AP Inter 1st Year Civics Question Paper May 2017

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AP Inter 1st Year Civics Question Paper May 2017

Time: 3 Hours
Maximum Marks: 100

Section – A (3 × 10 = 30)

Note :

  • Answer any three of the following questions in 40 lines each.
  • Each question carries ten marks.

Question 1.
Define Political Science. Explain its scope.
Introduction : Political Science is a premier social science. It is mainly concerned with the study of the state in its relation with Society, Citizens, Associations and the world at large. Aristotle is hailed as the Father of Political Science. He wrote famous book ‘THE POLITICS”.

Origin of the word Politics : Aristotle, the Father of Political Science used the term “POLITICS” for the first time in his famous book “POLITICS”. The term “POLITICS” is derived from a greek word “POLIS” and latin word “POLITICUS” which means the city state.

Definitions of Political Science:
Political Scientists gave various definitions on Political Science.
They are as follows :

  1. J.W. Garner : “Political Science begins and ends with the state”.
  2. Stephen Leacock : “Political Science deals with the government”.
  3. David Easton : “Political Science is concerned with the authoritative allocation of values for a society”.

Scope of Political Science: The scope of Political Science means the subject matter covered by it or the topics which are included in its study. It may be explained in the following ways :

i) Study of man in Relation to the Society and State: Aristotle stated that “Man is a Social Animal”. Man can satisfy his basic needs like food, clothing, shelter and protection in the society. Political Science explains the relationship between man and society. It examines how man should adjust himself with the society.

Political Science is concerned with the perennial and central issue of establishing proper relationship between the state and the individuals. It deals with many topics of state activity, such as limitations of Political Authority and sphere of Individual Freedoms.

ii) Study of State : Aristotle also stated that man is a Political Animal. State is a human and political institution. It came into existence for the sake of man and continue in existence for providing happy and prosperous life for man. Individuals became members of the state since its inception. We can’t imagine the life of individuals outside of the state. Political Science studies the intimate Relationship between the state and the citizens. It also studies the Nature, Functions and Various theories of state authority.
Thus, Political Science deals with the Present, Past and Future aspects of the state.

iii) Study of the Government : Government is an important essential element of Modern State. It is an instrument which fulfills aims and goals of the state. There can be no state without a government. Government consists of three organs namely Legislature, Executive and Judiciary. Legislature makes the laws, Executive implements the laws and Judiciary interpretes the laws. Political Science studies the meaning, forms, structure, nature and functions of the government. It also discusses the relationship among the various organs of the government.

iv) Study of Associations and Institutions : Associations and Institutions help the Individuals for their moral, religious, cultural, scientific and technological progress. These carry on their activities at local, regional, national and international levels. Individuals join as members in these associations out of their interests or purposes. There prevails a great linkage between these voluntary Associations and Institutions. Political Science explains the nature, structure and functions of the various Associations and Institutions.

v) Study of Rights and Responsibilities : Scope of Political Science includes the study of Rights and Responsibilities of citizens. Citizens in democratic states enjoy certain rights such as right to life, right to liberty, right to property etc. Political Science enumerates the definition, classification and different theories of Rights. Similarly, citizens will have some Responsibilities towards the state. These include paying taxes, obeying the laws etc. It explains the significance of Rights and Responsibilities of the citizens. Hence, Political Science examines the Realtionship between Rights and Responsibilities.

vi) Study of National and International Issues : The scope of Political Science covers various issues of Modern state in relation with other states in matters of safeguarding Territorial integrity and Sovereignty. It studies the topics like Cold war. Balance of power. Disarmament, Detente etc. Political Science discusses not only the domestic policies of the state but also the issues of international dimensions. It covers a wide range of topics such as diplomacy, international politics, international law, international organisations etc.

vii) Study of Power : The behaviouralists of 20th century regarded Political Science as a study of sharing and shaping of power.
They pointed out that Political Science discusses how power is grabbed, manipulated and perpetuated to have a control over the society. Morgenthau defined the power as “Man’s control over the Minds and Actions of other Men”.

viii) Study of Public Policy: Modern Political Scientists like David Easton and Gabriel Almond argued that Political Science is a “Policy Science”. They considered Political Science as the study of formulation, execution and evaluation of Public Policy.
Conclusion : The above contents show the wide range of sub-jects that come under the purview of Political Science.

AP Inter 1st Year Civics Question Paper May 2017

Question 2.
Define Nationality. Explain the essential elements of Nationality.
Meaning: The Word “Nation” is derived from a latin word “NATIO” which means “BORN” (BIRTH) or “Common Descent”.


  1. R.G. Gettle: “Nationality is a population having the common bonds of Race, Language, Religion, Traditions and History.
  2. J.H. Rose : “Nationality is a union of Hearts once made and never unmade”.
  3. J.W. Garner: “Nationality is a group or portion of population which is united by Racial and other bonds”.

Essential Elements of Nationality :
i) Purity of Race : Racial purity helps in the formation and strengthening of the idea of Nationality. Race is a physical phenomenon. It depends on certain distinctions of skull, stature, hair, complexion etc. These distinctions serve as a cementing bond among the members of a group.

