AP Inter 2nd Year Civics Model Paper Set 6 with Solutions

Thoroughly analyzing AP Inter 2nd Year Civics Model Papers Set 6 with Solutions helps students identify their strengths and weaknesses.

AP Inter 2nd Year Civics Model Paper Set 6 with Solutions

Time: 3 Hours
Max.Marks: 100

Section – A
3 x 10 = 30


  • Answer any THREE of the following questions in 40 lines each.
  • Each question carries 10 marks.

Question 1.
Describe the fundamental duties incorporated in Indian Constitution.
Fundamental Duties are a significant feature of Indian Constitution. They are incorporated in our constitution by the Constitution 42nd Amendment Act of 1976 in part – IV under article 51 A. They are borrowed from Russian Constitution. They are 11 in number as mentioned below:

  • To abide by the Constitution and respect the National Flag and the National Anthem.
  • To cherish and follow the noble ideals which inspired our national struggle for freedom.
  • To protect the sovereignty, unity and integrity of India.
  • To defend the country and render national service when called upon to do so.
  • To promote harmony and the spirit of common brotherhood amongst all the people of India and renounce practices derogatory to the dignity of women.
  • To value and preserve the rich heritage of our composite culture.
  • To protect and improve the natural environment including forests, rivers, and wildlife, and to have compassion for living creatures.
  • To develop the scientific temper, humanism, and the spirit of inquiry and reform.
  • To safeguard public property and to abjure violence.
  • To strive towards excellence in all spheres of individual and collective activity.
  • To provide educational opportunities by the parent or guardian to his child or waçd between the age of six and fourteen years.

Question 2.
Write briefly the emergency powers of the President of India.
Articles 352 to 360 of part XVIII of Indian constitution deals with three types of emergency powers of the Indian President.
They are:

  1. National Emergency
  2. Constitutional Emergency
  3. Financial Emergency.

They may be explained as follows.
1. National Emergency (Article 352): The President exercises this power during the period of war, external aggression or armed rebellion. He declares emergency if he is satisfied that the sovereignty and security of India or any part thereof is threatened by external aggression.

When National Emergency is in force, the federal provisions of our constitution ceases to operate. So far National Emergency was proclaimed on four occasions in our country.

They are:

  1. Chinese Aggression (1962).
  2. Indo – Pak war (1965).
  3. Indo-Pak war in the context of Bangladesh Liberation Movement (1971).
  4. Oppositions call for blocking Parliament (1975).

2. Constitutional Emergency (Article 356): Article 356 of Indian constitution empowers the President to proclaim the constitutional emergency. If the President, on receipt of a report from the Governor or otherwise, is satisfied that a situation has arisen in which the government of a state cannot be carried on according to the constitutional provisions. He is çmpowered to proclaim this emergency. It is also called as the President’s Rule. So far this type of emergency was proclaimed for over 100 times.

3. Financial Emergency (Article 360): If the President is satisfied that a situation has arisen where by the financial stability or credit of India is threatened, then he may proclaim financial emergency in the country. During the period of financial emergency, the President enjoys the following powers.

  • The President may reserve all the money bills or other financial bills of the state after they are approved by the state legislature.
  • He may reduce the salaries and allowances of all or any person serving in the states.
  • The President can reduce the salaries allowances of the persons working at the union level including the judges of the Supreme Court and the State High Courts. But so far the financial emergency has not been yet imposed in the country.

AP Inter 2nd Year Civics Model Paper Set 6 with Solutions

Question 3.
Explain the powers and functions of the Supreme Court of India.
The Supreme Court of India is the Highest Court of Justice in India. Article 124 of the Indian constitution provides for the establishment of the Supreme Court.

The Supreme Court of India was established in New Delhi on January 26, 1950. The Supreme Court consists of the Chief Justice and 30 other Judges.

Powers and Functions of Supreme Court:
1. Original Jurisdiction: According to the original jurisdiction, the Supreme Court hears directly any dispute.

  • between the Government of lndia and one or more States.
  • between the Government of India and any State or States on one side and one or more States on the other.
  • between two or more State. The Supreme Court also decides all disputes and doubts regarding the election of the President and Vice President. It protects the Fundamental Rights guaranteed to the citizens by issuing several writs.

2. Appellate Jurisdiction: The Supreme Court is the highest Court of appeal in India. All appeals from all other courts can be heard by Supreme Court. The appellate jurisdiction extends to four types of cases namely civil, criminal, constitutional, and special. But, the High Court should give certificate for appealing in the Supreme Court in the first three kinds of cases. But in special cases the certificate of High Court is not required.

3. Advisory Jurisdiction: The Supreme Court offers its advice to the President on those matters of legal or public importance which are referred to him (Art. 143). Its opinion is purely advisory and not binding on the President. The Supreme Court may refuse to give its opinion to the President. In October 1994 when Dr. S.D. Sharma, the then President of India asked the Supreme Court to give its advisory opinion on the Ayodhya issue, the court refused to give its opinion.

4. Judicial Review: The Supreme Court has the power of Judicial Review. It examines the validity of laws passed by the legislatures of the orders issued by the Executive and declares them as ultra-vires or unconstitutional if they are against the provisions of the constitution.

5. Court of Record: The Supreme Court acts as a court of record. All the judgments and interpretations of the Supreme Court are recorded for future reference.

