AP Inter 2nd Year Civics Model Paper Set 4 with Solutions

Thoroughly analyzing AP Inter 2nd Year Civics Model Papers Set 4 with Solutions helps students identify their strengths and weaknesses.

AP Inter 2nd Year Civics Model Paper Set 4 with Solutions

Time: 3 Hours
Max Marks: 100

Section – A
3 x 10 = 30


  • Answer any THREE of the following questions in 40 lines each.
  • Each question carries 10 marks.

Question 1.
Explain the powers and Reactions of the Chief Minister.
Articles 163 and 164 of our constitution deal with the office of the chief minister. The chief minister is the real executive head of the State Government. He plays a decisive role and occupies a key position in the State Government.

Appointment: The Chief Minister is appointed by the governor under article 164. After general elections, the governor normally invites the leader of the majority party in the Legislative Assembly to form the government and appoints him as the Chief Minister.

Powers and Functions of Chief Minister: The Chief Minister has high authority and heavy responsibility in discharging his
powers and related functions. His powers and functions are related to the following heads.
i) Formation of the Ministry: The first and foremost responsibility of the Chief Minister is the formation of Ministry of his choice. The CM has a free hand in the selection and appointment of Ministers. He chooses some members of his party (or coalition partners in the case of a coalition) and recommends their names to the Governor to be appointed as Ministers. He advises the Governor to allocate portfolios among the Ministers.

ii) Leader of the State Council of Ministers: The Chief Minister is the head of the Council of Ministers. As such he occupies a position of exceptional authority He is the Chairman of the State Council of Ministers. The Chief Minister decides the time, venue, and the agenda of Cabinet meetings. The CM presides over such meetings, discussions are carried under his direction. He guides, directs, controls, and co-ordinates the activities of the Ministers.

iii) Link between the Goernor and the State Council of Ministers : The Chief Minister is the principal channel of communication between the Govrnor and the State Council of Ministers. As part of his Constitutional duty he communicates all the administrative decisions and legislative proposals of the State Council of Ministers to the Governor. It is his responsibility to furnish any information related to the activities of the Ministers as the Governor may call for No minister shall meet the Governor without the consent of the Chief Minister.

iv) Leader of the Legislative Assembly : As the Chief Minister enjoys the confidence and support of the majority Legislators he acts as the leader of the Assembly. In that capacity he extends complete co-operation to the Presiding Officers for the smooth conduct of the Business of the House. He ensures discipline of his party members in the Assembly. The CM helps other Ministers in case they are unable to satisfy the House with their replies or when a situation goes out of control in the Assembly. He announces the Government policies on the floor of the Legislative Assembly.

v) Chief Spokes Person: The Chief Minister is the chief spokesperson of the Government. He announces the major policies and programs of the State Government. His statements in and outside of the State Legislature will carry much legitimacy and influence in the State. The Members in the State Legislature demand for clarification and statements on particular issues of the State from the Chief Minister. So, he maintains much restraint without making controversial statements.

vi) Leader of the party In power: The Chief Minister is the leader of party in power at the State level, he participates in the meetings organized by his party. He informs the party members about the policies and programs initiated by the State Government to fulfill the poll promises of his party. He seeks the cooperation and support of the party members for the effective implementation of the government policies and the successful function of the Government. He brings co-ordination between the party in power and the Government. If he happens to be the President or the General Secretary of the party he gains control over his party. He utilizes the services of the senior, experienced, and prominent party leaders in improving the image and efficiency of the State Government. He sees that his party members do not make controversial and embarrassing comments that may land the executive in the troubled waters.

vii) Leader of the people: He tries to know and understand the needs and interests, aspirations and expectations of the people in the State. For this purpose, he frequently makes visits to different places and addresses the public gatherings. He invites petitions from the people and patiently listens to them. He informs the people about the welfare measures and developmental programs taken up by the Government. He motivates the people to take active participation in the implementation of various welfare schemes.

He undertakes relief measures and consoles the people affected during the natural calamities. He maintains good rapport with the people and wins their confidence and trust as their prominent leader of the people.

viii) Chief Advisor to the Governor: It is the Constitutional obligation of the CM to render advice to the Governor on all matters of the State Government. His advice is binding over the Governor in the matter of appointment of ministers, allocation of portfolios, reshuffling of the Ministry, and accepting the resignation of Ministry. it is a rate privilege and opportunity of the Chief Minister to advise the Governor to dissolve the State Legislative Assembly when he still has majority support of the members in the Assembly.

ix) Cordial relations with the Union Government: The Chief Minister, being the real head of the State administration, has the main responsibility of maintaining harmonious relations with the Union Government. He should develop cordial and amicable relations with the Prime Minister, and the Union Ministers. He will have to interaction with several Union Ministers, particularly of Home, Finance, Industry, Agriculture, Education, and Rural Development etc.

How much Union support a State gets in the form of financial grants to the centrally sponsored schemes depend on the Chief Minister’s influence on and the rapport with the Union Ministers. The State’s representation in the Union Cabinet also influences the quantum and quality of the support to the State.

x) Relations with Party in Opposition: The Chief Minister maintains good relations with the Presidents, Floor Leaders and
MLAs of the Opposition Parties. Good contacts, healthy relations, and cordial approach the Chief Minister in securing constructive cooperation from the Opposition. He takes the Opposition parties into confidence on crucial issues of the State. He organizes all party meetings and takes delegation of all parties to the Union Government for communicating issues of the state.

xi) Related to the Constitution: The Indian Constitution confers all the powers of real executive on the Chief Minister. He owes his position to the Constitution. He has to exercise his authority and discharge his responsibilities in accordance with the provisions of the Constitution. He must uphold the democratic norms and Constitutional principles in running the State administration.

AP Inter 2nd Year Civics Model Paper Set 4 with Solutions

Question 2.
Explain the powers and Functions of the High Court.
The constitution of India provides for a High Court for each state. But the 7th Amendment Act, 1956 authorised the Parliament to establish a common High Court for two or more states and a Union Territory.

Articles 214 to 231 in Part-VI of the constitution deals with the organization, qualifications, appointment, independence, jurisdiction, powers and procedures etc, of the High Court.