But we should remember that common race is not an indispens¬able factor in the growth of Nationality. Modern races are so mixed that none of them can claim to be pure. Pure races have disappeared because of wars and migrations. Racial purity is now a myth only.

Ex : Canada and United states have transformed into single nations inspite of their racial diversities in their respective populations. Similarly, Australia and Britain are two distinct Nations although they belong to one racial stock.

2) Common Language : Language plays a key role in the promotion of nationality. The philosophers and scientists said that common language is essential for the development of nationality. Language is a medium to express all their feelings. It helps to express one’s ownselves to have cordial relations and to share the miseries and happiness in a group languages also promotes common feelings and traditions. Common language promotes the feeling of oneness and keeps the entire race on single track.

3) Common Religion : Religion is one important factor to strengthen nationality. There are many instances when people of different nationalities with common religion remain citizens in the same state. For instance, the main reason for the partition of Indian subcontinent into India and Pakistan in 1947 lies in the religion.

4) Geographical Unity: Geographical unity is necessary for the emergence of nationality. Nationality sentiments prevail and develop among the people living in a single geographical area. The people residing in such an area love, worship their country and make sacrifices for the sake of their motherland. People, who belong to one religion, converse, the same language, same race living in a geographical area inculcate and improve their nationality Sentiments. The formation of Israel in 1946 was purely due to the feelings of the hitherto wandering Jewish people to live in a single geographical area. Hence their desire of live in a territory made them united. This ultimately transformed them as patriotic persons.

5) Common History : Common History is considered as an important element of Nationality. It invokes an inspiration among the people and binds them together. Some historical incidents may give a chance to the people to develop national sentiments.
Ex : Indians have learnt the lessons of Nationalism from the British legacy.

6) Common Culture : Culture in its broad sense means a way of life. It is reflected through certain common elements, like dress, customs, conventions, food habits, religious beliefs, ethical values etc. They easily develop into a single Nation. These elements bind the people together and hold together.

7) Common Political aspirations : Nationality sentiments prevail and develop among the people having common political aspirations. The political ideas, conventions and institutions which were formed due to the single political rule will have a considerable impact and influence over the people. For instance, the Swiss people love very much their direct democratic devices in political matters. Similarly the Americans express the feeling of worship towards their constitution. The British people also feel proud of their political and judicial institutions like rule of law, parliamentary democracy and judicial review etc.

8) Common Economic ties: This element of nationality has been stressed by ‘Karl Marx’. Since then onwards the importance of this element has been increasing. The Russians have great regard for their economic system,‘eventhough there exist diversities. Their unflinching love for socialism inspired nationalism among them. They successfully repulsed the attacks of Germany during the Second World War. Thus the common economic ties fnade them united and integrated them into a nation.

AP Inter 1st Year Civics Question Paper May 2017

Question 3.
Identify the Safeguards of Rights.
Introduction : Rights are the essential conditions for the development of the personality of individuals. They are upheld by the laws of the state. Individuals cannot achieve progress in the absence of the Rights.


  1. T.H. Green : “Rights are those powers claimed and recognized as contributory to the common good.”
  2. HJ. Laski: “Rights are those conditions of social life without which no man can seek in general to be himself at his best.”

Safeguards of Rights : Individuals enjoy their rights only when they were fully protected or safeguarded by the State. In this regard, the following elements act as the safeguards of the rights.

1) Democratic Rule : Democratic rule safeguards the rights of the people to a great extent. People can enjoy their rights perfectly in democratic states only. This system makes constitutional and legal provisions for safeguarding the right of the people.

2) Written and Rigid Constitution : A written constitution clearly defines the powers and functions of the government. It also explains about the various limitations of governmental authority. Besides, a rigid constitution will guarantee the rights of the people by making it difficult for the rulers and legislators to make amendments on flimsy grounds.

3) Constitutional Incorporation : Incorporation of fundamental rights in the constitution will prevent the encroachment of individual rights by the government. Such an arrangement protects the rights of the individuals to a great extent.

4) Separation of Powers : The powers of the government should be separated among the three organs of the government. Such as measure would act as a check against other organ. Ultimately, it serves as a safeguard of individual liberty.

5) Decentralisation of Powers : Individuals enjoy their rights, when powers are decentralised among the governmental institutions. This involves allocation of powers at various levels – national, provisional, local either on functional or territorial basis.

6) Rule of Law : Rule of law implies equality before law. It also denotes equal application of laws to the citizens. It gives no scope for discrimination between citizens on the grounds of region, religion, caste, colour, community etc.

7) Independent and Impartial Judiciary : Independent and impartial judiciary is another safeguard of rights. Judges in higher judicial bodies will deliver judgement with impartial and independent outlook. In the process of delivering justice, they issue certain writs for immediate protection of the rights.

8) Indepedent Press : Independent and honest press is another essential safeguard of rights of individuals. Such agency will be able to disseminate news and views impartially and without fear or favour to anybody. In this regard the state should not try to threaten and silence the press. Then only individuals enjoy their rights to the maximum extent.

