AP Inter 1st Year Civics Question Paper May 2015

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AP Inter 1st Year Civics Question Paper May 2015

Time: 3 Hours
Maximum Marks: 100

Section – A (3 × 10 = 30)

Note :

  • Answer any three of the following questions in 40 lines each.
  • Each question carries ten marks.

Question 1.
Define Political Science and explain its scope.
Introduction : Political Science is a premier social science. It is mainly concerned with the study of the state in its relation with Society, Citizens, Associations and the world at large. Aristotle is hailed as the Father of Political Science. He wrote famous book “THE POLITICS”.

Origin of the word Politics : Aristotle, the Father of Political Science used the term “POLITICS” for the first time in his famous book “POLITICS”. The term “POLITICS” is derived from a greek word “POLIS” and latin word “POLITICUS” which means the city state.

Definitions of Political Science :
Political Scientists gave various definitions on Political Science. They are as follows :

  1. J.W. Garner : “Political Science begins and ends with the state”.
  2. Stephen Leacock : “Political Science deals with the government”.
  3. David Easton : “Political Science is concerned with the authoritative allocation of values for a society”.

Scope of Political Science : The scope of Political Science means the subject matter covered by it or the topics which are included in its study. It may be explained in the following ways :

i) Study of man in Relation to the Society and State : Aristotle stated that “Man is a Social Animal”. Man can satisfy his basic needs like food, clothing, shelter and protection in the society. Political Science explains the relationship beween man and society. It examines how man should adjust himself with the societys. It is imperative that the modern man should develop proper attitude towards the society. This is possible only when he identifies himself with the society.

Political Science is concerned with the perennial and central issue of establishing proper relationship between the state and the individuals. It deals with many topics T)f state activity, such as limitations of Political Authority and sphere of Individual Freedoms.

ii) Study of State : Aristotle also Stated that man is a Political Animal. State is a human and political institution. It came into existence for the sake of man and continue in existence for providing happy and prosperous life for man. Individuals became members of the state since its inception. We can’t imagine the life of individuals outside of the state. Political Science studies the intimate Relationship between the state and the citizens. It also studies the Nature, Functions and Various theories of state authority.

It also comprises a study of the various activities of the state from that of ancient police state to the modern welfare state. Thus, Political Science deals with the Present, Past and Future aspects of the state.

iii) Study of the Government: Government is an important essential element of Modern State. It is an instrument which fulfills aims and goals of the state. There can be no state with out a government. Government formulates, expresses and implements the will of the state. Government consists of three organs namely Legislature, Executive and Judiciary. Legislature makes the laws, Executive implements the laws and Judiciary interpretes the laws. Political Science studies the meaning, forms, structure, nature and functions of the government. It also discusses the relationship among the various organs of the government. Hence, Political Science is treated as a science of government.

iv) Study of Associations and Institutions : Associations and Institutions help the Individuals for their moral, religious, cultural, scientific and technological progress. These carry on their activities at local, regional, national and international levels. Individuals join as members in these Associations out of their interests or purposes. There prevails a great linkage between these voluntary Associations and Institutions. Associations and Institutions in Modern times play a significant role in the Formulation and Implementation of policies of the state and government. Voluntary bodies such as trade unions, peasant groups, professional bodies etc., will have a great impact on the state and government. Political Science explains the nature, structure and functions of the various Associations and Institutions.

v) Study of Rights and Responsibilities : Scope of Political Science includes the study of Rights and Responsibilities of citizens. Citizens in democratic states enjoy certain rights such as right to life, right to liberty, right to property etc. Political Science enumerates the definition, classification and different theories of Rights. Similarly, citizens will have some Responsibilities towards the state. These include paying taxes, obeying the laws etc. It explains the significance of Rights and Responsibilities of the citizens. Hence, Political Science examines the Realtionship between Rights and Responsibilities.

vi) Study of National and International Issues : The scope of Political Science covers various issues of Modern state in relation with other states in matters of safeguarding Territorial integrity and Sovereignty. It studies the topics like Cold war, Balance of power, Disarmament, Detente etc. Modern states are not isolated. They depend upon other states in many spheres like importing raw materials, exporting finished goods, transport, technology, services and communications. This requires close relations among the states in international sphere. Political Science discusses not only the domestic policies of the state but also the issues of international dimensions. It covers a wide range of topics such as diplomacy, international politics, international law, international organisations etc.