Composition: Every High Court consists of a Chief Justice and such other judges as the President may from time to time
deem it necessary to appoint.

Appointment of Judges : The Chief Justice of High Court is appointed by the President after consultation with the Chief Justice of India and the Governor of the concerned state. The other judges of High Court are appointed by the President with the consultation of the Chief Justice of High Court of the concerned State. In case of a common High Court for two or more States, the Governors of concerned States are consulted by the President.

Qualifications of Judges: A person to be appointed as a judge of High Court should possess the following qualifications.

  • He should be a citizen of India.
  • He should have held judicial office in the territory of India for at least 10 years, or
  • He should have been an advocate of a High Court or of two or more such courts for, 10 years period. However, the Constitution has not prescribed a minimum age for appointment as a judge of a High Court.

Salaries and Allowances: The salaries, allowances, privileges, leave, and pension of the judges of a High Court are determined by the Parliament from time to time. The Judge of a High Court gets a salary of ₹ 80,000/-per month and the Chief Justice gets ₹ 90,000/-. They are also entitled to get other allowances and are provided with free accommodation and other facilities like medical, car telephone, etc.

The salaries and allowances cannot be reduced except under financial emergency. The salaries and allowances are drawn from the Consolidated Rind of the State. Their retired Chief Justice and other judges are entitled to 50% of their last drawn salary as monthly pension.

Tenure: Every Judge of a Hig1.Court including Chief Justice holds office until he attains the age of 62 years. The Judges including the Chief Justice will take oath in the presence of the Governor of the concerned State. He can resign for his office when he desires so by writing to the President to that effect.

Method of removal: A Judge of a High Court can be removed by the President on the grounds of proved misbehavior or incapacity. The method of removal of a Judge of the High Court shall be the same as that of a Judge of the Supreme Court.

Powers and Functions of the High Court: The following are the powers and functions of the High Court.
1. Original Jurisdiction: Every High Court in India has original jurisdiction in regard to matters of admiralty, will, marriage, divorce, company laws, contempt of court and certain revenue cases. Every High Court is empowered to issue directions, orders or writs for the enforcement of any of the Fundamental Rights. Every High Court is empowered to settle disputes relating to election of members of Parliament and State Legislatures.

Under Article 226, the High Court is empowered to issue writs for enforcing Fundamental Rights. The High Court issue writs like Habeas-corpus, Certiorari, Mandamus, Quo-warranto and Injunction for protecting the Fundamental Rights of the Indian Citizens.

2. Appellate Jurisdiction: Every High Court hears appeals against the judgement of the subordinate courts. The appellate Jurisdiction of the High Court extends to both Civil and Criminal Cases.

a) Civil Cases: An appeal to the High Court on the civil side is either a first appeal or a second appeal. In civil cases, an appeal to the High Court lies from the decision of a District Court. Appeals can also be made from the subordinate courts directly provided the dispute involves a value of more than‘ ₹ 5,00,000/- (or) a question of fact of law. When a court subordinate the High Court decides an appeal differing from the decision of an inferior court, a second appeal can be made to the High Court.

b) Criminal CasEs: In Criminal cases, it hears the appeals in which the accused has been sentenced to more than seven years imprisonment by the Sessions Judge. All cases involving capital punishment awarded by the Sessions Court come to the High Court as appeals. Its approval is necessary for the imposition of death sentences by the District Sessions Judge. It also hears cases involving the interpretation of the Constitution.

3. Court of Record: The State High Court acts as a Court of Record. It records all its decisions and judgements. Such records are of great significance; They carry evidentiary value. They are taken as Judicial precedents to the Judges and Advocates in legal matters.

4. Power of Judicial Review: The State High Court possesses the power of judicial review like the Supreme Court. It is the power of High Court to examine the constitutionality of legislature enactnients and executive orders of both the Central and State Goveriments. On examination, if they are found to be violated of the Constitution (Ultra Vires), they can be declared as illegal, unconstitutional, and invalid (null and void) by the High Court. Consequently, they can be enforced by the government.

5. Power of Certification: High Court certifies certain cases which can go to the Supreme Court. That appeals which go to the Supreme Court depend up on the issue of a certificate by the High Court.

6. Advisory functions: The High Court is consulted by the State Governor in the matters of appointment, posting and promotion District Judges and in the appointment of personnel to the Judicial Services of the State (Other than District Judges).

It deals with the matters of posting, promotion, grant of leave, transfers, and discipline of the members of the Judicial Service of the State. It also renders advice to the subordinate courts in the matters of public interest or of legal importance.

7. Administrative functions: The High Court exercises certain administrative functions within its territorial jurisdictions.

  • Under Article 227, every High Court has the power of supervision over all Courts and Tribunals functioning in its territorial jurisdiction except Military Courts or Tribunals in the State.
  • It ensures the proper working of these courts. It exercises the power to make and issue general rules and regulations for securing the efficient working of the court.
  • The High Court can transfer any case from one court to another court under Article 228 and can even transfer the case itself and decide the same.
  • The High Court has the power to investigate or enquire into the records or other connected documents for any court subordinate to it.
  • It appoints its administrative staff and determines the salaries and allowances and other conditions of the personnel working in subordinate courts.
  • It is empowered to withdraw any case involving the interpretation of the constitution and dispose of the case itself.
  • The High Court is the Highest Court of Justice in the State. All other Courts and Tribunals (except Military Courts
    and Tribunals) in State function under the direct supervisions and control of the State High Court.

Other functions:

  • The High Court acts as the District Court where its headquarters are located.
  • The Chief Justice of the High Court acts as the Governor on the direction of the Pçesideñt tentatively whenever the vacancy arises in that office.
  • The High Court can admit Public Interest Litigation like the Supreme Court of India.

AP Inter 2nd Year Civics Model Paper Set 4 with Solutions

Question 3.
Write an essay on the Election System in India.
Elections are very important for the political system of modern democratic states. Modem democratic states have representative governments. People participate in the process of government through their elected representatives. The election system is a political device through which the modern state creates among its citizens a sense of involvement and participation in public affairs.