9) Social and Economic Equalities : Social and economic equalities are necessary for enjoying one’s rights. People will be able to utilize their rights properly and positively when there are social and economic equalities in the state. These equalities include absence of casteism, communalism, linguism, wide spread economic inequalities, exploitation etc.

10) Eternal Vigilance : Eternal vigilance is said to be the most important safeguard of rights of individuals. Individuals must be vigilant and cautious about the policies of the government. They should oppose the despotic tendencies of the government through democratic and constitutional methods. Under no circumstances they should allow the self seeking politicians to acquire power. Besides several other elements like judicial review, recall, strong opposition etc., are considered as the safeguards of rights.

AP Inter 1st Year Civics Question Paper May 2017

Question 4.
What do you mean by Democracy ? Write about the direct democratic devices.
Meaning: The term Democracy is derived from two greek words namely, “Demos” and “Kratos”. Demos means people and Kratos mean rule (or) authority.

Definitions :

  1. Abraham LincoIn : “Democracy is a government of the people, by the people and for the people”.
  2. Lord Bryce: “Democracy is that form of government in which the ruling power of the state is vested not in a particular class but in the members of the community as a whole”.
  3. J.R. Seely : “Democracy is a government in which every one has a share”.

Direct Democracy : Direct Democracy is said to prevail when people themselves directly express their views and participate in the deliberative and administrative affairs of the government. People in direct democracy assume all powers of making laws. They formulate laws at a meeting attended by all the people. Direct Democracy is prevalent in Switzerland. In Switzerland, the citizens living in some small cantons meet together on a Sunday in April or May to elect their representatives and to make laws.

Devices Direct Democracy :
There are four devices prescribed in direct democracies to enable the people to participate directly in the administrative activities of the State.
Those are
1) Referendum
2) Initiative
3) Recall and
4) Plebiscite.

These methods may be explained as follows.
1. Referendum : It is one of the direct democratic devices. Literally it means, “must be referred to the people”. It is a device where by the electorate may veto a proposed legislation or a bill which the legislature has already passed. In other words, bills passed by the legislature are the voters for their approval or disapproval. If majority of the voters approve them, they become acts. But if they vote against them, they will be given up. Hence, referendum is known as “Popular Veto”.

It is of two types –

  1. Compulsory referendum : All the constitutional bills must be sent to the people.
  2. Optional Referendum : An ordinary bill passed by the legislative may be or may not be sent to the people. However, even that ordinary bill must be sent to the people, if a definite number of people demand it.
    Ex : In Switzerland 30,000 people or eight cantons (States) can demand referendum on an ordinary bill.

2. Initiative : It is another device of direct democracy. It is a method by means of which the people propose legislation i.e.; they can ask the legislature to pass a particular law. For instance, in Switzerland, if 50,000 voters request the legislature to pass a law, then the proposal is submitted to the consideration of the people. If majority of the people (30,000) approve it, then it becomes an act.

Unlike referendum, initiative provides a chance to the people to start the making of law.
It is of two types :

  1. Formulative Initiative : People present a bill to the legislature
  2. Unformulative Initiative : People present a demand to the legislature as king it to pass a bill.

3. Recall : It is another device of Direct Democracy. It means “Calling Back”. According to this method a specific number of voters may call back or dismiss an elected officer or a member of the legislature before the expiry of his term, if he is irresponsible. By means of this, the people can remove a representative or an officer from office when he fails to discharge his duties properly.

4. Plebiscite : The term ‘Plebiscite” is derived from a French word “Plebiscitum”, which means “decree of the people”. It is used to obtain the opinion of the people on an important political issue or when there is a dispute regarding some territory. The question of accession or secession or territory is generally solved by means of plebiscite. It is not concerned with legislation. It is not apart of legal process. It is only a democratic method of ascertaining the opinion of the people on any political issue of public importance.

Question 5.
Point out the functions of the Judiciary.
The Judiciary is the third organ of the government. It refers to those officers of Government whose function is to apply the existing law to individual cases. It consists of the magistrates and judges charged with the duty of administering justice. In brief, it is that branch of the Government which settles disputes and administers justice.

Functions of the Judiciary :
1. Interpretation of Laws: The primary function of judiciary is interpretation of laws. Judiciary interprets laws and applies them to specific cases that come before it. It applies the elements of customs, statutes and constitutional provisions to specific cases.

Whenever the existing law is inadequate for delivering justice, it applies the principles of justice, equity and morality. As Gettle remarks, “Constitution and laws are always rigid. Flexibility must be given to them by judges”.

2. Custodian of the Constitution: Judiciary acts as guardian of the Constitution in federal system. It protects the spirit and sanctity of the constitution. Judiciary, in a federation, is empowered to declare a law as unconstitutional if it is inconsistent with the provisions of the Constitution.

3. Guardian of Civil Liberties : Judiciary acts as guardian of civil liberties of the people. It protects individual liberties by punishing those who encroach upon it. It also protects the people against the arbitrary actions of the government.

