AP Inter 1st Year Civics Question Paper May 2019

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AP Inter 1st Year Civics Question Paper May 2019

Time: 3 Hours
Maximum Marks: 100

Section – A (3 × 10 = 30)

Note :

  • Answer any three of the following questions in 40 lines each.
  • Each question carries ten marks.

Question 1.
Explain the scope of Political Science.
Introduction: Political Science is a premier social science. It is mainly concerned with the study of the state in its relation with Society, Citizens, Associations and the world at large. Aristotle is hailed as the Father of Political Science. He wrote famous book “THE POLITICS”.

Origin of the word Politics : Aristotle, the Father of Political . Science used the term “POLITICS” for the first time in his famous book “POLITICS”. The term “POLITICS” is derived from a greek word “POLIS” and latin word “POLITICUS” which means the city state.

Definitions of Political Science : Political Scientists gave various definitions on Political Science. They are as follows :

  1. J.W. Gamer : “Political Science begins and ends with the state”.
  2. Stephen Leacock : “Political Science deals with the government”.
  3. David Easton : “Political Science is concerned with the authoritative allocation of values for a society”.

Scope of Political Science : The scope of Political Science means the subject matter covered by it or the topics which are included in its study. It may be explained in the following ways :
i) Study of man in Relation to the Society and State : Aristotle stated that “Man is a Social Animal”. Man can satisfy his basic needs like food, clothing, shelter and protection in the society. Political Science explains the relationship beween man and society. It examines how man should adjust himself with the societys. It is imperative that the modern man should develop proper attitude towards the society. This is possible only when he identifies himself with the society.

Political Science is concerned with the perennial and central issue of establishing proper relationship between the state and the individuals. It deals with many topics of state activity, such as limitations of Political Authority and sphere of Individual Freedoms.

ii) Study of State : Aristotle also stated that man is a Political Animal. State is a human and political institution. It came into existence for the sake of man and continue in existence for providing happy and prosperous life for man. Individuals became members of the state since its inception. We can’t imagine the life of individuals outside of the state. Political Science studies the intimate Relationship between the state and the citizens. It also studies the Nature, Functions and Various theories of state authority.

It also comprises a study of the various activities of the state from that of ancient police state to the modem welfare state. Thus, Political Science deals with the Present, Past and Future aspects of the state.

iii) Study of the Government : Government is an important essential element of Modem State. It is an instrument which fulfills aims and goals of the state. There can be no state with out a government. Government formulates, expresses and implements the will of the state. Government consists of three organs namely Legislature, Executive and Judiciary. Legislature makes the laws, Executive implements the laws and Judiciary interpretes the laws. Political Science studies the meaning, forms, structure, nature and functions of the government. It also discusses the relationship among the various organs of the government. Hence, Political Science is treated as a science of government.

iv) Study of Associations and Institutions: Associations and Institutions help the Individuals for their moral, religious, cultural, scientific and technological progress. These carry on their activities at local, regional, national and international levels. Individuals join as members in these Associations out of their interests or purposes. There prevails a great linkage between these voluntary Associations and Institutions. Associations and Institutions in Modem times play a significant role in the Formulation and Implementation of policies of the state and government. Voluntary bodies such as trade unions, peasant groups, professional bodies etc., will have a great impact on the state and government. Political Science explains the nature, structure and functions of the various Associations and Institutions.

v) Study of Rights and Responsibilities : Scope of Political Science includes the study of Rights and Responsibilities of citizens. Citizens in democratic states enjoy certain rights such as right to life, right to liberty, right to property etc. Political Science enumerates the definition, classification and different theories of Rights. Similarly, citizens will have some Responsibilities towards the state. These include paying taxes, obeying the laws etc. It explains the significance of Rights and Responsibilities of the citizens. Hence, Political Science examines the Realtionship between Rights and Responsibilities.

vi) Study of National and International Issues : The scope of Political Science covers various issues of Modem state in relation with other states in matters of safeguarding Territorial integrity and Sovereignty. It studies the topics like Cold war, Balance of power, Disarmament, Detente etc. Modem states are not isolated. They depend upon other states in many spheres like importing raw materials, exporting finished goods, transport, technology, services and communications. This requires close relations among the states in international sphere. Political Science discusses not only the domestic policies of the state but also the issues of international dimensions. It covers a wide range of topics such as diplomacy, international politics, international law, international organisations etc.

vii) Study of Power : The behaviouralists of 20th century regarded Political Science as a study of sharing and shaping of power. They pointed out that Political Science discusses how power is grabbed, manipulated and perpetuated to have a control over the Society. Morgenthau defined the power as “Man’s control over the Minds and Actions of other Men”.

viii) Study of Public Policy: Modem Political Scientists like David Easton and Gabriel Almond argued that Political Science is a “Policy Science”. They considered Political Science as the study of formulation, execution and evaluation of Public Policy, with the advent of Public Policy the scope of Political Science has further widened to include the dimensions of vital topics such as Industrial Policy, Agricultural Policy, Land Reform Policy, Education Policy, Population Policy etc. Public Policy of a Nation in the context of International Relations plays a crucial role in the formulation of diplomatic, economic, military and scientific strategies.
Conclusion : The above contents show the wide range of subjects that come under the purview of Political Science.