Features of Indian Election System: The following features of the Indian Election system highlight its well-structured nature.
1. Direct Election of Representatives: The Constitution provides for a direct election of the representatives of the people. Members of the Lok Sabha, the State Legislative Assemblies, Municipalities and Village Panchayatas are directly elected by the people. These legislative bodies are the real centres of people’s power in the Indian democratic system.

2. Indirect Election for some Institutions : However, the Constitution also provides for an indirect election in respect of the Rajya Sabha, State Legislative Councils and the President and the Vice President of India. These are elected indirectly and in accordance with a system of proportional representation vote.

3. Universal Adult Franchise: The constitution provides for a uniform Franchise to all the citizens. The right to vote was granted to all the citizens of 18 years of age without any discrimination on the basis of caste, religion, gender, education, property and place of birth. Alt the citizens whose names appear in the electoral lists, are eligible to exercise their vote in elections.

4: Reservation of seats for SCs and STs: With a new to safeguard the interests of people longed to the Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes, the Constitution. provied the reservation of seats for then Article 330, of the Constitution provides the reservation of seats the these clases in the Lok Sabha and Article 332 lays down this provision in respect of elections to every state Assembly. In the reerved constituencies, persons belonging to SC ari ST only can contest in the elections.

5. Provision for Nominations: The Constitution, under its, Article 337 lays down that the president may if he is of the opinion that the anglo Indian community is not adequately represented in the Lok Sabha nominate not more than two members of the community to Lok Sabha. Likewise, the Governor can also nominate not more than one person from this anglo – Indian community to the State Legislative Assembly.

6. Regular revision of Electoral Rolls:
The Election Commission revises and prepares the electoral rolls enumerating the name of the eligible ‘voters for every ten years. Besides this, the Election Commission can order the revision of electoral rolls before any election. Provision also exists for a regular annual revision of electoral lists. Only those persons whose names appear in the electoral rolls of the constituency can exercise their franchise on the Election Day.

7. Territorial and Single-Member Constituencies: Indian Election System provides for the creation of single-member territorial constituencies. All the voters living in a particular and defined territory constitute one constituency. Each territorial constituency elects one representative. Each state is divided into so many territorial constituencies as is the number of seats of its Legislative Assemblies and Parliamentary Constituencies and each Constituency elects one representative.

8. Delimitation of Constituencies: After every census, the boundaries of the constituencies are delimited. This work is done by a three-member Delimitation commission. This commission can change the boundaries of constituencies, and its decision is final. This cannot be challenged before any court of law.

9. Secret Ballot: Secret voting enables the voters to exercise their votes in accordance with their wishes and opinions. Special steps are taken in elections for maintaining secrecy and for checking impersonation in voting. This system is essential for making elections free and fair.

10. Introduction of Voting Machines: The Election Commission has introduced the using of electronic voting machines
(EVMs) for casting of votes by people and counting of votes in India.

11. Relative Majority of Votes System: In the election, the candidate who secures more votes than every other contestant in his constituency is declared elected as representative to the Lok Sabha or the State Legislative Assemblies. In this system, valid votes are taken into consideration for counting.

12. Independent Machinery for the Conduct of Elections in India: According to the Article 324 of the Constitution, the conduct of elections in India is the responsibility of the Election Commission. It is the Constitutional body which is conducting the elections freely, fairly, impartially, and independently.

Question 4.
Write an essay on the major National Political Parties in India.
India is the largest democratic country in the world. Political parties in India are classified into two types.
1. All India Parties (or) National Parties and
2. Regional Parties

I. National Parties: A political party which participates in four or more states in Lok Sabha elections and secures 6% of valid polled votes plus 4 Lok Sabha seats can be recognized as National Party by the Election Commission of India.
At present there are 6 major National parties in India they are:

  1. Indian National Congress (INC)
  2. Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP)
  3. Communist Party of India (CPI)
  4. Communist Party of India Marxist (CPM)
  5. Bahujan Samaj Party (BSP)
  6. Nationalist Congress Party (NCP)

1. Indian National Congress (INC): Indian National Congress is the oldest All-India Political Party in our country It was founded by A.O. Hume, a British Civil Servant on December 1885. Womesh Chandra Banerjee was its first President. This party has played a prominent role in the Indian National movement against the Britishers and ultimately secured Independence. After Independence, the Congress kept on dominating the Indian Political science. It became the ruling party at the union and in majority of the Indian States upto March 1977.

Again it came to power during 1980-89 and 1991-1996. Between 1996 – 2004 it acted as a recognised opposition party at the centre. In 2004, it came to power at the center as a major partner in United Progressive Alliance (UPA). It was the first congress-led coalition at the centre. Again in 2009 general elections the Congress-led UPA, Secured Majority and formed government at centre with its allies.

2. Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) : Bharatiya Janata Party is one of the All India Parties in India. It was founded in February 1980. It has been playing an active role in Indian Politics. It remained in power at the center during 1998 – 2004. The party has remained as a major partner in the NDA government at the center in the 13th Lok Sabha. The party remained as the” main opposition party in the 14th and 15th Lok Sabha. Now it is power at the centre under the leadership Sri Narendra Modi, the Prime Minister of BJP-led NDA government since 2014, May.

3. Communist Party of India (CPI): Revolutionary leaders and great intellectuals like M.N. Roy were very much fascinated by the Great October Revolution in Russia. Accordingly, the Communist Party of India was established on Dec. 26, 1925. Its main aims were to unify the workers, to fight against the colonial rule, to bring about a revolution through class war, etc. The party’s support was more concentrated in Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, West Bengal, Bihar and Kerala.

4. Communist Party of India Marxist (CPI(M)): The split in the Communist Party of India in 1964 at the Vijayawada session led to the birth CPI Marxist party. The extremists headed by Puchallapalli Sundarayya, Nambudripad, Jyoti Basu etc., formed the Marxist party. In fact there is not much difference in the ideology between the two parties. They differ only in the means. Of the CPI has moderate and rightist nature CPI (M) has extremist and leftest in nature. If the CPI is pro-Russia and CPI (M) is pro-China. The CPI(M) has a strong presence in the states of Kerala, West Bengal and Tripura.