For instance, in the case of India, the Constitution under Articles 32 and 226 empowered the Supreme Court and High Courts to act as the guardians of fundamental rights of the citizens. These courts can issue injunctions to prevent the arbitrary acts of some individuals and organisations. Such injunctions include Habeas Corpus, Mandamus, Prohibition, Quo-warranto and Certiorari.

4. Federal equilibrium : Judiciary plays a key role in the federal system. It solves disputes between the Centre and the State Governments and also between States. It Sees that neither the Central Government nor the State Government exceed the constitutional limitations.

5. Advisory Functions : Judiciary renders advice on the request of the executive or the legislature. For instance the President of India may seek the advice of the Supreme Court on any question of Constitutional Law. In England, the practice to request a court to give declaratory judgement is very common. The Crown sometimes asks the judicial committee of the Privy Council to give its advisory opinion upon questions of law.

6. Appellate Jurisdiction : The highest court of justice hears appeals over the judgements of the lower courts. At times, it ratifies the judgements pronounced by the lower courts. Sometimes, it may reverse some of their judgements.

7. Maintenance of records : Judiciary maintains all the records of the cases along with their judgements. These records will help the advocates and judges in the trial of similar cases that may occur in future.

8. Acting as Head of the State : In some countries, under certain , conditions, the Chief Justice of the highest Court assumes the powers of the acting head of the State in the absence of President and VicePresident in office.

9. Administrative Functions : The Supreme Court and High Courts are entrusted with some administrative functions. They make suggestions to the executive head in appointing the judges of the lower courts. The higher courts supervise the functioning of the lower courts. For instance the high courts in India are given the obligation of supervising the activities of the subordinate courts in their jurisdiction.

AP Inter 1st Year Civics Question Paper May 2017

Section – B (8 × 5 = 40)

Note :

  • Answer any eight of the following questions is not exceeding 20 lines each.
  • Each question carries five marks.

Question 6.
Explain any two essential elements of the State.
Essential elements of state : State is the predominant and superior politico – social institution existing in the society. It consists of 4 essential elements. These elements of state may be explained in a detailed way in the following paragraphs.

1) Population : Population is the fundamental and essential element of state. There can be no state without population. Plato, Aristotle, Rousseau and others considered this feature as an important one. The famous poet Sri. Gurajada Apparao also states that it is the people, rather than the land, that comprise the state. Political writers differ in their opinions regarding the exact size of population possessed by the state. While Plato fixetl 5,040, Rousseau fixed 10,000 to be an ideal population for a state. But today we can find the countries like China and India which have more than 100 crores of population on one hand and the countries like Andora, San Marino are having small number of people on the other hand is the modern world.

2) Territory : Territory is another essential element of the state. It is necessary for the origin and existence of the state. There can be no state without territory. Every state must have more or less territory of its own. There is no unanimous opinion among the political writers regarding the size of territory of the state. Some preferred vast territory, where as others preferred small territory. But today we can find the countries lik^America and Canada having large territory on one hand, and the countries like Vatican, Monaco having very less territory on the other hand in the modern world.

Question 7.
Point out the differences between State and Society.
Introduction : State and society are two important human organizations. Maclver described that blood relationship (kinship) created society and society in turn led to the state.

State: State is a people organized for law within a definite territory.

Society : Society is a group of men brought together by a system of common ideas, interests and aspirations.

Differences between State and Society : Inspite of close relationship, state and society differ from one another. This may be informed through the following table.

State Society
1. State is a political organization. 1. Society is a social organization.
2. State regulates only the external relation of men in society. 2. Society controls both internal and external activities of men in society.
3. State has definite territory. 3. Society has no definite territory.
4. State has sovereignty. 4. Society has no sovereignty.
5. Membership of the state is compulsory. 5. Membership of the society is voluntary.
6. State is permanent. 6. Society is not permanent.
7. Laws of the state are uniform. 7. Rules of society are not uniform.
8. State came into existence after the origin of society. 8. Society is much older institution than the state.

Question 8.
Is India a Nation State ? Explain.
It is interesting to know whether India is a Nation-State. Some say that India is a uni-national state. As against this some state that it is a Multi-National State. It is argued that India is a Uni-National State rather than a Multi-National State due to the following reasons.

  • It consists of people who posses* the features of uni-national state like common history, common culture and traditions.
  • The Indians showed their spirit of National integration on many occassions after independence.
  • They stood as one and extended support to their government when our country was faced with wars from Pakistan and China in 1962 and 1965 respectively.
  • They stood united under the leadership of Mahatma Gandhi throughout the freedom struggle against the British rule in India.
  • From the begining, our country won name and fame for its unity in diversity. Even- though the people of India belong to different regions, they are Indians first and Indians in the last resort i.e., they owe indebtedness to their respective religions and languages.
  • Some common elements concerning national anthem, national heritage, culture, constitution, national flag and the government inspire the nationalist feelings and inculcate the national integration among the people.
  • People celebrate all the national festivals with great enthusiasm and spirit.
    Hence we may say that India is a nation state with the characteristic features of unity in diversity.