vii) Study of Power : The behaviouralists of 20th century regarded Political Science as a study of sharing and shaping of power. They pointed out that Political Science discusses how power is grabbed, manipulated and perpetuated to have a control over the society. Morgenthau defined the power as “Man’s control over the Minds and Actions of other Men”.

viii) Study of Public Policy : Modern Political Scientists like David Easton and Gabriel Almond argued that Political Science is a “Policy Science”. They considered Political Science as the study of formulation, execution and evaluation of Public Policy, with the advent of Public Policy the scope of Political Science has further widened to include the dimensions of vital topics such as Industrial Policy, Agricultural Policy, Land Reform Policy, Education Policy, Population Policy etc. Public Policy of a Nation in the context of International Relations plays a crucial role in the formulation of diplomatic, economic, military and scientific strategies.
Conclusion : The above contents show the wide range of subjects that come under the purview of Political Science.

AP Inter 1st Year Civics Question Paper May 2015

Question 2.
Define Nationality and explain the essential elements of Nationality.
Meaning: The Word “Nation” is derived from a latin word “NATIO” which means “BORN” (BIRTH) or “Common Descent”.


  1. R.G. Gettle: “Nationality is a population having the common bonds of Race, Language, Religion, Traditions and History.
  2. J.H. Rose : “Nationality is a union of Hearts once made and never unmade”.
  3. J.W. Garner: “Nationality is a group or portion of population which is united by Racial and other bonds”.

Essential Elements of Nationality :
i) Purity of Race : Racial purity helps in the formation and strengthening of the idea of Nationality. Race is a physical phenomenon. It depends on certain distinctions of skull, stature, hair, complexion etc. These distinctions serve as a cementing bond among the members of a group.

But we should remember that common race is not an indispens¬able factor in the growth of Nationality. Modern races are so mixed that none of them can claim to be pure. Pure races have disappeared because of wars and migrations. Racial purity is now a myth only.

Ex : Canada and United states have transformed into single nations inspite of their racial diversities in their respective populations. Similarly, Australia and Britain are two distinct Nations although they belong to one racial stock.

2) Common Language : Language plays a key role in the promotion of nationality. The philosophers and scientists said that common language is essential for the development of nationality. Language is a medium to express all their feelings. It helps to express one’s ownselves to have cordial relations and to share the miseries and happiness in a group languages also promotes common feelings and traditions. Common language promotes the feeling of oneness and keeps the entire race on single track.

3) Common Religion : Religion is one important factor to strengthen nationality. There are many instances when people of different nationalities with common religion remain citizens in the same state. For instance, the main reason for the partition of Indian subcontinent into India and Pakistan in 1947 lies in the religion.

4) Geographical Unity: Geographical unity is necessary for the emergence of nationality. Nationality sentiments prevail and develop among the people living in a single geographical area. The people residing in such an area love, worship their country and make sacrifices for the sake of their motherland. People, who belong to one religion, converse, the same language, same race living in a geographical area inculcate and improve their nationality Sentiments. The formation of Israel in 1946 was purely due to the feelings of the hitherto wandering Jewish people to live in a single geographical area. Hence their desire of live in a territory made them united. This ultimately transformed them as patriotic persons.

5) Common History : Common History is considered as an important element of Nationality. It invokes an inspiration among the people and binds them together. Some historical incidents may give a chance to the people to develop national sentiments.
Ex : Indians have learnt the lessons of Nationalism from the British legacy.

6) Common Culture : Culture in its broad sense means a way of life. It is reflected through certain common elements, like dress, customs, conventions, food habits, religious beliefs, ethical values etc. They easily develop into a single Nation. These elements bind the people together and hold together.

7) Common Political aspirations : Nationality sentiments prevail and develop among the people having common political aspirations. The political ideas, conventions and institutions which were formed due to the single political rule will have a considerable impact and influence over the people. For instance, the Swiss people love very much their direct democratic devices in political matters. Similarly the Americans express the feeling of worship towards their constitution. The British people also feel proud of their political and judicial institutions like rule of law, parliamentary democracy and judicial review etc.

8) Common Economic ties: This element of nationality has been stressed by ‘Karl Marx’. Since then onwards the importance of this element has been increasing. The Russians have great regard for their economic system,‘eventhough there exist diversities. Their unflinching love for socialism inspired nationalism among them. They successfully repulsed the attacks of Germany during the Second World War. Thus the common economic ties fnade them united and integrated them into a nation.

AP Inter 1st Year Civics Question Paper May 2015

Question 3.
Identify the safeguards of Rights.
Introduction : Rights are the essential conditions for the development of the personality of individuals. They are upheld by the laws of the state. Individuals cannot achieve progress in the absence of the Rights.