6. Other Powers: The Supreme Court.

  • reviews its own decisions.,
  • supervises the working of the State High Courts and other Subordinate Courts.
  • recruits its own personnel for its maintenance.
  • Interprets the constitution and acts as its guardian.
  • initiates contempt proceedings against those who criticise defy its judgements etc.

7. Review of Judgement: The Supreme court is empowered to review its own Judgements. It can uphold, modify or nullify its previous judgements. For instance, it, while pronouncing its judgement in Golak Nathcase vs. Punjab state case in 1967, declared the Parliament has no powers so amend any of the provisions of fundamental rights of Indian Citizens.

Conclusion: From the above account it is evident that our Supreme Court enjoys unique position.

Question 4.
Describe the powers and functions of the State Council of Ministers.
Article 163(1) of the Indian Constitution provides for the State Council Ministers with the Chief Minister at its head, to aid and advise the Governor in the exercise of his powers and in running the State administration.

Composition: The State Council of Ministers is generally a three-tier body. It consisting of.

  1. Cabinet Ministers
  2. Ministers of State and
  3. Deputy Ministers.

There will be some only Parliamentary Secretaries in some states on rare occasions. It constitutes the fourth wing of the
hierarchy of the Council of Ministers.


  1. They should be members of either House of the Legislature (if it is bi-cameral)
  2. If the Ministers are not the members of the State Legislature, they should be elected to the State Legislature within six months from the date of assuming their office. Other wise they cease to hold their office.
  3. They must possess such other qualifications as is determined by the Parliament from time to time.
    Appointment: All the Ministers are appointed by the governor (Article 164) on the advice and recommendation of the chief minister.

Powers and Functions of the Council of Ministers:
i) Policy Formulation: The State Council of Ministers formulates policies suitable for the progress of the people and the development of the State. It is an intellectual and laborious process. The Cabinet Ministers meet frequently under the leadership of the Chief Minister, discuss thoroughly various matters of the State administration, and finalize the policies along with the necessary decisions.

ii) Enactment of Laws: The State Council of Ministers takes Legislative initiation on different matters of State Government. It is the Council Ministers that drafts and finalizes the public Bill and pilots them in the State Legislature at different stages in order to get them approved by the Legislature. Once the bills are approved by the Legislature, the Council of Ministers advises the Governor to assent them so that they become laws. The Council of Ministers may propose amendments to the existing laws or enactment of new laws for the administrative convenience.

iii) Provision of Good Administration: The State Council of Ministers i.e., the real executive is voted to power to provide good administration and promote the well-being of the people of the State. The chief responsibility of the Council of Ministers is running the administration in accordance with the Constitutional cardinals and democratic doctrines. The total administrative work is divided into different ministries. Each minister has one or more departments under his control and is responsible for the effective and the transparent administration of such departments. It formulates and implements different developmental programs and welfare schemes.

iv) Coordination of Governmental Activities: The State Council of Ministers is responsible and the authority for coordinating the functions of different government departments. Without proper coordination among the departments the success of the State administration cannot be ensured. The Chief Minister guides and takes lead in coordinating the cabinet discussions and government activities.

v) Appointment Power: The State Council of Ministers plays a key role in all important appointments to various offices in the State. It makes all appointments in the name of the Governor to various higher offices like the Chief secretary. Advocate General, D.G.P. Principal Secretaries and other Heads of the Departments etc.

vi) Financial Fucntions: The State Council of Ministers wields control over the Finances of the State. It determines fiscal policy and deals with the matters concerning the State Revenue, Expenditure, Investment, and Audit of Accounts. It prepares the budget proposals of the State Government and places it before the State Legislature for its consideration and approval. It manages the Finances of the State according to the policy and budget as approved by the Legislature. Its role is that of a trustee.

vii) Miscellaneous Functions: The State Council of Ministers finalizes strategies for the overall development of the State in the sphere of Agriculture, Irrigation, Industry, Transport, Education, Planning, IT etc. It proclaims ordinances in the name of the Governor during the recess of the State Legislature.

AP Inter 2nd Year Civics Model Paper Set 6 with Solutions

Question 5.
Write briefly the composition, powers, and functions of the state legislative council.
The Upper House of the State Legislature is known as the Legislative Council. The Constitution lays down that a Legislative Council shall have not less than 40 members and not more than \(\frac{1}{3} \mathrm{rd}\) of the total membership of the State Assembly. The Legislative Council is a body of partly nominated and partly elected members. The election is conducted through indirect method by means of proportional representation with a single transferable vote.

Composition of the Council:

  1. \(\frac{1}{3} \mathrm{rd}\) members are elected by the Legislative Assembly.
  2. \(\frac{1}{3} \mathrm{rd}\) members are elected by members of local bodies.
  3. \(\frac{1}{12} \mathrm{th}\)th members are elected by teachers.
  4. \(\frac{1}{12} \mathrm{th}\) th members are elected by graduates.
  5. The remaining the members are nominated by the Governor from among persons who have distinguished themselves in the fields of Literature, Science, Arts, Social Services, etc.

Tenure: The Legislative Council is a quasi-permanent House. 1/3rd’’ of the members of this House retire every two years. But the term of each member is six years. New members are elected in the place of retired members. All the members of the House do not retire at a time as it is a permanent House.

Powers and Functions of State Legislative Council: State
Legislative council is the primary law-making body along with the Legislative Assembly. The State Legislative Council has the following powers and Functions.

a) Legislative powers and Functions: The Legislative Council does not possess equal powers and functions when compared to counterpart, State Legislative Assembly. It is said that the Legislative Council enjoys equal status and not power. However, it exercises the following powers and functions. All the bills, other than money bills may be introduced in either of the House. They will be sent to the assent of the Governor only with the approval of both the Houses.

