litigation any person or group can approach the Supreme Court and High Court for the redressal of grievances on behalf of the victim or victims who were incapable of approaching the court. Under this new arrangement, a destitute citizen can file a writ petition even through a simple letter written on the postcard.

This derives authenticity from the “right be heard” as implied by Article 32 of the Constitution. But the court has to ensure that the petitioner who approaches the court with PIL, is acting bona-fide and not for personal gains private profit, political or other oblique considerations. The court should not allow this process to be abused by politicians and others to delay legitimate administrative action or to gain a political objective.

AP Inter 2nd Year Civics Model Paper Set 7 with Solutions

Question 10.
Point out any three powers of the State Council of Ministers.
The three of the following are the important powers of the State Council of Ministers.
i) Policy Formulation: The State Council of Ministers formulates policies suitable for the progress of the people and development of the State. It is an intellectual and laborious process. The Cabinet Ministers meet frequently under the leadership of the Chief Minister, discuss throughly various matters of the State administration and finalize the policies along with the necessary decisions.

ii) Enactment of Laws: The State Council of Ministers takes Legislative initiation on different matters of State Government. It is the Council of Ministers that drafts and finalizes the public Bills and pilots them in the State Legislature at different stages in order to get them approved by the Legislature. Once the bills are approved by the Legislature, the Council of ministers advises the Governor to assent them so that they become laws. The Council of Ministers may propose amendments to the existing laws or enactment of new laws for the administrative convenience.

iii) Provision of Good Administration: The State Council of Ministers i.e., the real executive is voted to power to provide good administration and promote the well-being of the people of the State. The chief responsibility of the Council of Ministers is running the administration in accordance with the Constitutional cardinals and democratic doctrines. The total administrative work is divided into different ministries. Each minister has one or more departments under his control and is responsible for the effective and the transparent administration of such departments. It formulates and implements different developmental programs and welfare schemes.

Question 11.
Elucidate various Urban Local Bodies in India.
As per the 74th Constitution Amendment Act, eight types of Urban Local Bodies are existing in India. They are mentioned as follows:

  1. Municipal Corporation
  2. Municipality
  3. Nagar Panchayat
  4. Notified Area Committee
  5. Town Area Committee
  6. Cantonment Board
  7. Township
  8. Port Trust.
  9. Special Purpose Agency.

1. Municipal Corporation: Municipal Corporation is an important category of urban local government. It is the highest local government institution working in each large urban area. It is constituted by a special Act of the State Government. The first Municipal Corporation was set up in the former presidency town of Madras in 1687. It was followed by similar Corporations in Bombay and Calcutta. The state government can declare the transformation of a Municipality into a Municipal Corporation when the population is at least three lakhs and annual income is four crore rupees.

2. Municipalities: Municipalities are a type of urban local bodies functioning below the level of Municipal Corporation and above that of the Nagar Panchayat / Notified Area. Normally, Municipalities are constituted for a population of 20,001 and above or when annual income is above Rs. 60 lakhs. They are also constituted when annual income is above 20 lakhs acquiring from Trade Licenses, Profession taxes ani non-agricultural sectors. Sometimes Panchayats are upgraded as Municipalities on the basis of population density and employment opportunities.

3. Nagar Panchayat: Nagar Panchayats are created for transitional areas (the area which is fast changing from a rural to an urban area) or for a very small urban area. For this purpose, several factors are taken into consideration; the density of the population therein, the revenue generated for local administration, the percentage of employment in non-agricultural activities, the economic importance of the area and some others.

4. Notified Area Committee: This is constituted either for a fast-developing town or an area not fulfilling the conditions for the creation of Municipality. As it is created through a special notification of the state government, it is known as Notified Areas Committee. It does not possess statutory position. It will have a Chairman and some members who are nominated by the state government. Its functions are more or less same as that of a Municipality.

5. Town Area Committee: Town area committee is set up by an act of State Legislature. It fulfils the public needs of a small town. It will have a chairman and members nominated by the state government. It performs limited functions like street lighting, drainage, etc. Its authorities take steps for improving the conditions of the people living in the town area.

6. Cantonment Boards: Cantonment Boards are established in India under the Cantonment Act of 1924. At present there are 62 Cantonment Boards in India. These bodies take steps for improving the conditions of civilian population and military personnel in their jurisdiction. There are three types of Cantonment Boards in India.