5. Bahujan Samaj Party (BSP) : Bahujan Samaj Party is a National Party in our country. It was founded by Kanshi Ram in 1984. The Bahujan Samaj Party – a party dominated by Dalits is the outcome of the merger of employees federation and Dalit Shoshit Samaj Samiti. Kanshi Ram was the torch bearer of this party and Mayawati its beacon light. Mayawati has been described as the guiding angel of the BSP and in fact its savior. The Scheduled Castes, Tribes, educationally and socially downtrodden classes, employees, and workers of these classes are the members of this party. After the death of its mentor Kanshi Ram, Mayawati has become the savior of the party in all respects. The BSP has a considerable hold in the U.P.

6. Nationalist Congres Party (NCP): The Nationalist Congress Party (NCP) is a centre-to-centre left political party primarily based in the states of Maharastra, Kerala, and Meghalaya. NCP was formed on 25 May 1999, by Sharad Pawar, P.A. Sangma, and Tariq Anwar after they were expelled from the Indian National Congress (INC) on 20th May 1999, for disputing the right of Italian-born Sonia Gandhi to lead the party. Sharad Pawar is its president. It was an ally of Congress-led UPA government during 2004 to 2014.

AP Inter 2nd Year Civics Model Paper Set 4 with Solutions

Question 5.
Describe the formation of Andhra Pradesh State.
The Desire of Formation of Andhra Pradesh is not a new one. Sri C.R. Reddy had expressed his feeling of fõrmation of Andhra Pradesh by virtue of their Telugu speaking on the eve of his guest lecture of convocation of Osmania University in 1938 later Prof. Mamidipudi Venkata Rangaiah expressed this view in an article.

1. Role of the Communist Party: The Credit of the development of concept of Visalandhra has goes to the communists of Andhra. They got thumping majority in 1952 general elections both in Andhra and Telangana regions the formation of Visalandhra was also included in their election manifesto to they used to promote the feeling among the people by establishment of Andhra State in 1953, October 1st the politics has gone through the regions of Andhra and Telangana towards the formation of Visalandhra.

2. First Vlsalandhra Mahasabha: In 1949, November 26 the first Visalandhra Mahasabha was held at Vijayawada under the leadership of Sri Ayyadevara Kaleswara Rao.

3. Second Visalandhra Mahasabba: In 1954, June 13 and 14 the second Visalandhra Mahasabha was held at Hyderabad led by Sri. Sri.

4. Fazal All Commission: In the wake of formation of separate Andhra the Keralites, and Karnatakas used to agitate for separate states. The Marathas had also joined with them N.V. Gadgil advised Nehruji, it is inevitable to the formation of linguistic state, unless and otherwise, the congress party could not Survive in South India. By following this advice on 22nd December this the Indian government as announced the formation of state the organization constitution (SRO) under the chairperson of fazad and essential him H.N., Kunzru, and K.M Phalikhan were other members committee had submitted its report to the union government on 30th September 1955.

The committee in its report observed and examined merits and demerits by forming Visalandhra and it also studied depends on the formation of decorate, Telangana, and its positive arguments by mentoring positive and Negative views the committee vision it is better to make an agreement like Sri Baga which was held in the case of formation of separate andhara State which does not create any harm to job opportunities and to protect the interests of Telangana people than the Visalandhra can be formed in addition to the above the Telangana Legislators has to approve the resolution with 2/3 majority who were elected in 1952.

5. Gentlmen’s Agreement: In Order to clear the doubts among the people of Telangana that the Visalandhra may Obstruct their Interests, the Gentlemen’s Agreement took place on 20th February 1996 at Delhi basing on the recommendations of Fazal Ali Commission. It was aitendd by Sri Bezwda Gopala Reddy the then Chief Minister of Andhra State, and his Cofleagues Sarvasri Neelam Sanjeeva Reddy, Gouihu Lanchanna, Ahuri Satyanarayana Raju from Andhra Region.

Sri Burgula Ramakrishna Rao the then Chief Minister of Hyderabad state and his co11eaues Savasri K.V. Ranga Reddy, Marri Chenna Reddy, J.V. Narsinga Rao from Telangana Region.

They had signed on the Agreement which contains the follows aspects.
1. The administrative expenditure of the state shall be contributed in proportion of both Andhra and Telangana. The surplus of Telangana should be confined for its development up to five years and it may be extended for another five years at the request of Telangana legislators.

2. The educational opportunities which are in Telangana shall be provided for them only more development is to be extended. Technical education and seats in Universities shall be allocated up to 1/3 for Telangana students.

3. The Vacancies arise in Füture shall be allocated to both Regions in proportion to their population.

4. 12 years of Residency is must for Andhra people to get job in Telangana.

5.  Regional Development Council shall be constituted for overall development of Telangana.

6. In Council of Ministers there shall be 60% from Andhra and 40% from Telangana respectively there must be one Muslim from Telangana part.

7. If the chief minister is belongs to Andhra Region, the deputy chief minister must be from Telangana Region and vice versa. At least 2 portfolios must be given to Telangana out of Home, Finance, Revenue, Planning, Development, Commerce and Industry.

Decks had been cleared for formation of Visalandhra in the wake of gentle agreement. The state Reorganization Bill was introduced in both houses of parliament on 16th March, 1956. On 5th April, 1956 the bill was approved by the Andhra legislative assembly by the following amendments.

  1. The Name of the state should be Andhra Pradesh.
  2. The capital and the high court must be set up at Hyderabad.
  3. The general elections shall be held for the entire Andhra Pradesh in 1962;
  4. The legislative council with 72 members should be set up.
  • On 13 April 1956, the bill was approved by the Hyderabad state legislative assembly.
  • On 25th August 1956 the bill was approved by Rajya Sabha and later by Lok Sabha.
  • On 31st August, the president of India gave his assent to the bill.
  • On 1st November 1956 on the eve of Diwali, the first linguistic state of Andhra Pradesh was formed.
  • C.M. Trivedi was the first governor.
  • Neelam Sanjeev Reddy was the first chief minister.

AP Inter 2nd Year Civics Model Paper Set 4 with Solutions

Section – B
8 x 5 = 40


  • Answer any EIGHT of the following questions in 20 lines each.
  • Each question carries 5 marks.

Question 6.
Write about the making of Indian Constitution.
While Negotiations were going on about the modalities of transfer of power, a Constituent Assembly was set up to draw the constitution for India. The Cabinet Mission and the major political parties reached an agreement over the constitution of the Assembly in 1946.