The Council may reject any bill and send it back for the reconsideration of the Assembly. However, in case of a disagreement between two Houses, the decision of the Assembly will be supreme. The Council must approve all the bills sent by the Assembly within a period of three months or at the maximum of four months. It implies that the Council can withhold its assent over the bills sent by the Assembly for a maximum period of four months. Thus, the Legislative Council can only delay the bills but the Legislative Assembly can override it.

b) Executive Powers and Functions: The State Legislative Council has very limited executive powers when compared to that of the Assembly. The Council of Ministers headed by the Chief Minister is responsible for its acts only to the Assembly and not to the Council. The Council cannot decide the future of the Council of Ministers. However, the Council can influence the policies and programmes of the ministers by asking questions and supplementary questions by drawing the call attention motion, etc., but they cannot force the Council of Ministers to resign.

c) Financial Powers and Functions: The Legislative Council has only limited powers in the financial matters. Money bills cannot at first be introduced in the Legislative Council first. The Council must accept all money bills with or without recommendation within fourteen days of the receipt of the bill. The Assembly possess the discretion powers either to accept or reject these recommendations.

If the Council does not return the Money Bill to the Assembly within 14 days, then the bill is deemed to have been passed by both the Houses. It is clear that in the financial field, the Legislative Council has a subordinate status and that Legislative Assembly has dominant position.

d) Electoral Functions: The Legislative Council elects a Chairman and Deputy Chairman to preside over its meetings in a
dignified manner. Some of its members are elected to various legislative committees like Public Accounts Committee, Estimates Committee and Public Undertakings Committee etc.

e) Other Functions: The Legislative Council acts as the best means for formulating and consolidating public opinion. It discusses technical and other contemporary matters, as there are experts in various fields.

Section – B
8 x 5 = 40


  •  Answer any EIGHT of the following questions in 20 lines each.
  • Each question carries 5 marks.

Question 6.
Explain the important characteristics of directive principle of state policy.
The following are the characteristics of the Directive principles:

  1. These are in the form of directives or instructions issued to the successive governments.
  2. These are positive in nature as they extend the jurisdiction of the powers and functions of the governments at various levels in India.
  3. Enforcement of these principles depends upon availability of financial resources.
  4. They are popular in nature as they aim at the establishment of an egalitarian society.
  5. They are supposed to be implemented by any party in power irrespective of its policies and Ideology.
  6. Failure to implement these principles is not considered as a breach of law.
  7. They are non-justicable in nature as no one can force the governments to implement them immediately. The governments have discretion in implementing these principles.
  8. They aim at releasing political democracy, achieving economical equality, and bringing out social harmony in the country.
  9. Social welfare, instead of individual progress, is the main theme of these principles.

Question 7.
Write about any two powers of the Vice President of India.
The Vice President of India occupies the second highest position in the union government. He is accorded a rank next to the President.

A person to be eligible as vice – president should possess the following qualifications.

  1. He should be a citizen of India.
  2. He should have completed 35 years of age.
  3. He should be qualified for election as a member of the council of states.
  4. He should not hold any office of profit under the union, state, or local Governments in India.

Election: The election of the vice – president like that of the President shall be indirect and in accordance with the system of proportional representation by means of the single transferable vote system. He is elected by the members of an electoral college consisting of the members of both the houses of Parliament.

Term of Office: The Vice-President holds office for a term of 5 years from the date on which he enters his office.

Removal: The Vice President may be removed from his office by a resolution of the Council of states passed by a majority of all the members of the council and agreed to by the House of the People.

Salary and Allowances: The Vice President of India receives a monthly salary of ₹ 1,25,000/- in addition, he is entitled to daily allowance, free furnished residence, medical, travel, and other facilities.
Powers and Functions: The Vice-President is the ex-officio Chairman of the Rajya Sabha. As such he enjoys the same powers like the Speaker of Lok Sabha, such as

  1. presiding over the meetings of Rajya Sabha,
  2. maintaining discipline, decency, and decorum in the House,
  3. exercising casting vote in case of a tie,
  4. admitting visitors,
  5. protecting the privileges and rights of the members. He has no right with regard to money bills.

Acting as President of India: He discharges the functions of the President during the temporary absence of the President. He may take over the office of the President under 4 situations like

  1. Death of the President,
  2. Resignation of the President,
  3. Removal of the President,
  4. Inability of the President due to absence, illness or any other cause.

AP Inter 2nd Year Civics Model Paper Set 6 with Solutions

Question 8.
Mention any three powers and functions of Indian Parliament.
The Indian Parliament, the law body in our country, has extensive powers and performs a variety of functions. There are as follows:
1. Legislative Powers: The main function of the Indian Parliament is law-making. It makes laws on all the subjects mentioned in the Union List and Concurrent List. Under certain circumstances, it also makes laws on the subjects mentioned in the State List. Further, it also makes laws on the matters that are not included in any of the three lists i.e., on residuary matters.

2. Executive Powers: Another important function of the Indian Parliament is controlling the Executive (Union Council of Ministers). The members exercise control over the Executive by asking questions, supplementary questions, and by introducing adjournment motions and no-confidence resolutions against the ministry. The ministers are collectively responsible for their actions, to the Lower House of the Parliament i.e., Lok Sabha. They will be in office as long as they enjoy the confidence of the majority of members in the Lok Sabha.