They are created by an Act of the defense minister Each Board comprises some members belonging to the elected, nominated and ex-officio categories. There will be a General Officer on Command (GOC) for every Cantonment Board.

7. Township: Township is established by the public sector undertakings to provide basic civic amenities to its personnel. It has no elected members. There will be a Town Administrator for every Township. He is appointed by the concerned ministry of union government. Its services are meant not for the general public but for the personnel working in the public sector undertakings.

8. Port Trust: Port Trust is setup in the areas where port personnel are in considerable members. It manages the affairs of ports. It takes proper steps for protecting the interests of personnel in the port areas. The union government constitutes port affairs committee. The committee comprises both nominated and elected members.

9. Special Purpose Agencies: These agencies are meant for tackling some special issues faced by the people. They perform some peculiar functions for the people residing in municipalities and other notified urban areas. They are established by the special Acts of state legislature. Sometimes they came into vogue through a special order of the state government. Housing Board, Water Supply, Undertakings, Electricity Generation and distribution grids, Urban Development Authorities, etc., are some examples of these Agencies.

Question 12.
Explain the concept of Smart Village.
The concept of Smart Village is the recent development in Panchayat Raj System in A.P. inaugurated by the Chief Minister of Andhra Pradesh Nara Chandrababu Naidu in 2015. Andhra Pradesh is committed to achieving holistic, inclusive and sustainable development of the state. The state has a vision “Swarnaandhra Vision 2029 to be a developed State and to be among the best three states in the country.

To realize this vision, the government has adopted the mission-based approach to create the social and economic infrastructure; has initiated campaigns to create awareness-seeking participation of the stakeholders.

A Smart Village / Ward displays sustainable and inclusive development with all sections of its community enjoying a high standard of living.

This is achieved when the village/ward excels in the following indicators:

  1. Every household has vibrant livelihood opportunities and or micro-enterprises.
  2. Home for all – with access to toilet, safe- drinking water, and power.
  3. Open defecation free.
  4. 100% institutional deliveries.
  5. No maternal deaths.
  6. No infant deaths within one year of birth.
  7. Malnutrition-free (children below 5 years of age).
  8. Zero school dropouts of boys and girls up to 12th class.
  9. No girl-child marriages (girls below 18 years of age).
  10. Functional toilets, portable water, electricity available in Anganwadi Centres, Schools, health centers, GP Building ward.
  11. Gram Sabha / Ward Sabha held four times a year with 2/3rd attendance.
  12. Every village household has a functional bank account Prime Minister Jan Dhan Bank Account.
  13. Every farm has soil health card and diversification with livestock, trees, etc.
  14. Gram Panchayat /Ward has it own dynamic development plan prepared by community participation.
  15. The Village has green trees all over its geographic boundaries.
  16. The Village has functional water conservation and harvesting structure.
  17. The Village has functional grievance redressal system.
  18. The Village has functional Village Information Centre, Village Computer Iab, and Mee-Seva Centre.
  19. The Village has telecom internet connectivity.
  20. The Village has functional solid/liquid waste management system.

Question 13.
What is meant by Proportional Representation System?
Under this system, each party gets representation strictly in accordance with its voting strength. It means majority of electors would have majority of the representatives, but a minority of electors would have minority of representatives. There are two methods in proportional representation.

These are:
A) Single Transferable Vote System: The election of President, Vice President and members of Rajya Sabha etc in India is based on this system.
The main features of this system are.

  1. Each voter will have only one vote.
  2. But the voter has to distribute this vote according to his preference (First preference, second preference, etc.).
  3. The candidate to be declared elected should secure the required QUOTA of votes.
  4. Provision for transfer of votes.

QUOTA: Under this system as stated above. A candidate in order to be declared elected need notecure majority votes. But he requires only quota of votes. For determining quota, two methods are followed:
A) Hare and Andrae’s method fixing Quota:
\(\frac{\text { NUMBER OF VOTES CAST }}{\text { Number of members to be elected (or Number of seats vacant) }} \) = Quota
Ex: Number of votes cast = 14000
Number of seats vacant = 14
Quota = 1400 votes

B) Drop method:
\(\frac{\text { NUMBER OF VOTES CAST }+1}{\text { Number of seats vacant }+1} \) = Quota
Number of seats vacant + 1
Ex: Number of votes cast = 4000
Number of seats vacant = 4
Quota = \(\frac{4,000}{4+1}+1 \)= 800 + 1 = 801

AP Inter 2nd Year Civics Model Paper Set 7 with Solutions

Question 14.
Write a note on “One Party Dominance” in India.
Indian National Congress is the oldest All-India Political Party in our country. It was founded by A.O. Hume, a British Civil Servant on 28th December 1885. Womesh Chandra Banerjee civil was its first president. This party has played a prominent role in the Indian National movement against the Bntishers and ultimately secured independence. After independence, the Congress kept on dominating the Indian Political Science. It became the ruling party at the union and in majority of the Indian States. The Role of the Congress party was so great that India was often described as a single dominant Party System.