Elections to the Constituent Assembly were held in July, 1946 in which 292 members from British provinces, 93 members from Native states and 4 members from central provinces were elected. The Constituent Assembly of India held its first meeting on December 9, 1946. It elected Sachchidanand Sinha as its protemporary chairman. On December 11, 1946 it elected Dr. Babu Rajendra Prasad as its permanent chairman.

The making of the constitution really began at its third session held between April 22 and May 2, 1947. The Fourth session of the Assembly was held on July 14 and continued till July 31, 1947. It held discussions on Model constitution, Adopted the National Flag. The Assembly met for the fifth time on the eve of the independence day.

On August 29, 1947, it set up a seven-member Drafting committee with Dr. B.R. Ambekar as its chairman. The Drafting Committee presented the Draft constitution on February 21, 1948. The Constituent Assembly adopted the Draft constitution on November 26, 1949. The last session of the Assembly was held on January 24, 1950.

It elected Dr. Babu Rajendra Prasad as the first President of Indian Republic under the new constitution. On January 26, 1950, the New constitution came into operation and India was declared as a Republic state.

Question 7.
Write briefly on the Right to Constitutional Remedies.
This right is the most significant of all the fundamental rights. It extends protection and relief to those whose Fundamental Rights were abridged, confiscated or infringed by others including the public authorities. As this right gives a citizen the right to approach a High Court under Article 226 or the Supreme Court under Article 32 to get any of the fundamental rights restored in case of their violation. The Supreme Court and the High Court can issue orders and give directions to the governments for the enforcement of the Fundamental Rights. The courts can issue various writs like habeas corpus, Mandamus, prohibition, Quowarranto, and certiorari Dr. Ambedkar rightly described this right as the Heart and Soul of the Constitution.

Question 8.
Write briefly about the procedure of impeachment of the President.
The President may be removed from the office for violation of the constitutional a process of impeachment. Impeachment is a quasi-judicial precedure adopted by the Parliament. Either House of Parliament shall prefer the charge for removal of the President. The other House shall investigate into the charges itself or cause the charge to be investigated.

There are four stages in the impeachment of the President. Firstly the impeachment resolution has to be moved with a 14 days prior notice in writing signed by not less than 1/4th of the total members of that House. Such a resolution has to be passed by a majority of not less than 2/3 of the total members of the House.

Secondly, the resolution approved by the first House will be sent to the second House for consideration and approval. Thirdly, the second House investigates into the charges directly or constitutes a committee to enquire into the charges. The President has the right to present his views directly or through a deputy during such enquiry.

Fourthly, if the charges against the President are established and adopted by the second House with 2/3 majority of the total members, the President stands removed from the office. With regard to voting on the resolution for impeachment, only the elected members cast their vote, No president has so far been impeached in our country till today.

Question 9.
Write about the composition of Lok Sabha.
The Lok Sabha or the House of the People is the lower house in Indian Parliament. Maximum strength of the Lok Sabha envisaged by the constitution is now 552 (530 members to represent states, 20 to represent union territories, and 2 members of Anglo Indian community to be nominated by the President) At present there are 545 members in the Lok Sabha out of them.

  • 530 members are elected from the states.
  • 13 members are elected from the union territories and the remaining.
  • 02 members are nominated by the President from the Anglo-Indian community.

Out of 543 elected seats, 79 seats are reserved for the scheduled castes and 41 for the scheduled tribes.
The election is through direct franchise.
The tenure of the Lok Sabha is normally 5 years.
A person who wishes to contest as a candidate for the membership of the Lok Sabha must

  • Be an Indian citizen.
  • Have completed 25 years of age.
  • Not hold any office of profit in union, state or local governments.
  • Possess such other qualifications as prescribed by the Parliament.

AP Inter 2nd Year Civics Model Paper Set 4 with Solutions

Question 10.
What are the powers of Appellate Jurisdiction of the Supreme Court?
The Supreme Court is the highest court of appeal in India. Its appellate Jurisdiction may be divided into three heads.

  • Cases involving interpretation of the Constitution,
  • Civil cases and
  • Criminal cases.

i) The Supreme Court hears cases involving a substantial question of Law as to the interpretation of the Constitution. It requires the certificate of the High Court for hearing such a case. Sometimes the Supreme Court can take up the appeal if it is satisfied that the case has do with certain interpretation of the Constitution.

ii) In cases where no constitutional question is involved, the Supreme Court hears appeals on the basis of the High Court. Such cases, in the opinion of High Court, involve

  • a substantial question of law and
  • the decision of the Supreme Court.

iii) In case of the criminal matters the Supreme Court hears appeals from any Judgement, whether they are in the form of a final order dr sentence of the High Court. It hears two specified cases namely.

  • Where the High Court has on a appeal reversed on order of acquittal of an accused and sentencecìhim to death and
  • Where the High Court has tried the appeals from any of its subordinate courts convicted the accused and sentenced him to death.

The Supreme Court also hears appeals by special leave on any judgement of the High Court when the latter certifies that the case is fit for hearing by the Supreme Court. Besides, the Supreme Court as per Article 136 hears appeals over the cases that remain outside the purview of the ordinary law.

Question 11.
Explain the composition of the State Council of Ministers.
Article 163(1) of the Indian Constitution provides for the State Council Ministers with the Chief Minister at its head, to aid and advise the Governor in the exercise of his powers and in running the State administration.

The State Council of Ministers is generally a three-tier body.
It consists of.