3. Financial Powers: The Parliament controls the financial resources of the nation. It accepts the budget and other money bills required by the government. Its permission is needed for imposing and collecting taxes and for revising the existing tax rates. In this regard, the Lok Sabha has more financial powers than Rajya Sabha.

Question 9.
Describe Judicial activism in India.
It is the collective responsibility of the legislative, executive, and the judiciary to accomplish the goals of the Constitution. Social Justice is the prime goal of the Constitution. The judiciary plays a vital role in achieving this goal. In order to meet the basic needs of the poor the oppressed and suppressed classes of the society, the Supreme Court entertains and also encourages the Public Interest Litigation (PIL) in its expanded role of Judicial Activism. As a result, the apex court has evolved, developed new techniques, discovered and applied new remedies for violation of Fundamental Rights, and attempted to fill the vacuum arising out of executive and legislative inaction.

Due to the negligible attitude of the legislature and lack of edicts from the executive, the vulnerable classes of the society are sometimes denied social justice. In such circumstances, Social Action Groups, Civil Liberties Organizations, Voluntary Organizations, etc., have come forward to their rescue through Public Interest litigation. As Chief Justice A.S. Ananal remarked that “the expanded concept of Public Interest litigation ly judicial interpretation from time to time has expanded the judicial linits of the courts exercising Judicial Review. This expanded role has been given the title of Judicial Activism by those who are critical of this expanded role of the Judiciary.

Question 10.
Estimate the relationship between the Chief Minister and the Governor.
In a Parliamentary Democracy like India, the real executive of the state plays a pivotal role in the state administration. The Chief Minister as the real executive head in the State is responsible ultimately to the state electorate. The Chief Minister has also the obligation to facilitate the exercise of powers of the Governor by providing necessary information about the affairs of the administration of the State. The Governor has a right to seek any information on administrative and legislative activities of the state Council of Ministers through the Chief Minister. However, this right does not allow permit the Governor to become a parallel center in this state.

It may be noted that the nature of the power available to the Governor is persuasive and not authoritarian. So he cannot under the grab of this right start overriding or vetoing the decisions or proposals of the state Council of Ministers.

The founding fathers of our Constitution have laid great emphasis on the need for harmonious relations between the Governor and his Council of Ministers headed by the Chief Minister. This was the main idea behind abandoning the proposal for an elected Governor and adopting for his nomination by the President.

The Sarkaria Commission in its report emphasized that for the proper working of the Parliamentary system, there needs to be a good personnel rapport between the Governor and the Chief Minister of a State. For fostering good personnel relationships, the Sarkaria Commission suggested that the Union Government has to consult the concerned Chief” Minister before appointing the Governor of the State. Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru during his speeches in the Constituent Assembly stated that the Governor should be acceptable to the Chief Minister. Both the Chief Minister and Governor must work together in mutual cooperation to promote the development of the State and safeguard the interests of the people of the State.

AP Inter 2nd Year Civics Model Paper Set 6 with Solutions

Question 11.
Write the powers and functions of Vidhana Sabha Speaker.
The powers and functions of the Speaker of State Legislative Assembly are almost the same as those of the Speaker of Lok Sabha.
His powers and functions are as follows.

  1. The speaker preserves order and decorum in the House for conducting legislative business.
  2. He allocates time for different kinds of business in the House.
  3. He interprets the rules and procedures.
  4. He puts matters to vote and announces the results.
  5. He has the right of casting vote in case of a tie.
  6. He admits motions, resolutions, and points of order.
  7. He is empowered to adjourn the meeting of the House in the absence of a quorum.
  8. He can order for removal of indecent and incriminatory references from the records.
  9. He allows the members to speak in the House.
  10. He may name a member and ask him to leave the House in case of disorderly behavior.
  11. He can adjourn the House in case of grave disorder or serious matter.
  12. He accepts and rejects the resignation of a member of the House after ascertaining whether it was submitted under due process or not.
  13. He appoints the Chairmen of all the committees of the assembly and supervises their functioning. He himself is a Chairman of Business Advisory Committee, Rules Committee and the General Purpose Committee.
  14. He decides where a bill is a Money Bill or not. His decision on this question is final.

Question 12.
What do you know about Gram Sabha?
Gram Sabha: There will be a Gram Sabha in every Panchayat. It comprises all the adult citizens who have been entitled to vote. It meets at least twice a year usually after Rabi and Kharif crops are harvested. It discusses and approves the administrative and audit reports. It identifies the beneficiaries of development schemes. It takes steps for mobilizing voluntary labour for community welfare programmes. In many states, Gram Sabhas are known with the same name.

However, they are called Panchayats in Bihar and Palisabhas in Odisha. The Union Government declared the year 2009 – 2010 as the year of Gram Sabha on the eve of golden jubilee celebrations of village Panchayat. It directed the state governments to make arrangements for convening Gram Sabha on April 14 of every year. (Second one in the month of October)

Question 13.
What do you know about the Municipalities?
Municipalities are a type of urban local bodies functioning below the level of municipal corporation and above that of the Nagar Panchayat. Normally Municipalities are constituted for a population of 20,001 and above or when annual income is above Rs. 60 lakhs. Municipalities are classified into five grades basing on their annual income.