Definition :

  1. T.H. Green: “Rights are those powers claimed and recognized as contributory to the common good.”
  2. H.J. Laski: “Rights are those conditions of social life without which no man can seek in general to be himself at his best.”

Safeguards of Rights: Individuals enjoy their rights only when they were fully protected or safeguarded by the State. In this regard, the following elements act as the safeguards of the rights.

1) Democratic Rule : Democratic rule safeguards the rights of the people to a great extent. People can enjoy their rights perfectly in democratic states only. This system makes constitutional and legal provisions for safeguarding the right of the people.

2) Written and Rigid Constitution: A written constitution clearly defines the powers and functions of the government. It also explains about the various limitations of governmental authority. Besides, a rigid constitution will guarantee the rights of the people by making it difficult for the rulers and legislators to make amendments on flimsy grounds.

3) Constitutional Incorporation : Incorporation of fundamental’ rights in the constitution will prevent the encroachment of individual rights by the government. Such an arrangement protects the rights of the individuals to a great extent.

4) Separation of Powers: The powers of the government should be separated among the three organs of the government. Such as measure would act as a check against other organ. Ultimately, it serves as a safeguard of individual liberty.

5) Decentralisation of Powers : Individuals enjoy their rights, when powers are decentralised among the governmental institutions. This involves allocation of powers at various levels – national, provisional, local either on functional or territorial basis.

6) Rule of Law : Rule of law implies equality before law. It also denotes equal application of laws to the citizens. It gives no scope for discrimination between citizens on the grounds of region, religion, caste, colour, community etc.

7) Independent and Impartial Judiciary : Independent and impartial judiciary is another safeguard of rights. Judges in higher judicial bodies will deliver judgement with impartial and independent outlook. In the process of delivering justice, they issue certain writs for immediate protection of the rights.

8) Indepedent Press: Independent and honest press is another essential safeguard of rights of individuals. Such agency will be able to disseminate news and views impartially and without fear or favour to anybody. In this regard the state should not try to threaten and silence the press. Then only individuals enjoy their rights to the maximum extent.

9) Social and Economic Equalities : Social and economic equalities are necessary for enjoying one’s rights. People will be able to utilize their rights properly and positively when there are social and economic equalities in the state. These equalities include absence of casteism, communalism, linguism, wide spread economic inequalities, exploitation etc.

10) Eternal Vigilance : Eternal vigilance is said to be the most important safeguard of rights of individuals. Individuals must be vigilant and cautious about the policies of the government. They should oppose the despotic tendencies of the government through democratic and constitutional methods. Under no circumstances they should allow the self seeking politicians to acquire power. Besides several other elements like judicial review, recall, strong opposition etc., are considered as the safeguards of rights.

AP Inter 1st Year Civics Question Paper May 2015

Question 4.
Explain any five of the merits and demerits of democracy.
Introduction : Democracy is an important and most significant form of government. In Democracy the people rule themselves either directly or indirectly through their periodically elected representatives.

Meaning : The term Democracy is derived from two greek words namely, “Demos” and “Kratos”. Demos means people and Kratos mean rule (or) authority.

Definitions :

  1. Abraham Lincoln: “Democracy is a government of the people, by the people and for the people”.
  2. Lord Bryce: “Democracy is that form of government in which the ruling power of the state is vested not in a particular class but in the members of the community as a whole”.
  3. J.R. Seely : “Democracy is a government in which every one has a share”.

Merits : Democracy has the following merits.
a) Efficient government : Prof. Garner described democracy as an efficient and effective government. The government in , democracy carries all its activities efficiently and effectively , both in normal times and emergencies.

b) Upholds individual liberties : Democracy is the only government that upholds individual liberties. It guarantees certain civil rights to the people thereby providing an oppor-tunity for them to become ideal and responsible citizens.

c) Assures equality : Democracy assures equality of individuals in political and economic spheres. The people living in democratic nation enjoy all the political. Civil and economic rights and privileges equally without any discrimination.

d) Educates the masses : Democracy is described as a laboratory for a large scale experiments in public education. The masses in democracy are educated and enlightened through public meetings, election campaigns, distribution of pamphelts, etc.

e) Promotes patriotism : The people in a democracy think that the country is their own property. When the country is in difficulties, they come forward to protect the interests of the nation. Therefore democracy develops patriotic spirit in the people.

f) Develops sense of responsibility : J.S. Mill says that “democracy promotes a better and higher form of national character than any other policy whatever”. Since it is a rule by themselves, the people behave with a great sense of responsibility.

g) Training school for citizenship : De Tocqueville, a French writer said that democracy serves as a training school for citizenship. Democracy promotes intellectual and moral qualities among the people.

h) A rational government: Democracy is based on the principle that no man is infallible. It adopts a process of discussion and criticism which serves as necessary correctives to the abuse of power. Besides, they safeguard the rational nature of the political system.