Question 9.
Write about any three sources of Law.
Introduction : Law is an important concept in the study of political science. It is an important feature of modern state. Law regulates the external behaviour of individuals. It determines and regulates the nature of individual’s activities.

Meaning : The term “Law” is derived from the teutonic (German) word “Lag” which means “To Lay”, “To Set” or something fixed.

The second dimension is that the word “Law” had its roots in the Latin words “Jus and Jungere” which means bond or Tie.

Definitions :
Political thinkers defined law in different ways which are listed below:

  1. “Law is the command of the sovereign”. – John Austin.
  2. “Law is the system of rights and obligations which the State enforces”. – T.H. Green.
  3. “Law is a general rule of external action enforced by the sovereign’political authority”. – T.E. Holland.

Sources of Law: Professor T.E. Holland mentioned six sources of Law.
They are :
1) Customs
2) Religion
3) Judicial Decisions
4) Scientific commentaries
5) Equity and
6) Legislature.

1) Customs, Practices and Traditions : These are one of the important sources of law. In primitive societies, there were no laws in written form. All disputes were settled in accordance with social customs and traditions. Customs regulated the social life in the early societies. Customs and traditions cannot be laws in political sense. But, when the State recognises certain traditions, they in turn become laws. Ex : The laws relating to marriage, divorce etc., found in our Country are based on traditions, the common law of England.

2) Religion: In ancient times customary laws and religious laws were intermixed. The religious teachers enjoyed unlimited powers in those times. Their decisions were treated on par with laws. The primitive men believed that the judgements of the religious teachers had divine sanction. The ancient Roman laws were merely the religious laws. The Hindu and Muslim laws derived inspiration mainly from religion.

3) Judicial Decisions / Adjudication / Judgement of the Courts : The judgements of the judges also serve as a source of law. Generally, judges interpret laws, apply them to particular cases and deliver judgements. Their judgements become precedents and are usually followed by other judges in similar cases. In course of time such judgements acquire the status of law. In this way judges add to the law of the country. There are many instances that new laws have evolved by way of interpretation. Many of the laws in Britain, America and India have originated-from the judgements of the Judges of the respective countries.

AP Inter 1st Year Civics Question Paper May 2017

Question 10.
Define Liberty. Describe any three types of Liberty.
Introduction : The concept of Liberty is of great significance in the study of political science. Liberty is an essential condition without which man cannot develop his personality.

Meaning : The term liberty is derived from the Latin word “LIBER” which means free from restrictions.

Definitions: Liberty is defined in many ways by different political thinkers.
Some of them are cited below :

  1. “Liberty means the absence of restraints”. – J.R. Seeley
  2. “Liberty is the freedom of an individual to express without any external hindrance to his personality”.
    – G.D.H. Cole
  3. “Liberty means the positive power of doing or enjoying something worth doing or enjoying”. – TH. Green

1. Natural liberty : Natural liberty is understood as uncontrolled freedom or absolute freedom. It is believed that natural liberty existed in the pre-social and pre-state human life. According to this concept there were no rules and regulations except the laws of nature in the past. All persons were free to do anything according to their will and capacity. But this type of liberty is not possible in civilised society. This kind of liberty existed before the origin of state.

2. Civil liberty : Civil liberty is also known as personal liberty. It relates to the individual’s freedom in his life as a member of the social organisation. It is enjoyed by the individuals in the society. Civil liberty is the essential pre-requisite to the existence and survival of human beings. It enables them to lead happy, honourable and civilised life in the state. So it is a must to every one. The state recognises the various freedoms of individuals. Civil liberty is manifested in several rights.

These include A) Right to Life B) Right to Work C) Right to Property D) Right to Religion E) Right to Speech, Expression, Assembly, Movement and Residence etc.

3. Economic liberty : Economic liberty means the right of everyone to earn his livelihood. Laski described economic liberty as the security and opportunity to find reasonable significance in earning one’s daily bread. Economic liberty ensures everyone freedom from want and fear, hunger and starvation, unemployment and insufficiency. It will also be secured by adopting the following measures.

  1. Provision of minimum wages.
  2. Guarantee of the right to work.
  3. Protecting the workers from unemployment, sickness and other types of insecurity.
  4. Providing adequate leisure.
  5. Giving representation to the workers in the management of the industries.

Question 11.
Explain Political Rights.
Political rights are those rights which enable the individuals to participate in the political affairs of the state.

The following are the important political rights :
1) Right to vote : Right to vote is the most important political right enjoyed by the citizens in modern democratic states. It serves as a powerful weapon for adult citizens in choosing their representatives to various legislative bodies. It makes them as real sovereign. All the citizens are entitled to this right without any discrimination based on creed, colour, language, race, region, religion, sex etc. However, persons such as aliens and minors are deprived of this right.