AP Inter 1st Year Civics Question Paper May 2019

Question 2.
Write a short note on Whether India is a nation.
Many western and oriental writers described that India is indeed a Nation. There are strong reasons to justify that India is a nation.

  • Indians have a common history and culture.
  • They have demonstrated their distinct qualities of National integration on many occassions.
  • Indians have expressed their dedication to make unparalled and supreme sacrifices for the accomplishment of Independence.
  • They fought unitedly against the foreign yoke under the leadership of Mahatma Gandhi.
  • Although the people belong to different regions and provinces, they realised the basic fact that they are all first and fore most Indians. Then only, they owe indebtedness to their respective religions and languages.
  • Some common elements concerning national anthem, national heritage, culture constitution and the government inspire the nationalist feelings and inculcate the national integration among the people.
  • Indians demonstrated their distinct qualities of National integration on many occassions. During India’s Aggression by China and Pakistan, the Indians extended unequivocal support to the government.

Question 3.
Identify the safeguards of the Rights.
Introduction : Rights are the essential conditions for the development of the personality of individuals. They are upheld by the laws of the state. Individuals cannot achieve progress in the absence of the Rights.

Definition :

  1. T.H. Green : “Rights are those powers claimed and recognized as contributory to the common good.”
  2. H.J. Laski: “Rights are those conditions of social life without which no man can seek in general to be himself at his best.”

Safeguards of Rights : Individuals enjoy their rights only when they were fully protected or safeguarded by the State. In this regard, the following elements act as the safeguards of the rights.
1) Democratic Rule : Democratic rule safeguards the rights of the people to a great extent. People can enjoy their rights perfectly in democratic states only. This system makes constitutional and legal provisions for safeguarding the right of the people.

2) Written and Rigid Constitution : A written constitution clearly defines the powers and functions of the government. It also explains about the various limitations of governmental authority. Besides, a rigid constitution will guarantee the rights of the people by making it difficult for the rulers and legislators to make amendments on flimsy grounds.

3) Constitutional Incorporation : Incorporation of funda¬mental rights in the constitution will prevent the encroachment of individual rights by the government. Such an arrangement protects the rights of the individuals to a great extent.

4) Separation of Powers : The powers of the government should be separated among the three organs of the government. Such as measure would act as a check against other organ. Ultimately, it serves as a safeguard of individual liberty.

5) Decentralisation of Powers : Individuals enjoy their rights, when powers are decentralised among the governmental institutions. This involves allocation of powers at various levels – national, provisional, local either on functional or territorial basis.

6) Rule of Law : Rule of law implies equality before law. It also denotes equal application of laws to the citizens. It gives no scope for discrimination between citizens on the grounds of region, religion, caste, colour, community etc.

7) Independent and Impartial Judiciary : Independent and impartial judiciary is another safeguard of rights. Judges in higher judicial bodies will deliver judgement with impartial and independent outlook. In the process of delivering justice, they issue certain writs for immediate protection of the rights.

8) Indepedent Press : Independent and honest press is another essential safeguard of rights of individuals. Such agency will be able to disseminate news and views impartially and without fear or favour to anybody. In this regard the state should not try to threaten and silence the press. Then only individuals enjoy their rights to the maximum extent.

9) Social and Economic Equalities : Social and economic equalities are necessary for enjoying one’s rights. People will be able to utilize their rights properly and positively when there are social and economic equalities in the state. These equalities include absence of casteism, communalism, linguism, wide spread economic inequalities, exploitation etc.

10) Eternal Vigilance : Eternal vigilance .is said to be the most important safeguard of rights of individuals. Individuals must be vigilant and cautious about the policies of the government. They should oppose the despotic tendencies of the government through democratic and constitutional methods. Under no circumstances they should allow the self seeking politicians to acquire power. Besides several other elements like judicial review, recall, strong opposition etc., are considered as the safeguards of rights.

AP Inter 1st Year Civics Question Paper May 2019

Question 4.
What do you mean by Democracy ? Write about the Direct democratic devices.
Meaning : The term Democracy is derived from two greek words namely, “Demos” and “Kratos”. Demos means people and Kratos mean rule (or) authority.

Definitions :

  1. Abraham Lincoln : “Democracy is a government of the people, by the people and for the people”.
  2. Lord Bryce : “Democracy is that form of government in which the ruling power of the state is vested not in a particular class but in the members of the community as a whole”.
  3. J.R. Seely : “Democracy is a government in which every one has a share”.