Demerits : Democracy has the following demerits.
a) Rule of Ignorance : Plato, criticised democracy as a rule of ignorance. Aristotle called it a perverted form of government. Anybody can become a ruler in this system and no special qualifications are prescribed for voters or rulers.

b) Favourable to rich : The ruling political party in democracy depends on the rich people for their financial support at the time of elections. Therefore it becomes an obligation to the party in power to make laws which are favourable to the rich.

c) Quality is ignored : The votes in democracy are counted not weighted. Everything is decided according to majority opinion. The quality of majority cannot always be correct. Thus quantity is given greater importance than quality.

d) Methods of representation is not correct : The present method of representation in democracy is known as territorial representation. It is not suitable to the requirements of the modern society.

e) Principle of equality abused : In the name of equality, everybody is treated as an equal to the other irrespective of his worth. Ex : Right to vote is given to all without knowing their political ability.

f) No moral values : In democracy, there is great scope for bribery and corruption. Red tapism, party defections and the role of money in elections are the best examples of its corrupt nature.

g) Expensive one : Democracy is an expensive government. In the name of elections, political parties and government spend chuge amounts of public money. Even in developing countries like India, crores and crores of rupees are wasted for elections.

AP Inter 1st Year Civics Question Paper May 2015

Question 5.
Point out the functions of the Judiciary.
The Judiciary is the third organ of the government. It refers to those officers of Government whose function is to apply the existing law to individual cases. It consists of the magistrates and judges charged with the duty of administering justice. In brief, it is that branch of the Government which settles disputes and administers justice.

Functions of the Judiciary :
1. Interpretation of Laws: The primary function of judiciary is interpretation of laws. Judiciary interprets laws and applies them to specific cases that come before it. It applies the elements of customs, statutes and constitutional provisions to specific cases.

Whenever the existing law is inadequate for delivering justice, it applies the principles of justice, equity and morality. As Gettle remarks, “Constitution and laws are always rigid. Flexibility must be given to them by judges”.

2. Custodian of the Constitution: Judiciary acts as guardian of the Constitution in federal system. It protects the spirit and sanctity of the constitution. Judiciary, in a federation, is empowered to declare a law as unconstitutional if it is inconsistent with the provisions of the Constitution.

3. Guardian of Civil Liberties : Judiciary acts as guardian of civil liberties of the people. It protects individual liberties by punishing those who encroach upon it. It also protects the people against the arbitrary actions of the government.

For instance, in the case of India, the Constitution under Articles 32 and 226 empowered the Supreme Court and High Courts to act as the guardians of fundamental rights of the citizens. These courts can issue injunctions to prevent the arbitrary acts of some individuals and organisations. Such injunctions include Habeas Corpus, Mandamus, Prohibition, Quo-warranto and Certiorari.

4. Federal equilibrium : Judiciary plays a key role in the federal system. It solves disputes between the Centre and the State Governments and also between States. It Sees that neither the Central Government nor the State Government exceed the constitutional limitations.

5. Advisory Functions : Judiciary renders advice on the request of the executive or the legislature. For instance the President of India may seek the advice of the Supreme Court on any question of Constitutional Law. In England, the practice to request a court to give declaratory judgement is very common. The Crown sometimes asks the judicial committee of the Privy Council to give its advisory opinion upon questions of law.

6. Appellate Jurisdiction : The highest court of justice hears appeals over the judgements of the lower courts. At times, it ratifies the judgements pronounced by the lower courts. Sometimes, it may reverse some of their judgements.

7. Maintenance of records : Judiciary maintains all the records of the cases along with their judgements. These records will help the advocates and judges in the trial of similar cases that may occur in future.

8. Acting as Head of the State : In some countries, under certain , conditions, the Chief Justice of the highest Court assumes the powers of the acting head of the State in the absence of President and VicePresident in office.

9. Administrative Functions : The Supreme Court and High Courts are entrusted with some administrative functions. They make suggestions to the executive head in appointing the judges of the lower courts. The higher courts supervise the functioning of the lower courts. For instance the high courts in India are given the obligation of supervising the activities of the subordinate courts in their jurisdiction.