2) Right to contest in elections : This right empowers the citizens to contest as candidates to various legislative bodies in the state. Especially this right enables those, who have political sagacity, enthusiasm and dynamic nature, to actively participate in the political dynamics of the state. As a result, it increases political enthusiasm among the citizens. Such an element is considered as a base’s of democratic polity.

3) Right to hold public offices : This right provides opportunities to the citizens to hold various public offices for a definite period. It gives no scope for exclusion of citizens or conferring special privileges to some at the cost of others. This helps the citizens to exercise authority in a dignified manner.

4) Right to petition : This right enables the citizens to forward petitions denoting their requirements or grievances. It is considered as a vital political right in the modern state. The citizens could be able to find solutions to their immediate or long pending issues by bringing them to the notice of the government through this right. It also helps the public authorities to know the grievances of the people and attend to them properly and promptly.

5) Right to criticism : This right gives opportunity to the citizens to criticize the various public policies and programmes. It also enables them to highlight the omissions and commissions of the leaders, and administrative personnel at various levels. It also gives scope for the citizens to render positive and constructive criticism about the on goings in the government from time to time.

Question 12.
Describe any three types of Justice.
Meaning : The world Justice is derived from a latin word “Jus” which Means “To bind”.
Definition : “Justice means speaking the truth and paying one’s debts”. – Caphalous

1. Natural Justice : Natural Justice is based on the notion that every person in the world possesses some rights for availing the natural resources. Natural resources provide support to the life of each and every creature on earth. As the human beings are the only rational creatures, it is their responsibility to see that natural resources have to be judiciously exploited. Human beings must keep in mind the requirements of future generations in this regard.

2. Social Justice : Social Justice envisages a balance between rights of individuals and social control. It facilitates the fulfillment of the legitimate expectations of the individuals under the existing laws. It ensure’s several benefits and extends protection to the individuals against the interference or encroachment from others in society. It is consistent with the unity and the integrity of the nation. It fulfills the needs of the society.

Social Justice enforces the principle of equality before law. It also extends protection to the downtrodden and weaker section of society.

3. Political Justice: Political Justice symbolises political equality. It implies provision of political rights to all the adult citizens in a state. It facilitates free and fair participation of the citizens in the governance of the country. It is manifested to the full extent in times of elections. It allows the citizens for their active participation in day- to-day administration. It may be noted that political justice prevails in the State when the following conditions are prevalent

  1. Rule of law
  2. Independent Judiciary
  3. Popular elections to the representative bodies
  4. Political parties
  5. Freedom of press and assembly
  6. Democratic rule etc.

AP Inter 1st Year Civics Question Paper May 2017

Question 13.
Point out the ways for overcoming the hindrances of Good Citizenship.
The following are some ways to remove hindrances to good citizenship.
1) Solving People’s Grievances : First of all government should address the basic grievances of the people. Issues of poverty and unemployment should be tackled with great commitment. Good citizenship can’t be realized when people’s basic needs are not satisfied.

2) Education and awareness : Education, which is the most important need of the hour should be given top priority. Steps should be taken to spread education and awareness among the people. Citizens must be provided with such instructions which make possible the understanding of human life. They must be trained for expressing their wishes and aspirations which they come across in their life.

3) Efforts of Leaders: Citizens should always feel that government itself cannot provide succour and rescue them on every occasion. The leaders at various levels should come forward and co-operate with the government in promoting good citizenship.

On the whole, Lord Bryce suggested two types of remedies for overcoming the hindrances of good citizenship. They are: 1. Mechanical and 2. Ethical. The first relates to the laws of the state and second relates to the character of the citizens.

Mechanical Remedies improve the machinery of the state to make it more useful to the public. The entire social structure has to be built up on the principles of equality, justice and democracy. Citizens should be allowed to utilise their civil and political rights to their maximum extent.

Ethical remedies enhance the general character of citizens in the state. Ignorance and narrow party interests must be avoided. On the other hand, honesty and literacy would induce the citizens to take active role in public life.

Question 14.
Explain any three merits and demerits of Democracy.
Merits : Democracy has the following merits.
a) Efficient government : Prof. Garner described democracy as an efficient and effective government. The government in democracy carries all its activities efficiently and effectively both in normal times and emergencies.

b) Upholds individual liberties : Democracy is the only government that upholds individual liberties. It guarantees certain civil rights to the people thereby providing an opportunity for them to become ideal and responsible citizens.

c) Assures equality : Democracy assures equality of individuals in political and economic spheres. The people living in democratic nation enjoy all the political. Civil and economic rights and privileges equally without any discrimination.

Demerits : Democracy has the following demerits.
a) Rule of Ignorance : Plato criticised democracy as a rule of ignorance. Aristotle called it a perverted form of government. Anybody can become a ruler in this system and no special qualifications are prescribed for voters or rulers.

b) Favourable to rich : The ruling political party in democracy v depends on the rich people for their financial support at the time of elections. Therefore it becomes an obligation to the . party in power to make laws which are favourable to the rich.

c) Quality is ignored : The votes in democracy are counted not weighted. Everything is decided according to majority opinion. The quality of majority cannot always be correct. Thus quantity is given greater importance than quality.