Support Base: During tle freedom struggle, the Indian National Congress enjoyed the support of all sections of society, particularly the middle class and the new intellectual Elite. After independence, it enjoyed a remarkable popular support among the masses. The congress has always tried to identify itself with the poor of India. Garibi Hatao has been its popular slogan.

During 1947-67 the congress ruled the union and almost all the states of the union. In 1967 it suffered a setback when in several states non-congress parties came to power. Its leaders Jawaharlal Nehru, Lal Bahadur Sastri and Indira Gandhi have acted as the Prime Ministers in succession from 1947 to 1977. In 1977 elections the Congress lost its power because of misrule and authoritarian rule during the emergency from 1975 to 1977. In 1980 and 1984 it came back to power under the leadership of Mrs. Indira Gandhi and Rajiv Gandhi. In 1991 elections congress formed a government under the prime ministership of PV. Narasimha Rao, after the assasination of Rajiv Gandhi. The destruction of the controversial Babri Masjid during Rao’s rule proved to be a great curse to the party.

The economic reforms initiated in this period were not openly acknowledged. In 1996 election the party failed to win 14th and Lok Sabha elections under the leadership of Mrs. Sonia Gandhi the congress led UPA, won the majority and formed government at the center under the Prime Minister of Dr. Manmohan Singh. In 15th Lok Sabha election the UPA contested with the Slogan “Jai ho” …………….. .

Question 15.
What is the time limit to get the Information?
Any citizen of the country can seek information from any agency subject to certain limitations. The applicant should submit an application to the Public Information Officer (PIO) or Assistant PIO or who is the officer to give information to a person, who seeks information under this Act, accompanied by a nominal fee (usually ₹ 10/-) in the form of demand draft/banker cheque Indian Postal Order / Court Fee stamp. Persons below the poverty line (BPL) are exempted from the fee payment. However, he/she should submit a proof in support of his or her claim for belonging to the section below poverty line. Information is to be provided by the PIO / asst.

PIO within 30 days if life and liberty is involved, the information should be furnished within 48 hours where third party is involved it is to be provided within 40 days. If the information is not forthcoming within the stipulated period, first appeal can be made to the head of the department. After a reasonable gap, the second appeal can be made to the Information Commission. For refusing to furnish information or for unreasonable delay or for providing false information, a penalty of Rs. 250/- a day can be levied up to a maximum of ₹ 25000/-, and the employee can be prosecuted.

Question 16.
Write about the Fazal Ali Commission.
In the wake of formation of separate Andhra the Keralites, Karnatakas used to agitate for separate states. The Marathas had also joined with them N.V. Gadgil advised Nehruji, it is inevitable to the formation of linguistic state, unless and otherwise, the congress party could not survive in South India. By following this advice on 22 December, 1953 the Indian government has announced the formation of. State Reorganization Commission (SRC) under the chairmanship of Fazal All, Besides him H.N., Kunzru and K.M. Phanikkar were other members. The committee had submitted its report to the union government on September, 1955.

The committee in its report observed and examined merits and demerits by forming Visalandhra and it also studied deeply the formation of separate, Telangana and its positive arguments by mentioning positive and Negative views the committee advised it is better to make an agreement like Sri Bagh which was held in the caser of formation of separate Andhra State which does not create any obstructions for development of Telangana and will not create any harm to job opportunities and to protect the interests of Telangana people then the Visalandhra can be formed in addition to the above the Telangana Legislators has to approve the resolution with 2/3 majonty who were elected in 1952.

Question 17.
Write a brief note on the Gentlemen’s Agreement.
In order to clear the doubts among the people of Telangana that the Visalandhra may obstruct their interests, the gentlemen’s Agreement took place on 20th February, 1956 at Delhi basing on the recommendations of Fazal All Commission. It was attended by Sri Bezawada Gopala Reddy the then Chief Minister of Andhra State, and his Colleagues Sarvasri Neelam Sanjeeva Reddy, Gouthu Lanchanna, Ahuri Satyanarayana Raju from Andhra Region.