AP Inter 1st Year Civics Question Paper May 2015

Section – B (8 × 5 = 40)

Note :

  • Answer any eight of the following questions is not exceeding 20 lines each.
  • Each question carries five marks.

Question 6.
Explain any three essential elements of the State.
Essential elements of state : State is the predominant and superior politico – social institution existing in the society. It consists of 4 essential elements. These elements of state may be explained in a detailed way in the following paragraphs.

1) Population : Population is the fundamental and essential element of state. There can be no state without population. Plato, Aristotle, Rousseau and others considered this feature as an important one. The famous poet Sri. Gurajada Apparao also states that it is the people, rather than the land, that comprise the state. Political writers differ in their opinions regarding the exact size of population possessed by the state. While Plato fixed 5,040, Rousseau fixed 10,000 to be an ideal population for a state. But today we can find the countries like China and India which have more than 100 crores of population on one hand and the countries like Andora, San Marino are having small number of people on the other hand is the modern world.

2) Territory : Territory is another essential element of the state. It is necessary for the origin and existence of the state. There can be no state without territory. Every state must have more or less territory of its own. There is no unanimous opinion among the political writers regarding the size of territory of the state. Some preferred vast territory, where as others preferred small territory. But today we can find the countries like America and Canada having large territory on one hand, and the countries like Vatican, Monaco having very less territory on the other hand in the modern world.

3) Sovereignty : Sovereignty is the most essential element of the state. It is spirit and soul of the state. There can be no state without sovereignty. It distinguishes the state from other associations and institutions. Sovereignty is the supreme political power of the state over citizens and subjects.

Question 7.
Distinguish between State and Government.
Introduction: We often use the terms “State” and “Government” indiscriminately one for the other”. State means government in practice” said by H.J. Laski. “State means almost government machinery”.

State : State is a people organized for law within a definite territory.

Government : Government is an instrument which fulfills aims and goals of the state.

Differences between State and Government : The following are the differences between state and government.

State Government
1. State has four elements namely popu- lation, territory, government and sovereignty. 1. Government is one of the essential elements of the state.
2. State is a permanent organisation. 2. Government is a temporary organisation.
3. State consists of the whole body of people – The rulers and the ruled. 3. Government consists of only the rulers.
4. State has the sovereignty. 4. Government does not have sovereignty.
5. State is the master. 5. Government is the servant.
6. Membership of the state is compulsory. 6. Membership in government is not compulsory, to that of state is narrow.
7. All states are alike in the sense they possess the same four features (or) elements like Population, Territory, Government and Sovereignty. 7. Governments are different types, viz. Parliamentary – Presidential – Unitary – Federal, Democratic – Dictatorial etc.
8. Peoples are not entitled to revolt against the state. 8. People have the right to oppose and criticize the policies and programmes of the government.
9. The scope of state when compared to that of government is wider. 9. The scope of government when compared to that of state is narrow.

AP Inter 1st Year Civics Question Paper May 2015

Question 8.
In what way do Nation and State differ from each other ?
Several Nation-States came into existence after the two world wars, on the basis of the principle of self-determination. The terms “Nation” and “State” were used synonymously. Even the political experts used both these words homogeneously and intermixingly as if both had same meaning. However, in practice both these terms are not same and identical.

Nation : “Nation is a nationality which has organized itself into a political body either Independent or desiring to be independent”.

State : “State is a people organized for law within definite territory”.

Differences : The concepts of Nation and State differ from one another from the following points of view :

The concepts of Nation and State differ from one another from the following points of view :

Nation State
1) Nation is an independent political community or an integral part of a multi-national state. 1) State may consist of the people of the same nation or many nations.
2) Nation proceeds the state. 2) State follows the nation. The final form of a nation is the accomplishment of state-hood.
3) Nation is historical and cultural in its evolution. 3) State is political and legal structure.
4) Nation is the community of people who exist together for a common goal and who were united by psychological feeling of oneness. 4) State is a people organised by law in a definite territory.
5) Nation is the culmination of a long coexistence of the people. 5) State need not be evolutionary in nature. It may come into existence either by unification of the smaller independent political communities or by partition.

Question 9.
Write about any three sources of law.
Introduction : Law is an important concept in the study of political science. It is an important feature of modern state. Law regulates the external behaviour of individuals. It determines and regulates the nature of individual’s activities.

Meaning : The term “Law” is derived from the teutonic (German) word “Lag” which means “To Lay”, “To Set” or something fixed.