  1. Cabinet Ministers
  2. Ministers of State and
  3. Deputy Ministers.

There will be some only Parliamentary Secretaries in some States on rare occasions. It constitutes the fourth wing of the hierarchy of the Council of Ministers.

i) Cabinet Ministers: The cabinet is a small body consisting of ministers holding the most important portfolios such as Home, Finance, Planning and Industries, etc. They enjoy independence in taking and implementing decisions concerning their ministry. They attend the Cabinet meetings, concerned by the Chief Minister. Sometimes the Ministers of state and deputy ministers may attend the cabinet meetings, in case their presence is needed during deliberations. They meet frequently and determine the policies of the State Government under the stewardship of the Chief Minister.

ii) Ministers of State: The Ministers of State hold portfolios of less importance compared to the Cabinet Ministers. They may be attached to the individual Cabinet Ministers or might be given independent charge of crucial departments in the major Ministries. In such a case they enjoy independence. They are answerable directly to the Chief Minister. They are not subject to the control of Cabinet Ministers.

iii) Deputy Ministers: The Deputy Ministers are attached to the Cabinet Ministers. They performs such functions which are assigned by the Cabinet Ministers. His role is mainly to relieve the burden of the Cabinet Minister. He assists the Cabinet Minister in the administrative and legislative affairs of the Ministry the Constitution (91st Amendment) Act 2003 fixes a ceiling on the size of the Council of Ministers. The total number of the Ministers cannot be more than 15% of the total strength of the State Legislative Assembly.

Question 12.
Write a Note on the Estimates Committee.
According to the Rules of Procedure and Conduct of Business in the State Legislature, the Estimates Committee consists of 20 members. Among them 15 members belong to Assembly. The remaining 5 members belong to Legislative Council. The members hold office for a period ol one year. They are elected through in indirect election.

Functions: The functions of the Estimates Committee in the State Legislature are the same as that of Estimates Committee of Lok Sabha. These are given here under.

  1. Estimates Committee exercises control over public expenditure.
  2. It suggests fiscal reforms in organization. the efficiency or administration reforms consistent with the policy underlying estimates.
  3. It advises alternative policies for securing efficiency and economy in administration.
  4. It examines whether the money is well laid out within the limits of the policy implied in the estimates.
  5. It also suggests the form in which the estimates shall be presented to the Assembly.

Question 13.
Explain the powers and Functions of District Court.
There will be District Civil Courts at the District Level. The District Judge acts as its head. He exercises control and supervision
over other civil courts in the district. There are some senior civil judge courts below the rank of the district civil courts. There are some other junior civil judge courts in addition senior civil judge courts. Judicial officers of subordinate courts are given here under:

  1. Principal District Judge
  2. Family Court Judge
  3. SC & ST Act Court Judge
  4. Senior Civil Court Judge
  5. Junior Civil Court Judge

The Principal District Court admits the cases pertaining to an amount of Rupees 10 Lakhs and above worth of property and deliver the judgements. The Principal District Judge is appointed through direct as well as indirect recruitment (By promotion).

The Family Courts are presided by judicial officers of the cadre of District Judges. This court takes up cases under Hindu Marriage Act relating to divorce, ordering interim maintenance, ordering custody of children etc. In order to protect Scheduled Caste and Scheduled Tribes rights and to implement SC & ST Act strictly, there is’ a court for the entire district.

There are some courtsenamelY Senior Civil Judge Courts which deal with the cases of property worth rupees above one lakh and below 10 lakhs and deliver the judgments.

Cases pertaining to property worth below one lakh will be taken up by Junior Civil Judge Court and the Judgements are delivered. There are some Nyaya Panchayats, Grama Kacheries, Adalati Panchayats and so on at the lowest level in the district to deal with local legal issues.

Question 14.
Explain the composition, powers and Functions of the Finance Commission.
Composition: Article 280 of the Indian Constitution deals with the composition, powers and functions of the Finance Commission. The President of India constitutes a Finance Commission, a quasi-judicial body with a Chairman and four members. The Chairman as well as the members is appointed by the President for a period of five years. They are eligible for reappointment.

The constitution authorizes the Parliament to decide the qualifications of the members and Chairman of the Commission. Accordingly, the Parliament has specified the qualifications of the Chairman and other members of the Commission. The Commission makes recommendations to the President on the distribution of financial resources between the Union and States. The Chairman should be a person having experience in the field of public affairs of the Union or the States. The other four members of the Finance Commission should be appointed from amongst the following fields.

  • A high Court judge or one qualified to be appointed as such.
  • A person having special knowledge of the finances and accounts of the government.
  • A person having wide experience in financial matters and administration.
  • A person having special knowledge of Economics.

Powers and Functions: The Finance Commission reviews the financial relations between the Center and States from time to time and makes recommendations to the President of India in the following matters:

  • It makes recommendations as to what proportion of the central taxes is to be distributed among the State.
  • To determine the principles that should govern the grants-in-aid of the revenues of the State out of the Consolidated Rind of India.
  • It also makes recommendations regarding the continuance or modifications of agreements entered into by the Union Government with any state.
  • It makes suggestions on any other matter referred to the Commission by the President in the interest of financial stability.
  • The functions of the Finance Commission have been enlarged by 73rd and 74th Constitutional Amendments, which makes it the duty of the Commission to suggest measures needed to augment the Consolidated Rind of a State to supplement the resources of the Panchayat and Municipalities in the States.
  • It also holds discussions with the higher officials and prominent leaders on administrative and political affairs, and invites suggestions from the heads of various financial institutions in the country for sound financial stability.

The Finance Commission submits its report to the President of India, which the Central Government generally accepts. The President may or may not accept all or few of the recommendations of the Commission.These recommendations are applicable for a period of five years.

AP Inter 2nd Year Civics Model Paper Set 4 with Solutions

Question 15.
Explain the Composition of Zilla Parishad.
Zila Parisijad comprises six organs, namely;

  • Zilla Parishad
  • Zilla Parishad Chairman
  • Zilla Mahasabha
  • Chief Executive Officer
  • Standing Committees and

i) Zilla Parishad:
Zilla Parishad is the legislative wing at the district level. It compresses various types of members, i.e., elected co-operation ex-office members. District-level authorities like the District officer chairman of the District co-operative central bank. Over the duty and special meetings Zilla Parishad.

ii) Zilla Parishad Chairman:
The chairman conducts the meetings with dignity. He permits the members for moving resolutions allocates time for discussion and conducts voting on the resolutions. he also presides over the meetings of Zilla Mahasabha and some standing committees. he acts as a link between Zilla parishad and the state Government. He will have administrative control over the Z.P. Chief Executive officer in the implementation of various resolutions.

iii) Zilla Mahasabha:
‘There will be a Zilla Mahasabha in every Zilla Parishad. It Serves as an advisory body to the Zilla Parishad. The Zilla Parishad chairman presides over its meetings. The Cheif Executive Officer attends its meetings in Executive office capacity.