They are:

  1. Selection Grade Municipalities – Annual income over and above Rs. 4 Crores.
  2. Special Grade Municipalities – Annual income varying between Rs. 3 and 4 Crores.
  3. First Grade Municipalgies – Annual income varying between Rs. 2 and 3 Crores.
  4. Second Grade Municipalities – Annual income varying between Rs. 1 and 2 Crores.
  5. Third Grade Municipalities – Annual income below Rs. 1 Crore.

Composition: There are four organs in every Municipality, namely,

  • Municipal Council,
  • Municipal Chairman,
  • Municipal Commissioner and
  • Standing Committees

The structure, powers, and functions of these may be explained as under:
i) Municipal Council: Municipal Council is the deliberative body of the Municipality. It consists of some

  • elected,
  • co-opted, and
  • ex-officio members.

Registered voters in the municipal area elect the first category of members. They are called councillors. The elected members will in turn elect the second category of members. They are called co-opted members. The District Collector and the Municipal Commissioner; The members of the Lok Sabha and State Legislative Assembly of the area concerned are called as the ex-officio members. Normally the Council meets once in a month. The Municipal Commissioner prepares the agenda of the Municipal Council after consulting the Municipal Chairman. Some seats in the Municipal Council are reserved for Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes, Backward Classes and women.

Municipal Council considers the matters relating to the Municipality.
ii) Municipal Chairman: Municipal Chairman is the political head of the Municipal Council. He is elected by the councilors. He is the first citizen of the Town. The Chairman conducts the meetings of the Municipal Council. All the correspondence of the Municipality shall be earned on in his name.

iii) Municipal Commissioner: Municipal Commissioner is the administrative head of the municipality. He is responsible for discharging his functions in the Municipal Council and the State Government.

iv) Standing Committees: Every Municipality consists of some standing committees. These Committees act as advisory bodies to the Municipality on matters of finance, works, health, education, women’s welfare, and welfare of the backward classes etc. Municipal Chairman presides over the meeting of these committees. The standing committees establish a liaison with the routine administrative matters of the Municipality.

Functions of Municipality: Every Municipality, like that of the Municipal Corporation, performs two types of functions, namely

  • essential and
  • discretionary.

Essential Functions: Essential functions of the Municipality include the following:

  1. Maintenance of birth and death registers.
  2. Establishment and maintenance of elementary, upper primary, and secondary schools.
  3. Provision of purified drinking water and street lights.
  4. Maintenance of public health and sanitation.
  5. Construction and maintenance of roads and buildings.
  6. Safeguarding and preserving municipal properties etc.

Discretionary Functions: A Municipality performs the following discretionary functions.

  1. Reclamation of unhygienic places.
  2. Maintenance of parks, museums, gardens, rest houses, regarding rooms, etc.
  3. Maintenance of child, women welfare, and maternity centers.

Sources of Income: Every Municipality has the following five sources of income.

  1. Taxes are collected from people.
  2. Fees and duties.
  3. Income in the form of rent from markets and buildings.
  4. Public borrowings and grants and
  5. Public contributions.

AP Inter 2nd Year Civics Model Paper Set 6 with Solutions

Question 14.
Estimate the pros and cons of FPTP system in India.
In our country, we have been following a special method of elections. The entire country is dividend into 550 constituencies, each constituency elects one representative and the candidate who secures the highest number of votes in that constituency is declared elected. It is important to note that in this system whoever has more votes than all other candidates is declared elected. The winning candidate need not secure a majority of votes. This method is called the First Past the Post system (FPTP). In the election race, the candidate who is ahead of others, who crosses the winning post first of all, is the winner. This method is also called the Plural System. This is the method of election prescribed by the Constitution.

In India, this FPTP System is popular and successful because of its simplicity. The entire election system is extremely simple to understand even for common voters who may have no specialized knowledge about politics and elections. There is also a clear choice presented to the voters at the time of elections. Voters may either give greater importance to the party or the candidate or balance the two.

The FPTP system generally gives the largest party or coalition some extra bonus seats, more than their share of votes would allow. Thus, this system makes it possible for parliamentary government to function smoothly and effectively by facilitating the formation of a stable government. Finally, the FPTP System encourages voters from different social groups to come together to win an election in a locality. Aðove all, the FPTP System has proved to be simple and familiar to the ‘ordinary voters. It has helped larger parties to win clear majorities at the center and state levels.

Question 15.
Estimate the significance of Regional parties in india.
In India’s federal democratic polity, regional and local parties would continue to have relevance and appeal, especially for certain dominant social and economic interests. The growing presence of regional parties is, undoubtedly, the most outstanding aspect of political development in India over the past few years.

Till 1967, there was only one party ruling the nation that was ‘Congress Party’, but after 1967 a lot of other political parties came to the forefront along with power and started to play an imperative and persuasive role in government. With the regional parties coming to the forefront the development of the state’s responsibility has gone to the regional parties as opposed to the Central Government taking care in the initial stages. Regional parties are playing a major role in influencing decisions and thought process in the government planning process and decisions.

After 1996, several regional parties have been emerging as key players in national politics in India. As partners of the NDA, 23 regional parties shared power at the Centre during 1999 and 2004. Some of the regional parties are ruling the states – AIADMK, TDP, JDU, BJD, UDF, NCP, SAD etc. All this reflects the continued and continuously growing importance of regional parties in the Indian politics.

During 1999 to 2004 the BJP and several regional parties shared power at the Centre as constituents of the BJP-led National Democratic Alliance (NDA). Later, the Congress-led UPA was in power and in it along with Congress, several regional and local parties shared the power. The present BJP-led NDA government is also a coalition government Ported by several regional and local parties including Telugu Desam Party.