Sri Burgula Ramakrishna Rao the then Chief Minister of Hyderabad state and his colleagues Savasri K.V Ranga Reddy, Marri Chenna Reddy, .J.V. Narsinga Rao from Telangana Region. They had signed on the Agreement which contains the follows aspects.

  1. The administrative expenditure of the state shall be contributed in proportion of both Andhra and Telangana. The surplus of Telangana should be confined for its development up to five years and it may be extended for another five years at the request of Telangana legislators.
  2. The educational opportunities which are in Telangana shall be provided for them only more development is to be extended. Technical education and seats in Universities shall be allocated up to 1/3 for Telangana students.
  3. The Vacancies arise in Future shall be allocated to both Regions in proportion to their population.
  4. 12 years of Residency is must for Andhra people to get job in Telangana.
  5. Regional Development Council shall be constituted for overall development of Telangana.
  6. In Council of Ministers there shall be 60% from Andhra and 40% from Telangana respectively there must be one Muslim from Telangana part.
  7. If the chief minister is beings to Andhra Region, the deputy chief minister must be from Telangana Region, and vice versa. At least 2 portfolios must be given to Telangana out of Home, Finance, Revenue, Planning, Development, Commerce and Industry.

Section – C
15 x 2 = 30


  • Answer any FIFTEEN of the following questions in 5 lines each.
  • Each question carries 2 marks.

Question 18.
Directive principles of State Policy.
Our constitution hinted out certain directive principles as the policy of the state in part IV from Articles from 36 to 51. These principles are drawn from Irish constitution. These principles reflect the welfare state concepts. They are the directions to be followed by the various governments. Though these principles are non-justiciable, No responsible government can afford to ignore them.

Question 19.
Independence of Judiciary.
The Judiciary performs its functions independently. The legislature of the executive shall not interfere in the working of the judiciary. The Judiciary carries on its obligations according to the constitutional norms and democratic principles.

AP Inter 2nd Year Civics Model Paper Set 7 with Solutions

Question 20.
Right to Religion.
This right denotes the secular nature of Indian political system. It aims at transforming India into a secular state. Both the citizens and aliens of India enjoy this right. Articles from 25 to 28 in part – III of Indian constitution deals with right to freedom of Religion. This right enables the individuals to profess, practice and propagate any religion according to their conscience.

Question 21.
National Emergency.
Article 352 of the Indian constitution empowers the president to impose National Emergency during the period of war, External Aggression, Armed Rebellion or Internal disturbances. When National Emergency is in force, the Federal provisions of our constitution cease to operate. So far, National Emergency was imposed four times in 1962, 1965, 1971 and 1975.

Question 22.
Adjournment Motion.
Adjournment Motion is titled in the Parliament to draw attention of the house to a definite matter of urgent public importance and needs the support of 50 members to be admitted. If any member wants to introduce adjournment motion he should give in writing to the speaker, the Minister concerned and the Secretary General of Parliament before 10 A.M. on that day.

Question 23.
Public Accounts Committee.
Public Accounts Committee was set up in 1921. It consists of 22 members. Out of them. 15 members belongs to the ¡ok Sabha and 7 members to the Rajya Sabha. Their term of office is one year. They are elected by means of Proportional Representation and single transferable vote. The speaker nominates one of the members as the chairman of the Committee. It became a convention to appoint one of the members of the Opposition in the Lok Sabha as its chairman.

Question 24.
Habeas Corpus.
Literally means ‘to have the body of. It is issued by the court to affect the release of a person who has not been detained legally. Under this writ, the court issues orders to the concerned authority to produce the person before the court. The failure to abide by the writ order is met with punishment for contempt of court.

Question 25.
Seat of the Supreme Court.
The Supreme Court ordinarily shall sit at New Delhi. The Supreme Court of India was inaugurated on January 28, 1950. All general cases are adjudicated by a division Bench comprising two or more judges. Cases involving the constitutional matters are heard by a constitutional bench consisting five judges. For considering special causes larger benches consisting of five or more than five judges are constituted.

AP Inter 2nd Year Civics Model Paper Set 7 with Solutions

Question 26.
Composition of the State Council of Ministers.
The State Council of Ministers is generally a three-tier body. It consisting of:

  1. Cabinet Ministers
  2. Ministers of state and
  3. Deputy Ministers.

There will be some only Parliamentary Secretaries in some states on rare occasions. It constitutes the fourth wing of the hierarchy of the Council of Ministers.