Question 15.
What are the features of Secular State ?
Features of Secular State : Secular State comprises the following features.
1. No place for religion : Secular States does not assign significance to any particular religion. It will not make laws or implement them on religious grounds.

2. Equal status : Secular State accords equal status to its people. It makes no differentiation between individuals on the grounds of their caste, colour, community, religion, race, region, language etc. As a result, people will have satisfaction and extend co-operation to the government in the implementation of various policies and programmes. They live together with the fellow members of other religious denominations.

3. No state religion : Secular state does not recognize any particular religion as the state religion. It adopts neutral policy in religious matters. It implements various laws and social welfare measures without basing on the religious feelings of the people. It will not assign special role to any particular religion in public activities. All public places like educational institutions, government offices and judicial organizations will carry On their activities with out aligning to a particular religion.

AP Inter 1st Year Civics Question Paper May 2017

Question 16.
Explain the merits and demerits of a Rigid Constitution.
Rigid constitution : Rigid constitution is one whose provisions cannot be changed easily. In this system the constitutional amendment methods are different from those of ordinary laws. There will be a special procedure for amending the provisions of the rigid constitution. The rigid constitution will have firmness due to its special procedures of amendment. The Constitution of the United States is the best example of a rigid constitution.

Merits :

  1. Rigid constitution secures political stability.
  2. It is a product of political experience.
  3. It avoids hasty and ill-considered legislation.
  4. It protects the fundamental rights of the citizens.
  5. It preserves and enhances the interests of the provinces in a federal state.
  6. It is suitable for all kinds of people.

Demerits :

  1. Rigid constitution cannot be easily amended to suit the changing needs.
  2. It may affect the nation’s progress and growth.
  3. It is not suitable for tackling the issues arising during emergencies.

Question 17.
Discuss the features of the Federal Government.
Governments are classified into Federal and Unitary on the basis of the distribution of powers between the Centre and the States. A federal system is one in which the powers of the government are distributed constitutionally between the Centre and the State Governments. Ex America, Switzerland etc.

Meaning : The term “Federation” is derived from a Latin word “Foedus” which means ‘Treaty of Agreement”.

Definitions :

  1. A.V. Dicey : “A federal government is a political contrivance intended to reconcile national unity with the maintenance of State’s rights.
  2. J.W. Garner : Federal government is a system in which the totality of governmental power is divided and distributed between the Centre and the States by the National Constitution”.
  3. Hamilton : “Federation is an association of states that forms a new one”.
  4. K.C. Wheare: “A federal government is a method of dividing powers so that the regional and Central Government are each within their sphere, co-ordinate and independent.”

Features of Federal Government :
Federal Government comprises several features. They may be denoted as follows :
1) Written Constitution : A Federal Government normally has a Written Constitution. Such a Constitution is considered as the supreme law of the land. It defines, decides and devises powers between the Central and State Governments. Hence, it became a practical necessity of Federal Government.

2) Dual Citizenship : Federal State provides dual citizenship to the citizens. Accordingly, the citizens will have membership in both the Centre and the States simultaneously. As a result, they participate in the election of representatives to both the national and provisional bodies.

3) Division of Powers : In a Federation, the Powers of Govern-ment are divided between the Centre and the States. The Central Government exercises control over matters of national importance like defence, external affairs, customs, exports and imports etc. On the other hand, certain matters like education, agriculture, health, irrigation etc.’, having provincial importance are allocated to the State Governments.

4) Bicameralism : Bicameralism is another important feature of a federation. In a federal state, we observe two chambers in the union legislature and some of the provincial legislative organisations. The first or lower chamber represents the interests of the people. The second chamber or upper house comprises the members representing the States.

5) Rigidity : Generally, the Constitution of a federation is very rigid. So it cannot be amended easily. The concurrence of the Centre and States is required for amending some of the important provisions. So, neither the Centre nor the states unilaterally can amend the constitutional provisions.

6) Independent Judiciary : Independent judiciary is another essential feature of a Federal Government. Such an organisation will settle disputes between the Centre and the States. The Judges in Judiciary constitutionally enjoy independent position. Once appointed, they could not be removed by any body under normal conditions. They will be there to safeguard the fundamental rights of citizens. They can check the misuse of powers by the executive and legislative authorities.

Section – C (15 × 2 = 30)

Note :

  • Answer any fifteen of the following questions in not exceeding 5 lines each.
  • Each question carries two marks.

Question 18.
Write about ancient city states.
Ancient Greece consisted of a large number of city states. They were small both in size and population. For example, Athens,Sparta, Corinth. Each city state had its own government. The greeks based their political philosophy on the concept of city-state.
The population of the city-state was divided into three groups :

  1. Citizens
  2. Aliens and
  3. Slaves.

AP Inter 1st Year Civics Question Paper May 2017

Question 19.
What do you mean by Government ?
Government is the third essential element of the state. There can be no state without government. It is an instrument which fulfills aims and goals of the state.

Question 20.
Define the term, “Rule of Law”.
Rule of law is an important type of administration of justice. It originated in England it implies.