Direct Democracy : Direct Democracy is said to prevail when people themselves directly express their views and participate in the deliberative and administrative affairs of the government. People in direct democracy assume all powers of making laws. They formulate laws at a meeting attended by all the people. Direct Democracy is prevalent in Switzerland. In Switzerland, the citizens living in some small cantons meet together on a Sunday in April or May to elect their representatives and to make laws.

Devices Direct Democracy :
There are four devices prescribed in direct democracies to enable the people to participate directly in the administrative activities of the State.
Those are
1) Referendum
2) Initiative
3) Recall and
4) Plebiscite.

These methods may be explained as follows.
1. Referendum : It is one of the direct democratic devices. Literally it means, “must be referred to the people”. It is a device where by the electorate may veto a proposed legislation or a bill which the legislature has already passed. In other words, bills passed by the legislature are the voters for their approval or disapproval. If majority of the voters approve them, they become acts. But if they vote against them, they will be given up. Hence, referendum is known as “Popular Veto”. It is of two types – 1) Compulsory referendum : All the constitutional bills must be sent to the people. 2) Optional Referendum : An ordinary bill passed by the legislative may be or may not be sent to the people. However, even that ordinary bill must be sent to the people, if a definite number of people demand it. Ex : In Switzerland 30,000 people or eight cantons (States) can demand referendum on an ordinary bill.

2. Initiative : It is another device of direct democracy. It is a method by means of which the people propose legislation i.e.; they can ask the legislature to pass a particular law. For instance, in Switzerland, if 50,000 voters request the legislature to pass a law, then the proposal is submitted to the consideration of the people. If majority of the people (30,000) approve it, then it becomes an act. Unlike referendum, initiative provides a chance to the people to start the making of law. It is of two types : (1) Formulative Initiative : People present a bill to the legislature (2) Unformulative Initivative : People present a demand to the legislature as king it to pass a bill.

3. Recall : It is another device of Direct Democracy. It means “Calling Back”. According to this method a specific number of voters may call back or dismiss an elected officer or a member of the legislature before the expiry of his term, if he is irresponsible. By means of this, the people can remove a representative or an officer from office when he fails to discharge his duties properly.

4. Plebiscite : The term ‘Plebiscite” is derived from a French word “Plebiscitum”, which means “decree of the people”. It is used to obtain the opinion of the people on an important political issue or when there is a dispute regarding some territory. The question of accession or secession or territory is generally solved by means of plebiscite. It is not concerned with legislation. It is not apart of legal process. It is only a democratic method of ascertaining the opinion of the people on any political issue of public importance.

AP Inter 1st Year Civics Question Paper May 2019

Question 5.
Explain about the merits and demerits of presidential Government.
Presidential Government is one in which the executive is not responsible to the legislature for its acts. It is also known as single executive government, fixed tenure government and non responsible government. Under this system a single person, namely, the President exercises all executive powers. The President as well as the legislators assume their office and continue in power for a prescribed tenure as stipulated in the constitution. The President is directly elected by the people who form into an ‘electoral college.’ Further the President or the legislators are not responsible to others in exercise of their powers and functions. This system is based on
the theory of separation of powers as proposed by Montesquieu.
The United States is a classical example of this system.

Definition :
Prof. Gamer defined Presidential Government as “one in which the executive is constitutionally independent of legislature in respect of its duration of tenure and political policies”.

Merits of Presidential Government: The following merits are claimed for the Presidential system over the Parliamentary system.

1) Ensures stable Government : This system ensures stability because the President is elected for a fixed term. His tenure is not dependent on the support of the legislature. Hence he can continue in his office till end of his term. This ensures the stability of the Government.

2) Efficiency in Administration : Under this system, the President rules With the help of the secretaries and advisers who are experienced and efficient. They are appointed on the basis of their ability and efficiency but not on political considerations. They do not belong to any political party. They do not bother about the problems of their constituencies. They devote their time to administration. This promotes efficiency in administration.

3) Suitable for Emergencies : This system is more suitable for emergencies. Since all powers are in the hands of the President, he can take any action and face any situation. He need not seek the approval of the legislature and the advice of his secretaries. He administers the country keeping in view the welfare of the people.

4) Suitable for diverse interests : This system is best suited for countries which are inhabited by different communities with diverse interests. The President can meet the needs of diverse group of people by taking suitable decisions.

5) Consistent Policies : The president enjoys fixed term of office. He cannot be removed before the end of his term very easily. This enables him to follow continuous and consistent domestic and foreign policies.

Demerits of Presidential Government : The above merits are counter balanced by the following defects :
1. Scope for Disputes : This system is based on the theory of separation of powers. Both the legislative and the executive organs are kept apart. This leads to frequent deadlocks and disputes between the two organs.

2. No Flexibility : This system is very rigid. It is difficult to replace the President before the expiry of his term, eventhough he is weak, corrupt and inefficient.

3. Irresponsible and Autocratic : This system provides scope for the President to rule irresponsibly and autocratically. It is so because he is independent of the control of the legislature and not accountable to it for his actions. He ignores the criticism of the opposition. This makes him to misuse and abuse his powers.