The second dimension is that the word “Law” had its roots in the Latin words “Jus and Jungere” which means bond or Tie.

Definitions :
Political thinkers defined law in different ways which are listed below:

  1. “Law is the command of the sovereign”. – John Austin.
  2. “Law is the system of rights and obligations which the State enforces”. – T.H. Green.
  3. “Law is a general rule of external action enforced by the sovereign’political authority”. – T.E. Holland.

Sources of Law: Professor T.E. Holland mentioned six sources of Law.
They are :
1) Customs
2) Religion
3) Judicial Decisions
4) Scientific commentaries
5) Equity and
6) Legislature.

1) Customs, Practices and Traditions : These are one of the important sources of law. In primitive societies, there were no laws in written form. All disputes were settled in accordance with social customs and traditions. Customs regulated the social life in the early societies. Customs and traditions cannot be laws in political sense. But, when the State recognises certain traditions, they in turn become laws. Ex : The laws relating to marriage, divorce etc., found in our Country are based on traditions, the common law of England.

2) Religion: In ancient times customary laws and religious laws were intermixed. The religious teachers enjoyed unlimited powers in those times. Their decisions were treated on par with laws. The primitive men believed that the judgements of the religious teachers had divine sanction. The ancient Roman laws were merely the religious laws. The Hindu and Muslim laws derived inspiration mainly from religion.

3) Judicial Decisions / Adjudication / Judgement of the Courts : The judgements of the judges also serve as a source of law. Generally, judges interpret laws, apply them to particular cases and deliver judgements. Their judgements become precedents and are usually followed by other judges in similar cases. In course of time such judgements acquire the status of law. In this way judges add to the law of the country. There are many instances that new laws have evolved by way of interpretation. Many of the laws in Britain, America and India have originated-from the judgements of the Judges of the respective countries.

AP Inter 1st Year Civics Question Paper May 2015

Question 10.
Explain about any three safeguards of Liberty.
Introduction : The concept of Liberty is of great significance in the study of political science. Liberty is an essential condition without which man cannot develop his personality. It became a source of inspiration to the millions of the people living all over the world.

Meaning : The term liberty is derived from the Latin word ” LIBER” which means free from restrictions.

Definition :

  1. “Liberty means the absence of restraints”. – J.R. Seely
  2. “Liberty means the positive power of doing or enjoying something worth doing or enjoying”. – T.H. Green

Safeguards of liberty : Liberty is the most cherished ideal of human beings. Hence, it must be safeguarded in the larger interest of the society and state. In this context, the following safeguards of liberty are worth mentioning.

1. Democratic rule : Democratic rule is considered as a heaven to liberty. Liberty flourishes only in a democratic State. The reason is that democratic state extends protection to individual’s liberties through various laws. It creates a conducive atmosphere for the individuals to enjoy their liberties freely and impartially. It makes the people to participate in the government process directly or indirectly. It makes the people to participate in the governmental process directly or indirectly. It makes the government answerable to the people. It allows the people the right to change the government through public opinion or ballot when the government acts improperly.

2. Written and rigid constitution : A written and rigid constitution is considered the most important safeguard of individual liberty. Such a constitution incorporates the various freedoms of individuals in several provisions. It acts as a custodian of people’s rights and liberties. It demarcates the spheres of governmental activity. It mentions about the various measures to be taken in case of people’s freedoms are infringed or confiscated by others including governmental authorities. It also imposes restraints on the political parties by not allowing them to amend the constitutional provisions for furthering their partisan interests.

3. Independent judiciary : An independent and impartial judiciary is another safeguard of individual liberty. The judiciary will uphold the constitution and keeps the government accountable to the people. It prescribes various safeguards for protecting the fundamental rights of citizens. The judges in higher courts will deliver justice to the people on fair, free and impartial manner. Pro. Laski, while recognizing this safeguard, stated that good governance depends upon the effective functioning of judiciary.

Question 11.
Write the objectives and classification of Human Rights.
Definition of human rights : “Human Rights are Freedom to all irrespective of place, sex, religion, language etc. – U.N.O.

Objectives of human rights : The following are the various objectives of human rights.

  1. Provision of independence to the people against discrimination.
  2. Freedom from poverty.
  3. Freedom for availing the latent abilities of individuals.
  4. Freedom from fear.
  5. Freedom of protection.
  6. Freedom from injustice.
  7. Freedom of speech and expression.
  8. Freedom of protection.
  9. Freedom of association.
  10. Freedom for carrying one’s activities on dignified lines.
  11. Freedom against exploitation.