It performs three important functions Namely.

  1. Examining the annual budget and audit reports of Zilla Parishad
  2. Administrative report of the previous year and
  3. Other matters of Zulia Parishad,

iv)Chief Executive Officer (CEO): There will be a Chief Executive Officer in every Zilla Parishad. He is appointed by the
state government and responsible to the State Government and Zilla Parishad in exercise of his powers and functions. He serves as the administrative head of Zil Parishad.

v) Standing Committees: There are seven Standing Committees in Zilla Parishad. They render advice to the Zilla Parishad on several matters like planning, finance, agriculture, rural development, women, social welfare, education, health, etc. The Chief Executive Officer prepares the agenda of the meeting and decides the venue of the standing committees on the advice of the Zilla Parishad Chairman.

vi) The District Collector: The District Collector participates in Zilla Parishad and standing committee meetings as a permanent invitee.

Question 16.
Write a Note on the Electoral Reforms.
The Electoral Reforms will ensure the free and fair elections in the country. The successful functioning of Indian democracy depends on the electoral reforms.
Some Electoral Reforms proposed:

  1. The donation of companies to the political parties should be strictly banned.
  2. The accounts of the political parties are to be audited by the Election Commission periodically.
  3. The number of members of the Election Commission shall be raised.
  4. The limit’ on election expenditure of the candidates must be proper, practical and realistic.
  5. The announcement of new policies, projects and programmes by the party in power during elections should be banned.
  6. The members of the election commission should be appointed by the president on the advice of the prime minister, leader of the opposition in the Lok Sabha and the chief justice of India.
  7. The government should meet the election expenditure of the candidates.
  8. The election commission should be authorised to invalidate the election of a candidate if it was proved that he had used government machinery during elections.
  9. Notification should be issued to the voters and electronic voting machines should be introduced after fool-proof arrangements.
  10. The candidate who secure 51 percent of the polled votes shall be declared as winner.

Question 17.
Write a Note on Congress party in India.
Indian National Congress is the oldest All-India Political Party in our country. It was founded by A.O. Hume, a British Civil Servant on 28th December 1885. Womesh Chandra Banerjee was its first president. This party has played a prominent role in the Indian National movement against the Britishers and ultimately secured Independence. After Independence, the Congress kept on dominating the Indian political science. It became the ruling party at the union and in majority of the Indian states up to March 1977.

  • Jawaharlal Nehru was the Prime Minister from 1946 to 1964.
  • Lal Bahadur Shastri was the Prime Minister from 1964 to 1966.
  • Smt. Indira Gandhi was the prime minister from 1966 to 1977.
  • Again it came to power duing 1980 to 1989, again Smt. Indira Gandhi became the Prime, Minister from 1980 to 1984 October, 31st, the day on which she was assassinated.
  • Rajeev Gandhi was the Prime Minister from 1984 to 1989.
  • It became the Ruling party during 1991 to 1996 under the stewardship of Sri. P. V. Narasimha Rao.
  • Between 1996 to 2004 it acted as a recognized opposition party at the centre.
  • In 2004 it came to power at the centre as a major partner in United Progressive Alliance (UPA).
  • Again in 2009 general elections the Congress-led UPA secured majority and formed government at centre with its allies.
  • Dr. Manmohan Singh was the Prime Minister from 2004 to 2014.

Policies: The Indian National Congress, during the pre-independence, has worked with a single-point programme, called Swaraj. After achieving independence it was committed to implementation of the policies like secularism, socialism, international peace, equality, and Justice.

It has the following policies

  1. The party aims to eradicate poverty, unemployment, economic inequalities, discrimination, exploitation etc.
  2. It strives to achieve full employment, optimum production, promotion of cottage and small-scale industries, privatization, globalization and liberalization programmes in the industrial sector.
  3. It stands for world peace and security and has belief in the policy of non-interference, non-alignment, friendly relations with all countries and to end racial apartheid in international sphere.
  4. It dedicates itself to the implementation of land reforms rescuing farmers in times of natural calamities, provision of credit at lower rates of interest, meeting and warehousing facilities in agricultural sector.
  5. It abides by the values of democracy and decentralization of authority in political field.

Party organization: Its constitutions was first formulated at Nagpur session (1920). Now, let us know something about Sits organization.
1. All India Congress Committee (MCC): It consists of about 425 members. It meets annually. It decides all the policies of
the party It occupies the highest place in the organization.

2. Congress Working Committee (CWC): It consists of 21 members including the president. It is called the High command of the party. It includes the Prime Minister and all senior leaders of the party. It takes all important decisions and implements them with the approval of AICC.

3. Parliamentary Board: It consists of president and seven senior members. It takes decisions regarding the appointment and removal of Chief Ministers and, selection of candidates.

4. Central Election Committee (CEC): It selects candidates to contest elections at the state and national level.

5. Pradesh Congress Committee (PCC): Every state has its own P.C.C. It selects candidates to contest Assembly elections.
At the lower level, it has District, Mandai and village committees. In reality, it acts as a centralized organisation.

AP Inter 2nd Year Civics Model Paper Set 4 with Solutions

Section – C
15 x 2 = 30


  • Answer any FIFIEEN of the following questions in 5 lines each.
  • Each question carries 2 marks.

Question 18.
Parliamentary Form of Government.
The constitution of India provided a Parliamentary Government of the British type but with an elected president of Irish model. According to the features of a Parliamentary government such as two executive heads, ministerial accountability to the lower house of the legislature, Prime Minister, leadership, etc., are prevalent in our political system.

Question 19.
Mandamus literally means ‘A mandate or commander it is issued by a competent court for directing any person, corporation or inferior courts requiring him, it or them to do some particular thing specified therein which appertains to his of their and is in the nature of public duty.

Question 20.
Important Appointments of President.
The President of India makes all major appointments. These are given below:

  • He/She appoints the Chief Justice of India, the Judges of the Supreme Court, and the High Courts of the states.
  • He appoints the Prime Minister of India and other ministers on the advice of the Prime Minister. He appoints the Governors of the states.
  • He appoints the Election Commissioners and Ambassadors to other countries.