4. Division of Responsibility : This system leads to division of responsibility which affects the smooth working of government. When the relations between the legislature and the executive are not cordial, each may try to shift the responsibility on the other. This leads to inefficiency and division of responsibility in administration.

5. Public opinion is not reflected : This system does not promote political consciousness because there is no significance for the legislature. The President and his secretaries are not the members of the legislature. So, they do not participate in its debates and discussions. As a result, the discussions in the legislature become formal and dry. They do not have much significance and reflect public opinion.

Despite the above defects, the Presidential system has been highly successful in the United States of America. It has become very popular with the Americans. In recent years, there has been a debate in India also on its relevance.

AP Inter 1st Year Civics Question Paper May 2019

Section – B (8 × 5 = 40)

Note :

  • Answer any eight of the following questions is not exceeding 20 lines each.
  • Each question carries five marks.

Question 6.
Explain any two essential elements of the state.
Essential elements of state : State is the predominant and superior politico – social institution existing in the society. It consists of 4 essential elements. These elements of state may be explained in a detailed way in the following paragraphs.

1) Population : Population is the fundamental and essential element of state. There can be no state without population. Plato, Aristotle, Rousseau and others considered this feature as an important one. The famous poet Sri. Gurajada Apparao also states that it is the people, rather than the land, that comprise the state. Political writers differ in their opinions regarding the exact size of population possessed by the state. While Plato fixed 5,040, Rousseau fixed 10,000 to be an ideal population for a state. But today we can find the countries like China and India which have more than 100 crores of population on one hand and the countries like Andora, San Marino are having small number of people on the other hand is the modem world.

2) Territory : Territory is another essential element of the state. It is necessary for the origin and existence of the state. There can be no state without territory. Every state must have more or less territory of its own. There is no unanimous opinion among the political writers regarding the size of territory of the state. Some preferred vast territory, where as others preferred small territory. But today we can find the countries like America and Canada having large territory on one hand, and the countries like Vatican, Monaco having very less territory on the other hand in the modem world.

Question 7.
Point out the differences between state and society.
Introduction : State and society are two important human organizations. Maclver described that blood relationship (kinship) created society and society in turn led to the state.

State : State is a people organized for law within a definite territory.

Society : Society is a group of men brought together by a system of common ideas, interests and aspirations.

Differences between State and Society : Inspite of close rela-tionship, state and society, differ from one another.
This may be informed through the following table.

State Society
1. State is a political organization. 1. Society is a social organization.
2. State regulates only the external relation of men in society. 2. Society controls both internal and external activities of men in society.
3. State has definite territory. 3. Society has no definite territory.
4. State has sovereignty. 4. Society has no sovereignty.
5. Membership of the state is compulsory. 5. Membership of the society is voluntary.
6. State is permanent. 6. Society is not permanent.
7. Laws of the state are uniform. 7. Rules of society are not uniform.
8. State came into existence after the origin of society. 8. Society is much older institution than the state.

Question 8.
In India a Nation State ? Explain.
It is interesting to know whether India is a Nation-State. Some say that India is a uni-national state. As against this some state that it is a Multi-National State. It is argued that India is a Uni-National State rather than a Multi-National State due to the following reasons.

  • It consists of people who posses* the features of uni-national state like common history, common culture and traditions.
  • The Indians showed their spirit of National integration on many occassions after independence.
  • They stood as one and extended support to their government when our country was faced with wars from Pakistan and China in 1962 and 1965 respectively.
  • They stood united under the leadership of Mahatma Gandhi throughout the freedom struggle against the British rule in India.
  • From the begining, our country won name and fame for its unity in diversity. Even- though the people of India belong to different regions, they are Indians first and Indians in the last resort i.e., they owe indebtedness to their respective religions and languages.
  • Some common elements concerning national anthem, national heritage, culture, constitution, national flag and the government inspire the nationalist feelings and inculcate the national integration among the people.
  • People celebrate all the national festivals with great enthusiasm and spirit.
    Hence we may say that India is a nation state with the characteristic features of unity in diversity.

AP Inter 1st Year Civics Question Paper May 2019

Question 9.
Write about any three sources of law.
Definitions : The English word ‘Law’ originates from the ancient Teutonic word ‘Lag’ which means “something that lies fixed or uniform”. Political thinkers defined law in different ways which are listed below :

  1. “Law is the command of tfie sovereign”. – John Austin
  2. “Law is the system of ri|hts and obligations which the State enforces”. – T.H. Green

Sources of Law :
1) Customs, Practices and Traditions : These are one of the important sources of law. In primitive societies, there were no laws in written form. All disputes were settled in accordance with social customs and traditions. Customs regulated the social life in the early societies. Customs and traditions cannot be laws in political sense. But, when the State recognises certain traditions, they in turn be¬come laws. Ex : The laws relating to marriage, divorce etc., found in our Country are based on traditions, the common law of England.