The united nations general assembly declared 1995 – 2005 as the International decade of human rights. The ultimate objective of human rights relates to the provision of human rights to all people of the world.

Classification of human rights : Human rights are broadly classified into two categories (i) Civil and Political Rights (ii) Economic, social and cultural rights. In the first category, civil rights occupy a prominent position. Civil rights include several rights like right to life, liberty and security of individuals, freedom from slavery and torture, equality before law, protection against arbitrary custody etc. They also assure the individual for a right to fair trial, right to own property, right to marriage etc. Besides they comprise several freedoms like freedom of speech, expression, association, assembly, movement, residence etc. Political rights include right to vote, right to contest as candidates in elections to various offices, right to assume power, right to criticise, right to petition etc.

The second category of human rights include several economic, social and cultural rights. Economic rights include right to work, right to equal payment of salaries to equal work, right to form and join in trade unions, right to adequate standard of living etc. Social rights include right to education, right to health, right to entertainment etc. Respecting the civilization, arts, culture etc., are included in the category of cultural rights.

Question 12.
Describe any three types of Justice.
1. Natural Justice : Natural Justice is based on the notion that every person in the world possesses some rights for availing the natural resources. Natural resources provide support to the life of each and every creature on earth. As the human beings are the only rational creatures, it is their responsibility to see that natural resources have to be judiciously exploited. Human beings must keep in mind the requirements of future generations in this regard.

2. Social Justice : Social Justice envisages a balance between rights of individuals and social control. It facilitates the fulfillment of the legitimate expectations of the individuals under the existing laws. It ensures several benefits and extends protection to the individuals against the interference or encroachment from others in society. It is consistent with the unity and the integrity of the nation. It fulfills the needs of the society.

Social Justice enforces the principle of equality before law. It also ensures eradication of social evils like poverty, unemployment, starvation, disease etc. It also extends protection to the downtrodden and weaker sections of society. Ultimately it provides those conditions essential for the all round development of individuals.

3. Political Justice : Political Justice symbolises political equality. It implies provision of political rights to all the adult citizens in a state. It facilitates free and fair participation of the citizens in the governance of the country. It is manifested to the full extent in times of elections. It allows the citizens for their active participation in day-to-day administration. It is based on the premise that everyone is counted as one and none for more than one. It may be noted that political justice prevails in the State when the following conditions are prevalent

  1. Rule of law
  2. Independent Judiciary
  3. Popular elections to the representative bodies
  4. Political parties
  5. Freedom of press and assembly
  6. Democratic rule etc.

AP Inter 1st Year Civics Question Paper May 2015

Question 13.
Suggest the remedies for removing the hindrances to good citizenship.
The following are some ways to remove hindrances to good citizenship.
1) Solving People’s Grievances : First of all government should address the basic grievances of the people. Issues of poverty and unemployment should be tackled with great commitment. Good citizenship can’t be realized when people’s basic needs are not satisfied.

2) Education and awareness : Education, which is the most important need of the hour should be given top priority. Steps should be taken to spread education and awareness among the people. Citizens must be provided with such instructions which make possible the understanding of human life. They must be trained for expressing their wishes and aspirations which they come across in their life.

3) Efforts of Leaders: Citizens should always feel that government itself cannot provide succour and rescue them on every occasion. The leaders at various levels should come forward and co-operate with the government in promoting good citizenship.

On the whole, Lord Bryce suggested two types of remedies for overcoming the hindrances of good citizenship. They are: 1. Mechanical and 2. Ethical. The first relates to the laws of the state and second relates to the character of the citizens.

Mechanical Remedies improve the machinery of the state to make it more useful to the public. The entire social structure has to be built up on the principles of equality, justice and democracy. Citizens should be allowed to utilise their civil and political rights to their maximum extent.

Ethical remedies enhance the general character of citizens in the state. Ignorance and narrow party interests must be avoided. On the other hand, honesty and literacy would induce the citizens to take active role in public life.

Question 14.
Explain about Direct democratic devices.
Devices Direct Democracy :
There are four devices prescribed in direct democracies to enable the people to participate directly in the administrative activities of the State.
Those are
1. Referendum
2. Initiative
3. Recall and
4. Plebiscite.
These methods may be explained as follows.

1. Referendum : It is one of the direct democratic devices. Literally it means, “must be referred to the people”. It is a device where by the electorate may veto a proposed legislation or a bill which the legislature has already passed. In other words, bills passed by the legislature are the voters for their approval or disapproval. If majority of the voters approve them, they become acts. But if they vote against them, they will be given up. Hence, referendum is known as “Popular Veto”.