Question 16.
Describe the formation of Andhra State.
During Vandhemataram movement, the senior congressmen of Andhra Region, Sri Bhoga Raju Pattabhi, Seetha Ramaiah, Mutnuri Krishna Rao, Konda Venkatappiah and Tanguturi Prakasam Met at Machilipatnam and discussed about formation of an Integrated Andhra state by uniting the regions of Andhra, Rayalaseema and Telangana. In the Madras State, There are 58% of Telugu areas and 40% of Telugu people were remained backward.

This created the feeling of separate state of Andhra among them strongly. In 1912 the joint session of Godavari, Krishna, and Guntur was held at Nidadavole under the chairmanship of Sri Vemavarapu Ramadas and passed a Resolution for formation of separate Andhra State.

1. The First Andhra Mahasabha, Bapatla 1913: In 1913 at Bapatla of Guntur district, the First Andhra Mahasabha was held which was presided by Sri B.N.Sarma. It was attended by 800 delegates and 2000 Audience.

2. The Second Andbra Mahasabha, Vijayawada 1914: On 11th April of 1914 the second Andhra Mahasabha was held at
Vijayawada which was presided by Sri Nyapathi Subba Rao, Sri Ayyadevara Kaleswara Rao of Vijayawada was its Convener. It was attended by 1600 delegates.

3. The Third Andhra Mahasabha, Visakhapatnam 1915:
In 1915, May the third Andhra Mahasabha was held at Visakhapatnam under the chairmanship of Sri Panagallu Raja Rama Rayanim. It pass two resolutions.

  • Formation of separate Andhra State is inevitable.
  • Teaching in mother tongue up to secondary school level.

The Nagpur congress session in 1920 has declared officially by accepting the doctrine of linguistic states. It has Recognized 21 languages on that basis the separate Pradesh Congress was launched. Article 52 of Indian Council Act of 1919 which was made on the Report of Montague – Chelmsford stated that the government may accept the proposal of separate Andhra State if such resolution is passed by majority in the state legislature.

In 1926, the Andhra University was established with a view to provide higher education to Andhra people due to sincere efforts by the then education minister, Sri Anem Parasuram Pathro.

In 1932, under the chairmanship of Sri Kadapa Kotireddy, The separate Andhra Mahasabha was held at Madras. Sri Kasinadhuni Nageswara Rao Pantulu and Prominent leaders of Andhra and Rayalaseema were participated.

4. Sri Bagh Pact: On 14th November, 1937 at Madras in the residence of Sri Kasinadhuni Nageswara Rao panthulu namely “Sri Bagh” the meeting of leaders of Andhra and Rayalaseema was held. Leaders from Andhra region were Dr. Bhoga Raju, Pattabhi Seetha Ramaiah, Konda Venkatappaiah, Mahboob Alibegh, Desi Raju Hanumantha Rao, Mullapudi Pallam Raju and Kasinadhurii Nageswara Rao Pantulu.

Leaders from Rayalaseema were Sri Kadapa Kotireddy, Seetha Rami Reddy, Subbu Rami Reddy, T.N.Rama Krishna Reddy, Pappuri Ramachari, and Varadachari.

On 30th March, 1938 Konda Venkatappaiah introduced a Resolution in Madras Assembly and it was seconded by Kadapa Koti Reddy. The then chief minister addressed the house on resolution. Later it was passed by the house unanimously.

  • In 1938 The Andhra Mahasabha was held which was presided by Dr. Sarvepalli Radha Krishna and discussed about capital.
  • The First Andhra Mahasabha, Bapatla 1913.
  • The Second Andhra Mahasabha, Vijayawada 1914.
  • The Third Andhra Mahasabha, Visakhapatnam, 1915.
  • Sri Bagh Pact.
  • Events that led to the formation of Andhra State.
  • J.V.R Report.
  • Hunger Strike of Swami Seetharam.
  • Hunger Strike fast un to death of Potti Sreeramulu Waanchu Committee 1953.

5. J.V.R Report: The Jaipur congress session appointed three men committee which consists of Jawaharlal Nehru, Vallabhaipatel, and Pattabhi Seetha Ramaiah, Popularly Known as JVP Committee to re-consider the Separate state demand. The committee submitted report in 1949 April Stating that the separate state can be formed upon a condition that the Andhra people has to set aside the desire of Madras City.

6. Hunger Strike of Swami Seetha Ram: With a view to get easy and speedy formation of separate Andhra State by overcoming of all hurdles Sri Swami Seetha Ram (Sri Gollapudi Seetha Ram Sasthri) Started hunger strike on 15th August, 1952 at Guntur Town hail it was continued for 36 days.

7. Hunger Strike Fast up to death of Potti Sreeramulu: For the Separate statehood of Andhra Potti Sreeramulu has started fast unto death on 19 October, 1952 at the Residence of Maharshi Bulusu Sambamurthy and it was later named as “Yagnasala”. Under these circumstances on 9th December 1952 the union government announced that the government would consider the issue of Separate Andhra state if the Andhra people will agree for separate Andhra apart from Madras By that time Fast unto death of Potti Sreeramulu has gone to 52 day on 15th December 1952 at 11.39 p.m. Potti Sreeramulu Possess away.