2) Religion : In ancient times customary laws and religious laws were intermixed. The religious teachers enjoyed unlimited powers in those times. Their decisions were treated on par with laws. The primitive men believed that the judgements of the religious teachers had divine sanction. The ancient Roman laws were merely the religious laws. The Hindu and Muslim laws derived inspiration mainly from religion.

3) Judicial Decisions / Adjudication / Judgement of the Courts : The judgements of the judges also serve as a source of law. Generally, judges interpret laws, apply them to particular cases and deliver judgements. Their judgements become precedents and are usually followed by . other judges in similar cases. In course of time such judgements acquire the status of law. In this way judges add to the law of the country. There are many instances that new laws have evolved by way of interpretation. Many of the laws in Britain, America and India have originated from the judgements of the Judges of the respective countries.

Question 10.
Describe any three types of liberty
Introduction : The concept of Liberty is of great significance in the study of political science. Liberty is an essential condition without which man cannot develop his personality. It became a source of inspiration to the millions of the people living all over the world.

Meaning : The term liberty is derived from the Latin word “LIBER” which means free from restrictions.

Definitions : Liberty is defined in many ways by different political thinkers. Some of them are cited below :

  1. “Liberty means the absence of restraints”. – J.R. Seeley
  2. “Liberty is the freedom of an individual to express without any external hindrance to his personality”. -G.D.H. Cole
  3. “Liberty means the positive power of doing or enjoying something worth doing or enjoying”. – T.H. Green
  4. “Liberty is the eager maintenance of that atmosphere in which men have the opportunity to be at their best selves”. – H.J. Laski

Types of Liberty : Liberty is of different types. Some of them may be described in the following :
1. Natural liberty
2. Civil liberty
3. Economic liberty
4. Political liberty
5. National liberty.

1. Natural liberty : Natural liberty is understood as unco-ntrolled freedom or absolute freedom. It is believed that natural liberty existed in the pre-social and pre-state human life. According to this concept there were no rules and regulations except the laws of nature in the past. All persons were free to do anything according to their will arid capacity. But this type of liberty is not possible in civilised society, since liberty is a social condition. True liberty does not inconvenience others. Liberty is not a license. Natural liberty is equal to anarchy. The weak cannot enjoy liberty without law. Some writers imagined that this kind of liberty existed before the origin of state.

2. Civil liberty : Civil liberty is also known as personal liberty. It relates to the individual’s freedom in his life as a member of the social organisation. It is enjoyed by the individuals in the society. Civil liberty is the essential pre-requisite to the existence and survival of human beings. It enables them to lead happy, honourable and civilised life in the state. So it is a must to everyone. The state recognises the various freedoms of individuals. In this regard Gettle said that “Civil liberty is the group of rights recognised and implemented by the state”. The constitution of the America and the India have incorporated civil liberty in the form of fundamental rights. Civil liberty is manifested in several rights.
These include :
A) Right to Life
B) Right to Work
C) Right to Property
D) Right to Religion
E) Right to Speech, Expression, Assembly, Movement and Residence etc.

3. Economic liberty : Economic liberty means the right of everyone to earn his livelihood. Laski described economic liberty as the security and opportunity to find reasonable significance in earning one’s daily bread. Economic liberty ensures everyone freedom from want and fear, hunger and starvation, unemployment and insufficiency. Economic liberty denotes freedom from want or insecurity of economic nature. Without economic liberty democracy is meaningless. It will also be secured by adopting the following measures.

  1. Provision of minimum wages:
  2. Guarantee of the right to work.
  3. Protecting the workers from unemployment, sickness and other types of insecurity.
  4. Providing adequate leisure.
  5. Giving representation to the workers in the management of the industries.

AP Inter 1st Year Civics Question Paper May 2019

Question 11.
What are the featunes of the rights ?
Rights are the essential conditions for the development of the personality of individuals. They are upheld by the laws of the state. Individuals cannot achieve progress in the absence of rights.

Definition : “Rights are those conditions of social life without which no man can seek in general to be himself at his best.”

Features of Rights : Rights comprise the following features.
1) Rights are possible only in society : Rights originate in society. They denote human social behaviour. They do not exist outside of the society.

2) Rights are social in nature : Rights are the claims of individuals. These claims can be established only when the society or the state recognises and maintains them. So they are social in nature.

3) Rights are inherent in nature : Rights are inherent in the social nature of men. The social contractualists stated that rights are inherent in nature. Their views are accepted to some extent in modern times.

4) Rights are enforced and protected by the state : Rights are enforced and protected by the state. The various judicial organisations act as the custodians of the rights of individuals. In other words, rights are protected by the courts of law. Individuals enjoy several rights fully only in a democratic state.

5) Rights are not absolute : Rights are not absolute. Society and state impose some restrictions on the enjoyment of rights by the individuals. These restrictions are meant for maintaining peace and other in the society. Further, rights are meant for contributing social welfare and security.