Question 21.
Judicial powers of the President.

  • The President can grant pardoned reprieves responsibility emission of punishment.
  • He appoints the Judges of the Supreme Court and State High Courts.
  • He Can also remove them on an address by the Parliament.

Question 22.
Deputy Speaker of Loksabha.
There will be a Deputy Speaker for conducting the proceedings of the Lok Sabha in the absence of the Speaker. The Deputy Speaker is elected by the members of the Lok Sabha from among themselves. The Deputy Speaker while acting as the presiding Officer, enjoys all the Powers and privileges of the Speaker.

Question 23.
Question Hour.
In both houses of Parliament, first hour is allotted to question hour. The members, by giving notice to the presiding officer, can ask questions pertaining to public issues, administrative inefficiency or about the role of the government.

Question 24.
Court of Record.
According to Article 141, Supreme Court acts as court of Record. Being the highest court of the land, its proceedings acts and judgements are kept in record for perpetual memory and further verification and reference.

AP Inter 2nd Year Civics Model Paper Set 4 with Solutions

Question 25.
Immunities of the governor.
Our Constitution provides certain legal Immunities to the office of the Governor to enable him to discharge his constitutional functions in a free and fair manner, to ensure the state government works constitutionally. He shall not be held responsible for any act done or purporting to have been done in his official capacity. No criminal proceedings can be initiated against the Governor during his term of office. No proceedings for his arrest or imprisonment can be taken by any court of law.

Question 26.
Quorum is the minimum number of members required to be present in the house before it can transact any business. According to Article 188 of the constitution, the Quorum for conducting the State Legislative Assembly meeting was fixed at 1/10th of the total membership. However, in some states, where the strength of the State Legislative Assembly is very less, the quorum will be a minimum number of 10. The speaker decides whether there is a quorum or not ‘on a particular day.

Question 27.
NITI Aayog.
The NITI Aayog (National Institute for Transforming India) is tasked with the role of formulating policies and directions for the government. lt1s governing council will consist of the Chief Ministers of all the states in Indian Union and the Lieutenant Governors of the Union Territories.

Question 28.
National Development Council.
National Development Council was setup in 1952. It is as another extra-constitutional and extra-legal body to associate
the states in the formulation of the plans. The Prime Minister is the ex-officio chairman of National Development Council. It consists of all the members of the Union Cabinet, Chief Ministers of all the states, and the lieutenant governors of the Union Territories.

Question 29.
Mandal Parishad.
Mandal Parishad is the intermediate tier in the Panchayat Raj System. It is set up according to the statutes of state
Every Mandai Parishad comprises four organs namely

  1. Mandal Parishad
  2. Mandal Parishad President
  3. Mandal Parishad Development Officer and
  4. Mandal Mahasabha

Question 30.
Zilla Parishad Standing Committees.
There are seven standing committees in Zilla Parishad. They render advice to the Zilla Parishad on several matters like planning, finance, agriculture, rural development, women’s social welfare, education, health, etc. The Chief Executive Officer prepares the agenda of the meeting and decides the venture of the standing committees on the advice of Zilla Parishad Chairman. The District collector participates in Zilla Parishad and standing committees meetings as a permanent invitee.

Question 31.
Nagar Panchayat.
Nagar Panchayats are created or transitional areas (the area which is fast changing from a rural to an urban area) or for a very small urban areas. For this purpose, several factors are taken into consideration; the density of the population therein, the revenue generated for local administration, the percentage of employment in non-agricultural activities, the economic important of the area and some others.

Question 32.
Composition of Election Commission of India.
Article 324 of the constitution has made the following provisions with regard to the composition of election commission. Since its inception 1950 and till 15th Oct, 1989, the election commission functioned a single-member body consisting of the Chief Election Commissioner. on 16th October, 1989 the President of India appointed two more election Commissioners to cope up with the increased work of the Election Commission. Thereafter, the Election Commission started functioning as a multimember body consisting of 3 Election Commissioners.

AP Inter 2nd Year Civics Model Paper Set 4 with Solutions

Question 33.
All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Khazagam is a Prominent Regional Party in Tamil Nadu and Pondichery. It was established by Tamil Cine Star M.G. Ramachandran in October, 1972. M.G.R. became the Chief Minister of Tamil Nadu in 1977 and continued in that office till his death in 1987. After his death Film Star Miss Jayalalitha became its General Secretary. She led the government in Tamil Nadu during 1991 – 96 and again in 2001 and 2002. In 2011 state Assembly elections the party came to power. Jayalalitha became the Chief Minister for the third term on 16th May, 2011.

Question 34.
One Party dominance.
In the post-independence politics of the country. The role of the Congress party was so great that India was often described as a single dominant party system. The Congress was the party of consensus ai.d its strategy was all-inclusive. It was often described as a immature Indian Society which reflected all the essentials in the nation. From the First GeneraElections of 1952 to the present 16th Loksabha general elections of 2014. The Congress party was in power at the center for 52 years out of 62 years. It shows that the Congress party dominates the political science of our country.

Question 35.
Procedure to be considered for the appointment of the chairperson and members of the state HRC.
The Chairman and members of state HRC are appointed by the concerned state governor on the recommendations of a committee consisting of the chief minister as its head, the speaker of the legislative assembly. In the case of a state having a legislative council, the chairman of the council and the leader of the opposition in the council would also be the members of the committee. The sitting judge of a High Court or a sitting District judge can be appointed as members only after consultation with the chief justice of the high court of the concerned state.

Question 36.
Composition of Central Information.
The Central Information Commission consists of one Chief Information Commissioner (CIC) and 10 other Information Commissioners (IC).

Question 37.
Hunger Strike fast unto death of Potti Sree Ramulu.
For the separate statehood of Andhra Potti Sreeramulu has started fast unto death on 19th October 1952 at the Residence of Maharishi Bulusu Sambamurthy and it was later named as Yagnasala”.

Under these circumstances, on 9thi December 1952 the union government announced that the government would consider the issue of Separate Andhra state if the Andhra people will agree for separate Andhra apart from Madras By that time Fast unto death of Potti Sreeramulu has gone to 52nd day on 15th December 1952 at 11.39 p.m. Potti Sreeramulu Possess away.

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