8. Waanchu Committee 1953: In Jan, 1953 the Government of India has appointed Justice Waanchu, the Chief Justice of
Rajasthan High Court to study the formation of separate Andhra state soon after the receipt of Waanchu report prime minister Nehru announced that the Andhra state i1l be formed on 18th October, 1953 and furtherly he stated it it the responsibility of Andhra Legislators to decide the capital, which has to be set up in Andhra region except Madras.

Formation of Andhra State: The government of India appointed C.M. Trivedi as special officer to look into the New state
formation activities. The separate state of Andhra was officially formed with “Kurnool as its capital on 18th October, 1953 as announced earlier.

New Andhra State Consists of 11 Andhra districts Viz, Srikakulam, Visakhapatnam, East Godavari, West Godavari, Krishna, Guntur, Nellore, Chittoor, Kadapa, Anantapur, and Kurnool. High court was set up at Guntur on 4th July 1954 Justice Koka Subba Rao was the first chief justice C.M. Trivedi was the First Governor of Andhra state. Tanguturi Prakasam Panthulu” was the first chief minister. Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru launched the Andhra State on 1st October, 1953. The people throughout the state had Celebrated it as great event and Festival.

AP Inter 2nd Year Civics Model Paper Set 6 with Solutions

Question 17.
What are the powers and functions of information commissions?
The following are the powers and functions of information commissions both at central and state levels.
1. The Central Information CommissionJState Information Commission (CIC/SCIC) has a duty to receive complaints from any person.

  • Who was not been able to submit an information request because a PTO has not been appointed?
  • Who has been refused the information that was requested?
  • Who has received no response to his/her information request within the specified time limits;
  • Who thinks the fees charged are unreasonable;
  • Who thinks the information given is incomplete or false or misleading; and
  • Any other matter relating to obtaining information under this law.

2. Power to order inquiry if there are reasonable grounds.

3. The Central Information Commission / State Information Commissions (CIC/SCIC) will have powers of Civil Court such as –

  • Summoning and enforcing attendance of persons, compelling them to give oral or written evidence on oath and to produce documents or things.
  • Requiring the discovery and inspection of documents.
  • Receiving evidence on affidavit.
  • Requisitioning public records or copies from any court or office.
  • Issuing summons for examination of witnesses or documents.
  • Any other matter which may be prescribed.

4. All records covered by this Jaw (including those covered by exemptions) must be given to Central Information Commission /State Information Commission (CIC / SCIC) during inquiry for examination.

5. Power to secure compliance of its decisions from the Public Authority includes

  • Providing access to information in a particular form.
  • Directing the public authority to appoint a PTO / APIO where none exists.
  • Publishing information or categories of information.
  • Making necessary changes to the practices relating to management, maintenance, and destruction of records.
  • Enhancing training provision for officials on RTI.
  • Seeking an annual report from the public authority on compliance with this law.
  • Require it to compensate foie any loss or other detriment suffered by the applicant.
  • Impose penalties under this law.

Section – C
15 x 2 = 30


  • Answer any FIFTEEN of the following questions in 5 lines each.
  • Each question carries 2 marks.

Question 18.
The constitution of India introduced Bi-cameralism at the national level. Accordingly, the Indian Parliament consist of two houses namely the Rajya Sabha (upper house) and the Lok Sabha (Lower house). While the Rajya Sabha represents the states, the Lok Sabha represents the people.

Question 19.
Significance of Fundamental Duties.
Fundamental duties are considered most significant from the following viewpoints.

  1. The Fundamental Duties act as a reminder to the citizens that while enjoying their rights, they should also be conscious of duties they owe to their country, their society, and to their fellow citizens.
  2. They serve as warning against antinational and anti-social activities.
  3. They serve as the source of inspiration for the citizens and promote sense of discipline and commitment among them.
  4. They help the courts in examining and determining the constitutional validity of a law.

Question 20.
Right against exploitation.
In our country, there are millions of people who are underprivileged and deprived. They are subjected to exploitation by their fellow human beings. One such form of explôltations is begar’ ór ‘forced labour’ without payment. another closely related form of exploitation is trafficking of human beings and using them as slaves. Both are prohibited under Article 2s of our constitutions. Article 24 of the Indian constitution forbids all forms of child labour below the age of 14 years in factories, mines, and other hazardous industries.

Question 21.
Financial emergency.
If the President is satisfied that a situation has arisen whereby the financial stability or credit of India is threatened then he may proclaim financial emergency in the country as per Article 360 of the Indian Constitution.

Question 22.
Collective responsibility.
Article 75 (3) of Indian constitution stated that the Union Council of Ministers shall be collectively responsible to the Lok Sabha, for all their acts of omissions and commissions. They act as a team under the leadership of the Prime Minister. They sail together, they swim together and they sink together.

Question 23.
Pro-tem Speaker.
The President appoints the pro-tern Speaker for presiding over the meeting of the first session of the Parliament after general elections. The pro-tem Speaker administers the oath of office on the elected members. Election to the office of the Speaker is held later. Pro-tem Speaker post is dissolved soon after the election of the new Speaker.

AP Inter 2nd Year Civics Model Paper Set 6 with Solutions

Question 24.
The word ‘writ’ literally means ‘order in written form. Article 32 of our constitution, confers authority upon the supreme court, to issue a constitutional writ for the enforcement of fundamental rights of the citizens. Any person whose fundamental rights have been violated can directly move the supreme court for remedy. The Supreme Court issues habeas corpus mandamus prohibition quo-warranto and certiorari for enforcing the fundamental rights.