6) Every right has a corresponding responsibility : Rights and responsibilities are interdependent. Every right has a corresponding responsibility. It is the responsibility of every individual to see that his neighbours also enjoy the same rights. Rights without responsibilities or responsibilities without rights cannot exist. Both are essential for leading a peaceful social life.

7) Rights are universal : Rights are universal in nature. They are applicable to all. They are given to all without any discrimination.

8) Rights vary : Rights vary from time to time according to the needs of the people. They also grow with the changes in time and conditions. Some rights which were not found in the past may exist now. The socio economic, political and cultural conditions will have an influence over the rights.

9) Rights precede the state: Rights are the products of history. Rights originated in course of time. They were prevalent even before the origin of the state. However, they were guaranteed only after the origin of the state.

10) Rights are meant for common good : Rights always exist and flourish as long as they are meant for common good. Only those rights which promote common good of the people are recognised by the society and the state. They are essential for leading a prosperous life by the individuals.

Question 12.
Describe any three types of Justice.
Meaning : The world Justice is derived from a latin word “Jus” which Means “To bind”.
Definition : “Justice means speaking the truth and paying one’s debts”. – Caphalous

1. Natural Justice : Natural Justice is based on the notion that every person in the world possesses some rights for availing the natural resources. Natural resources provide support to the life of each and every creature on earth. As the human beings are the only rational creatures, it is their responsibility to see that natural resources have to be judiciously exploited. Human beings must keep in mind the requirements of future generations in this regard.

2. Social Justice : Social Justice envisages a balance between rights of individuals and social control. It facilitates the fulfillment of the legitimate expectations of the individuals under the existing laws. It ensure’s several benefits and extends protection to the individuals against the interference or encroachment from others in society. It is consistent with the unity and the integrity of the nation. It fulfills the needs of the society.

Social Justice enforces the principle of equality before law. It also extends protection to the downtrodden and weaker section of society.

3. Political Justice: Political Justice symbolises political equality. It implies provision of political rights to all the adult citizens in a state. It facilitates free and fair participation of the citizens in the governance of the country. It is manifested to the full extent in times of elections. It allows the citizens for their active participation in day- to-day administration. It may be noted that political justice prevails in the State when the following conditions are prevalent

  1. Rule of law
  2. Independent Judiciary
  3. Popular elections to the representative bodies
  4. Political parties
  5. Freedom of press and assembly
  6. Democratic rule etc.

AP Inter 1st Year Civics Question Paper May 2019

Question 13.
How citizenship is lost ?
Citizens loose their citizenship under the following conditions :
1) Renunciation : A person is deprived of his citizenship, if he wishes to become the citizen of another state. One will lose the citizenship of one’s parent state and may become the citizen of a foreign state by naturalization. In India, the Constitution prescribes that a person who voluntarily acquires Citizenship of any other state will no longer be an Indian citizen.

2) Marriage : Generally a woman loses her citizenship when she marries an alien. However some states allow retention of citizenship. For instance in Britain, there is an option to retain British citizenship who marries an alien.

3) Accepting Foreign Service : A person may lose his citizenship when he enters into the service of another state. If a person accepts a permanent job in the government of a foreign state, he foregoes the citizenship of his native state.

4) Obliging Foreign Decorations or Titles : When a citizen obliges to receive foreign decorations or titles, it may lead to the forfeiture of his Citizenship.

5) Prolonged AbsenceProlonged absence in the native state beyond a certain period may lead to the loss of citizenship. In some states like France and Germany citizens who are absent themselves from their native country for more than ten years will loose their citizenship.

6) Treason or Crime : Involvement of a citizen in a serious crime and subsequent proof of his action will also lead to the loss of citizenship. Especially those persons who directly or indirectly participate or extend assistance to anti-state, anti-social and antigovernmental activities, will loose their Citizenship by a special notification to that effect.

7) Desertion from Army : Desertion from army thereby jeopardizing the security of a state leads to the forfeiture of citizenship.

Question 14.
Distinguish between secular state and theocratic state.
Features of Secular State : Secular State comprises the following features.
1. No place for religion : Secular States does not assign significance to any particular religion. It will not make laws or implement them on religious grounds.

2. Equal status : Secular State accords equal status to its people. It makes no differentiation between individuals on the grounds of their caste, colour, community, religion, race, region, language etc. As a result, people will have satisfaction and extend co-operation to the government in the implementation of various policies and programmes. They live together with the fellow members of other religious denominations.

3. No state religion : Secular state does not recognize any particular religion as the state religion. It adopts neutral policy in religious matters. It implements various laws and social welfare measures without basing on the religious feelings of the people. It will hot assign special role to any particular religion in publicetivities. All public places like educational institutions, government offices and judicial organizations will carry on their activities with out aligning to a particular religion.

AP Inter 1st Year Civics Question Paper May 2019

Question 15.
Explain the merits and demerits of a Rigid Constitution.
Rigid Constitution : Rigid Constitution is one whose provisions cannot be changed easily. In this system the constitutional amendment methods are different from those of ordinary laws. There will be a special procedure for amending the provisions of the rigid constitution. The rigid constitution will have firmness due to its special procedures of amendment. The Constitution of the United States is the best example of a rigid constitution.