Question 27.
Chairman of Legislative Council.
There will be a chairman in the Legislative Council for conducting the meetings. He is elected by the members of the Legislative council among themselves. Dr. A. Chakrapani Yadav is the Present Chairman of Legislative Council of Andhra Pradesh.

Question 28.
Types of Committees.
The committees are of two types i.e., Standing committees and Ad-hoc committees.

  • Standing Committees: Standing committees deal with specific business (financial matters).Ex: Estimates committee, Public accounts committee, and Committee on public undertakings.
  • Ad-hoc Committees: Ad-hoc committees are concerned with the matters of temporary nature. They cease to exist after completion of the work. They perform some specific functions assigned to them from time to time.

Question 29.
Civil courts.
The Civil Courts deal with civil suits regarding the matters like marriages, divorce, inheritance, business, etc. There will be District Civil Courts at the District Level. The District Judge acts as its head. He exercises control and supervision over other civil courts in the district.

Question 30.
Advocate General.
Every State in Indian Union shall have an Advocate General, an official corresponding to the Attorney-General of India. He is appointed by the Governor of the state. He performs similar functions for the state that of the Attorney-General of India. He is the highest law officer in the state.

Question 31.
Punchchi Commission.
The UPA government setup a Commission on Centre-State Relations in April 28th, 2007 under the Chairmanship of Madan Mohan Punchchi, a retired Chief Justice of India. The Commission was required to look into the issues of centre-state relations keeping in view the sea-change that have taken place in Indian polity since the Sarkaria Commission had last looked at the issue of Union State relations over decades ago. The commission submitted its report to the government in April 20, 2010.

Question 32.
Town Area Committee.
Town area Committee is set up by an act of state Legislature. It fulfills the public needs of a small town. It will have a chairman and members nominated by the state government. It performs limited functions like street lighting, drainage, etc. Its authorities take steps for improving the conditions of the people living in the town area.

Question 33.
Port Trust.
Port Trust is set up in the areas where port personnel are in considerable members. It manages the affairs of ports. It takes proper steps for protecting the interests of personnel in the port areas. The union government constitutes port affairs committee. The committee comprises both nominated and elected members.

AP Inter 2nd Year Civics Model Paper Set 7 with Solutions

Question 34.
Collector as the District Revenue Officer.
The collector is the Chief District Revenue Officer. He in that capacity, serves as the chief guide to the farmers in the district by fulfilling several obligations. His revenue functions include various activities such as collection of land revenue, sanction of agricultural loans to farmers, rescusing the farmers in times of natural calamities by asses ng the loss to incurred by them, rendering assistance to the union and state authorities in emergency relief measures, etc.

Question 35.
Role of the Election Commission in India.
Over the years, the Election Commission of India has emerged as an independent authority which has asserted its powers to ensure fairness in the election process. It has acted in an importial and unbaised manner in order to protect the sancity of the electoral process. The record of EC also shows that every improvement in the functioning of institutions does not require legal or constitutional change. It is widely agreed that the Election Commission is more independent and assertive now than it was till twenty-five years ago.

This is not because the powers and constitutional protection of the Election commission have increased. The Election Commission has started using more effectively the powers it always had in the constitution.

In the past sixty-five years, sixteen Lok Sabha Elections have been held. Many more state assembly elections and bye-elections have been conducted by the Election Commission.

Question 36.
Bahujana Samaj Party (BSP).
It is a dominant party in India. It was established by Kanshi Ram in 1985 a retired civil servant. Its main motto was the
preservation and promotion of the interests of downtrodden sections in the society. It vehemently opposes the preaching of many and the practices of upper castes in society. That is why it always opposed in B.J.P Its strength in the Thirteen Lok Sabha, stood at 14. This party came to power in UR Thrice under the leadership of Mayavathi. Mayavathi is the preventive President of this party.

AP Inter 2nd Year Civics Model Paper Set 7 with Solutions

Question 37.
The Jurisdiction of NHRC on Armed Forces.
The National Human Rights Commission (NHRC) has limited role, powers, and Jurisdiction with respect to the violation of Human Rights by the Armed forces. It has no power to punish the violation of Human Rights. The Commission’s Role is an advisory, Recommendatory. The government considers the cases forwarded by it.

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