Question 25.
The Chief Minister.
The Chief Minister is the center of the real executive authority at the state level. He plays a decisive role and occupies a key position in the State Government. The progress of the people and development of the state largely depends upon the Cabinet, Personality Preservance, and political stature of the Chief Minister.

Question 26.
Brief history of A.P. legislature.
The Andhra State was formed on October 1, 1953 Andhra State legislature initially had 140 MLAs. Elections were held to the Andhra State Legislative Assembly for the first time in 1955. As per the recommendations of states re-organization committee, Hyderabad State was merged with Andhra State on linguistic basic and formed into Andhra Pradesh State which had 245 MLAs [Including 150 MLAs of Hyderabad State.] Elections were held to the Andhra Pradesh Legislative Assembly in 1957. The State Legislative Council was established on July 1, 1958.

Since then it continued to exist till June 1, 1985, before being abolished. Again on March 30, 2007 the Andhra Pradesh Legislature became again bicameral after the revival of the legislative council.

Question 27.
Advisory functions of High Court.
The High Court is consulted by the State Governor in the matters of appointment, posting, and promotion of District Judges and in the appointment of personnel to the Judicial Services of the State (Other than District Judges). It deals with the matters of posting, promotion, grant of leave, transfers, and discipline of the members of the Judicial Service of the State. It also renders advice to the subordinate courts in the matters of public interest or of legal importance.

Question 28.
Union-State relations.
Union – State Relations is the most important aspect of a Federal Polity. They are incorporated in part Xl and part XII of our constitution. Article 245 to 300 deals with the union-state Relations. Our Constitution clearly defined the union-state relations for avoiding conflicts between the union and states and for establishing cooperative federations. The Constitution of India provides for systematic division of powers between the union and states in all spheres namely Legislative, Administrative, and Financial.

Question 29.
Cantonment Boards.
Cantonment Boards are established in India under the Cantonment Act of 1924. At present, there are 62 Cantonment Boards in India. These bodies take steps for improving the conditions of civilian population and military personnel in their jurisdiction. There are three types of Cantonment Boards in India. They are created by an Act of the defense ministry. Each Board comprises some members belonging to the elected, nominated and ex-office categories. There will be a General Officer on Command (GOC) for every Cantonment Board.

Question 30.
Smart village.
The concept of smart village is the recent development in Panchayat Raj System in A.P. inaugurated by the Chief Minister of A.P to achieve holistic, inclusive, and sustainable development of the state. The state has a vision ‘Swarnandhra vision 2029. To realize this vision, the Government has adopted the mission-based approach to create the social and economic infrastructure; has adopted initiated campaigns to create awareness seeking participation of the shareholders. A smart village I ward” displays sustainable and inclusive development with all sections of its community enjoying a high standard of living.

Question 31.
Corrupt practices in elections.
Following are some important ‘corrupt practices during the elections. They are.

  1. Briling a person to induce him/her to stand or not to stand as a candidate.
  2. Interference with free exercise of anybody’s electoral right.
  3. Threat with injury of any kind, including social ostracism, excommunication, divine displeasure or spiritual censure.
  4. Appeal on grounds of religion, caste, community or Language or the use of religious or national symbols.
  5. Publication of false statements about personal character and conduct of any candidate.
  6. Hiring or procuring of vehicles for free conveyance of voters.
  7. Incurring of election expenditure by a candidate in excess of the prescribed limit.
  8. Booth capturing.

Question 32.
Multi-Party system.
In a Multi-party system, there are more than two parties operating in a political system. Ex: This type of party system is in existence in India, France, Sweeden etc.

Question 33.
Nationalist Congress Party (N.C.P.)
The Nationalist Congress Party (NCP) is a center-to-center-left political party primarily based in the states of Maharastra, Kerala, and Meghalaya. NCP was formed on 25 May 1999, by Sharad Pawar P.A. Sangma and Tariq Anwar after they were expelled from the Indian National Congress (INC) on 20th May 1999, for disputing the right of Italian – born Sonia Gandhi to lead Party Sharad Pawar is its president. It was an ally of the Congress-led UPA government during 2004 to 2014.

AP Inter 2nd Year Civics Model Paper Set 6 with Solutions

Question 34.
Human Rights Commission as a civil court.
The Human Rights Commission has the powers of a civil court under the code of civil procedure, 1908 in respect of summoning and enforcing the attendance of witnesses; discovery and production of any document; receiving evidence on affidavits, requisitioning any public record or copy thereof from any court or office; issuing commissions for the examination of witnesses or documents and request of public record as listed under section 13 of the Act.
It has authority to grant interim relief.
It can recommend payment of compensation for the damages.

Question 35.
Public Information Officer (P.I.O.)
Under the Right to Information Act, 2005 all authorities covered must appoint their information officer. Such an officer is
called as Public Information Officer (PIO). In All Administrative Units, PIOs are designated to furnish information to any citizen. Any person may submit a request to the PIO for information in writing.

Question 36.
First Visalandhra Mahasabha.
In 1949, November 26 the First Visalandhra Mahasabha was held at Vijayawada under the leadership of Sri Ayyadevara Kaleswara Rao.

Question 37.
Gentlemens Agreement.
In order to clear the doubts among the people of Telangana that the Visalandhra may obstruct their interests, the gentlemen’s agreement took place on 20th February, 1956 at Delhi between the leaders of Telangana and Andhra region.

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