Merits :

  1. Rigid constitution secures political stability.
  2. It is a product of political experience.
  3. It avoids hasty and ill-considered legislation.
  4. It protects the fundamental rights of the citizens.
  5. It preserves and enhances the interests of the provinces in a federal state.
  6. It is suitable for all kinds of people.

Demerits :

  1. Rigid constitution cannot be easily amended to suit the changing needs.
  2. It may affect the nation’s progress and growth.
  3. It is not suitable for tackling the issues arising during emergencies.

Question 16.
Point out the functions of Indiciary.
The Judiciary is the third organ of the government. It refers to those officers of Government whose function is to apply the existing law to iodividual cases. It consists of the magistrates and judges charged with the duty of administering justice. In brief, it is that branch of the Government which settles disputes and administers justice.

Functions of the Judiciary :
1) Interpretation of Laws : The primary function of judiciary is interpretation of laws. Judiciary interprets laws and applies them to specific cases that come before it. It applies the elements of customs, statutes and constitutional provisions to specific cases.

Whenever the existing law is inadequate for delivering justice, it applies the principles of justice, equity and morality. As Gettle remarks, “Constitution and laws are always rigid. Flexibility must be given to them by judges”.

2) Custodian of the Constitution : Judiciary acts as guardian of the Constitution in federal system, It protects the spirit and sanctity of the constitution. Judiciary, in a federation, is empowered to declare a law as unconstitutional if it is inconsistent with the provisions of the Constitution.

3) Guardian of Civil Liberties : Judiciary acts as guardian of civil liberties of the people. It protects individual liberties by punishing those who encroach upon it. It also protects the people against the arbitrary actions of the government.

For instance, in the case of India, the Constitution under Articles 32 and 226 empowered the Supreme Court and High Courts to act as the guardians of fundamental rights of the citizens. These courts can issue injunctions to prevent the arbitrary acts of some individuals and organisations. Such injunctions include Habeas Corpus, Mandamus, Prohibition, Quo-warranto and Certiorari.

4) Federal equilibrium : Judiciary plays a key role in the federal system. It solves disputes between the Centre and the State Governments and also between States. It sees that neither the Central Government nor the State Government exceed the constitutional limitations.

5) Advisory Functions : Judiciary renders advice on the request of the executive or the legislature. For instance the President of India may seek the advice of the Supreme Court on any question of Constitutional Law. In England, the practice to request a court to give declaratory judgement is very common. The Crown sometimes asks the judicial committee of the Privy Council to give its advisory opinion upon questions of law.

6) Appellate Jurisdiction : The highest court of justice hears appeals over the judgements of the lower courts. At times, it ratifies the judgements pronounced by the lower courts. Sometimes, it may reverse some of their judgements.

7) Maintenance of records : judiciary maintains all the records , of the cases along with their judgements. These records will help the advocates and judges in the trial of similar cases that may occur in future.

8) Acting as Head of the State: In some countries, under certain conditions, the Chief Justice of the highest Court assumes the powers of the acting head of the State in the absence of President and VicePresident in office.

9) Administrative Functions : The Supreme Court and High Courts are entrusted with some administrative functions. They make suggestions to the executive head in appointing the judges of the lower courts. The higher courts supervise the functioning of the lower courts. For instance the high courts in India are given the obligation of supervising the activities of the subordinate courts in their jurisdiction.

AP Inter 1st Year Civics Question Paper May 2019

Section – C (15 × 2 = 30)

Note :

  • Answer any fifteen of the following questions in not exceeding 5 lines each.
  • Each question carries two marks.

Question 17.
Write about ancient city states.
Ancient Greece consisted of a large number of city states. They were small both in size and population. For example, Athens,Sparta, Corinth. Each city state had its own government. The greeks based their political philosophy on the concept of city-state. The population of the city-state was divided into three groups :

  1. Citizens
  2. Aliens and
  3. Slaves.

Question 18.
What do you know about Association’?
Association is a group of people united for a specific purpose or a limited number of purposes. Associations are of various types viz., social, economic, political, cultural, religious etc. It’s membership is optional. A person can be a member of a number of associations.

Question 19.
What are the features of Law ?
The following are some important features of law :

  1. It is enforced by the State.
  2. It is definite, precise and universal.
  3. It reflects the will of the people.
  4. Laws are compulsory and cohesive in nature.
  5. Any violation of law leads to punishment.

Question 20.
Define the term “Rule of Law”.
Rule of Law is an important type of administration of justice. It originated in England. It implies :

  1. Legal Equality : All are equal before law.
  2. No Arbitrary Action : Punishment is given only when an existing law is violated.
  3. No Special Rights : No individual is above law and law does not recognise any special privileges.