  1. Legal equality : All are equal before law.
  2. No Arbitrary action : Punishment is given only when an existing law is violated.
  3. No Special Rights : No Individual is above law and law does not recognise any special privileges.

Question 21.
What is Constitutional Law ?
The basic law according to which the Government in a State is conducted is called constitutional law. It defines the political system. It is usually prepared by a body known as Constituent Assembly, formed only for that purpose. All other laws in the State are subordinate to this law. It also contains fundamental rights and fundamental duties.

Question 22.
Mention any four safeguards of Liberty.
The four safeguards of liberty are :
a) Democractic system
b) Rule of law
c) Decentralisaion of power
d) Independent Judiciary

Question 23.
WOiat do you mean by Social Equality ?
Social Equality stands for equality of status and absence of class distinctions and discriminations. It exists when no individual is made to suffer on account of his caste, class, colour, creed, race etc. Infact it has opposed the practice of untouchability.

Question 24.
Classify Rights.
Rights are broadly classified into three categories namely.

  1. Natural rights
  2. Moral rights and
  3. Legal rights.

Legal rights inturjn classified into
(a) Civil rights
(b) Political rights and
(c) Economic rights.

AP Inter 1st Year Civics Question Paper May 2017

Question 25.
Give two examples of Responsibilities.
The following are some examples of responsibilities.

  1. Payment of taxes.
  2. Cooperation in law and order matters.
  3. Honest exercise of franchise etc.

Question 26.
Define Justice.
“Justice is giving to every man his due. It is a combination of reason, courage, appetite and will in terms of the state” – Plato.

Question 27.
What is Distributive Justice ?
Distributive justice implies the distribution of goods and wealth of citizens by the state on Merit basis. Aristotle stated that justice is a sort of proportions. He regarded it as the most powerful instrument against revolutions. But modern writers like John Rawls denied Aristotle’s view. He pointed out that inequalities are inherent in the society. He remarked that inequalities must be balanced by some restrictive arrangements in the political system.

Question 28.
What is menat by Jus Sanguinis ?
Acquiring citizenship by kinship or blood relation is called Jus Sanguinis. According to Jus Sanguinis, a child acquires the citizenship of the parents irrespective of its place of birth. Blood relation alone determines the citizenship in Jus Sanguinis method.

Question 29.
Mention any two qualities of a Good Citizen.

  • Good character : Good character is essential for a good citizen. A good citizen should be courageous, just, helpful, kind-hearted, sympathetic, truthful and virtuous in letter and spirit.
  • Sound health : A good citizen should have good health and strength. Healthy citizens make the nation healthy and wealthy.

Question 30.
Write any four conditions essential for the success of Democracy.

  1. Sound system of education
  2. Independent press
  3. Strong opposition
  4. Social equality

Question 31.
What is meant by Recall ?
Recall means to call back. The representatives will be called back by the people in case they are inefficient. Hence, this method helps the responsibilities properly for fear of being called back on the grounds in inefficiency.

AP Inter 1st Year Civics Question Paper May 2017

Question 32.
What are the types of Secularism ?
Secularism is of two types namely,

  1. Subjective,
  2. Objective

Subjective secularism means the gradual separation of religious feelings from everyday transactions of the people.
Objective secularism implies the elimination of religious rituals and institutions from public life and government activity.

Question 33.
What do you mean by Theocracy ?
The state having an official religion is called a theocratic state. In such states all other religions or religious activities are either prohibited or discouraged or highly regulated or controlled by the state. All the official and important offices of the state are either appointed or elected only those from the official religion. State officially participates in the religious affairs and rituals.

Question 34.
Mention any two differences between Rigid and Flexible Constitutions.
Differences between Flexible and Rigid constitution.

Flexible constitution Rigid constitution
1. Constitutional matters are not clearly mentioned. 1. Constitutional matters are clearly written.
2. Constitution can be easily amended. 2. Constitution cannot be easily amended.

Question 35.
What is an Enacted Constitution ?
Enacted constitution is also known as conventional constitution. It is consciously made. It is the outcome of the deliberations of the constituent assembly specially constituted for that purpose. It is promulgated by the sovereign authority i.e., king or queen or parliament.
Ex : The constituion of India and the U.S.A.

AP Inter 1st Year Civics Question Paper May 2017

Question 36.
Write about Aristotle’s Classification on Government.
Aristotle classified governments on the basis of two elements, namely:

  1. Number of rulers
  2. Aims of the state.

He again classified Governments into normal and perverted forms. He says monarchy, aristocracy and polity as the normal form of governments. Tyranny oligarchy and democracy are the perverted form of Governments.

Question 37.
How many organs of Government are there ? Name them.
Theory of separation of powers is propounded by Montesquieu in his famous book ‘The Spirit of Laws’. The powers among the three organs of the Government in presidential executive will be distributive on the basis of the theory of separation of powers. Its main feature is Checks and Balance’. Which means the three organs of the Government possess equal powers and each organ checks the other two organs from crossing their limits.

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