Question 21.
What is Civil Liberty ?
Civil liberty is also known as personal liberty. It is the essential pre requisite to the existence and survival of human beings. It enables them to lead happy, honourable and civilised life in the state. Civil liberty is manifested in several rights like
A) Right to Life
B) Right to Work
C) Right to Property
D) Right to Religion
E) Right to Speech, Expression, Assembly, Movement and Residence etc.

AP Inter 1st Year Civics Question Paper May 2019

Question 22.
What do you mean by Social Equality ?
Social equality stands for equality of status and absence of class distinctions and discriminations. It exists when no individual is made to suffer on account of his caste, class, colour, creed, race etc. In fact it has opposed the practice of untouchability.

Question 23.
Moral Rights.
Moral rights denote claims based on the ‘moral’ code of the community. These rights are morally prescribed to men in the society. The ethical or moral principles in the society act as the basis of the moral rights. Customs, traditions and usages are regarded as the basic source of these rights. Men enjoy these rights in a civil society. These rights are based on the moral conscience of the people. They don’t have legal support. However they are backed by the society. So violation of these rights is not considered as a crime. Individuals could be punished for their violation. Moral rights are indefinite and vague. But they are popular in nature. The State cannot ignore these rights for a long time.

Question 24.
Classification of Responsibilities.
Responsibilities are broadly classified into (i) Moral responsibilities (ii) Legal responsibilities. Legal responsibilities are further classified into (i) Positive responsibilities (ii) Negative responsibilities.

Question 25.
Define Justice.
“Justice is giving to every man his due. It is a combination of reason, courage, appetite and will in terms of the state”

Question 26.
What is mean by Social Justice ?
Social Justice envisages a balance between rights of individuals and social control. It facilitates the fulfillment of the legitimate expectations of the individuals under the existing laws. It ensures several benefits and extends protection to the individuals against the interference or encroachment from others in society. It is consistent with the unity and the integrity of the nation. It fulfills the needs of the society.

Social Justice enforces the principle of equality before law. It also ensures eradication of social evils like poverty, unemployment, starvation, disease etc. It also extends protection to the downtrodden and weaker sections of society. Ultimately it provides those conditions essential for the all round development of individuals.

Question 27.
What do you mean by Jus Soli mean ?
Jus Soli means acquisition of citizenship by the principle of place of birth. According to this method, a child acquires the citizenship of a State, where it borns. It is the place of birth which determines citizenship. This method is not more popular in modem times. At present, this method is observed exclusively in Argentina.

AP Inter 1st Year Civics Question Paper May 2019

Question 28.
Who is an Alien ?
An Alien is a person living in a state but owing Allegiance to another State. Aliens are entitled to such rights and obligations which are incorporated in the covenants of the Foreign State.
Ex : In America, Aliens must obey the laws and pay taxes just like the American Citizens.

Question 29.
Write two definitions of Democracy.
Definitions :

  1. Abraham Lincoln : “Democracy is a government of the people, by the people and for the people”.
  2. J.R. Seely : “Democracy is a government in which every one has a share”.

Question 30.
Write any four conditions essential for the success of Democracy.

  1. Sound system of Education
  2. Independent Press
  3. Strong Opposition
  4. Social Equality.

Question 31.
Define Secularism.
Meaning : The term “Secular” in Latin language means “Of this World”. It denotes the meaning “the opposite of Religion”.

Definitions :

  1. E.S. Waterhouse: Secularism is an ideology which provides a theory of life and conduct as against one provided in Religion”.
  2. G.J. Holyoake : “Secularism is an idea of promoting a social order as separate from religion without actively dismissing or criticising religious beliefs”.

Question 32.
What do you mean by Theocracy ?
The state having an official religion is called a Theocratic State. In such states all other religions or religious activities are either prohibited or discouraged or highly regulated or controlled by the state. All the official and important offices of the state are either appointed or elected only those from the official religion. State officially participates in the religious affairs and rituals.

Question 33.
What do you mean by Constitution ?
The term constitution implies a written document embodying the provisions relating to the powers and functions of the Government organs, the rights and duties of the citizens.

AP Inter 1st Year Civics Question Paper May 2019

Question 34.
What is an Enacted Constitution ?
Enacted constitution is also known as Conventional constitution. It is consciously made. It is the outcome of the deliberations of the Constituent Assembly specially constituted for that purpose. It is promulgated by the Sovereign Authority i.e., king or queen or Parliament. Ex : The Constitutions of India and the U.S.A.

Question 35.
What is a Unitary Government ? ‘
Meaning : The word ‘Unitary’ consists of two words, namely, ‘Uhi’ and ‘Tary’, uni means one and tary means ‘rule’. Unitary Government is a single integrated government with all executive powers. The Constitution vests all powers in the Central Government.

Definition : A.V. Dicey “A Unitary government is the habited exercise of supreme legislative authority by one central power”.

Question 36.
How many organs of government are there, name them ?
There are three organs of Government.
They are :

  1. Legislature,
  2. Executive and
  3. Judiciary.

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