It is of two types – 1) Compulsory referendum: All the constitutional bills must be sent to the people. 2) Optional Referendum : An ordinary bill passed by the legislative may be or may not be sent to the people. However, even that ordinary bill must be sent to the people, if a definite number of people demand it. Ex: In Switzerland 30,000 people or eight cantons (States) can demand referendum on an ordinary bill.

2. Initiative : It is another device of direct democracy. It is a method by means of which the people propose legislation i.e.; they can ask the legislature to pass a particular law. For instance, in Switzerland, if 50,000 voters request the legislature to pass a law, then the proposal is submitted to the consideration of the people. If majority of the people (30,000) approve it, then it becomes an act. Unlike referendum, initiative provides a chance to the people to start the making of law. It is of two types : (1) Formulative Initiative : People present a bill to the legislature (2) Unformulative Initivative : People present a demand to the legislature as king it to pass a bill.

3. Re Call : It is another device of Direct Democracy. It means “Calling Back”. According to this method a specific number of voters may call back or dismiss an elected officer or a member of the legislature before the expiry of his term, if he is irresponsible. By means of this, the people can remove a representative or an officer from office when he fails to discharge his duties properly.

4. Plebiscite : The term ’Plebiscite” is derived from a French word “Plebiscitum”, which means “decree of the people”. It is used to obtain the opinion of the people on an important political issue or when there is a dispute regarding some territory. The question of accession or secession or territory is generally solved by means of plebiscite.

Question 15.
Narrate any three conceptions of Secularism.
Conceptions of Secularism: Secularism has many conceptions. Some of them may be explained as below :
1. Secularism a humanistic and atheistic philosophy : Secularism has several personal, cultural, political and social implications. It was humanistic in nature as it seeks the well being of human beings. It assigns importance to the saying that man is the measure of all things. It neither supports nor opposes religion. It allows individuals with the discretion of choosing and following their religion.

2. Political and social dimension : Secularism has certain political and social dimensions. It stands for the achievement of autonomous political and social order having naturalistic and materialistic perspectives. It allows religious freedom in the matters of family, association and society.

3. Liberty and democracy : Secularism serves as a beneficial element of liberty and democracy. It also acts as the basis of liberal democracy. It strongly opposes the existence, continuance and survival of authoritarian religious leaders and institutions. It advocated democracy and decentralisation of governmental powers.

AP Inter 1st Year Civics Question Paper May 2015

Question 16.
Distinguish between Written and Unwritten Constitution.
Written Constitution : A written constitution is formulated and adopted by a Constituent Assembly or a Convention. It comprises several principles and rules of the Government in a written form or document. The Constitution of India is an example of written constitution. The American Constitution is the first written constitution in the world.

Unwritten Constitution : Unwritten- constitution is one whose provisions are not written in a single document. It includes several customs and traditions which are manifested in the form of the laws. The Constitution of Britain is the best example of unwritten constitution.

Differences between Written and Unwritten Constitutions

Written Constitution Unwritten Constitution
1. Written constitution implies a document or few documents in which the rules regulating the main institutions of Government are written down. 1. Unwritten 1. Unwritten constitutiondenotes a sum of customs, conventions and usages which have not been systematically documented.
2. All the basic principles of the State are clearly written. 2. All the basic principles of the State exist in the form of customs and traditions.
3. Written constitution is framed by a special assembly convened at a particular point of time. 3. Unwritten constitution contains some written elements also in the form of enactments of fundamental charters made from time to time.
4. It is suitable to the educated and literate people. 4. It is suitable to the uneducated and illiterate people.
5. Courts of law protect the liberties of the citizens. 5. Courts of law cannot provide much protection.
6. It is formulated at a particular time. 6. It is evolutionary in nature.
7. It provides political stability 7. It could not ensure political stability.
8. It cannot be easily amended. 8. It can easily be amended.
9. It is useful to federal states. 9. It is advantageous to the unitary states.

Question 17.
Explain the Theory of Separation of Powers.
Montesquieu is the main proponent of this theory. Montesquieu explained this theory in his book “The Spirit of Laws” (1748). He visited England and made a comparative study of the French despotism and the British Parliamentary democracy He came to the conclusion that the Britishers enjoyed greater liberty because of the separation of powers among the three branches of British Government.

Montesquieu stated that concentration of powers in one person or a body of persons would result in despotism and negate individual liberty He suggested separation of powers among the three organs of government in a balanced manner. Every organ must check the misuse of powers of other organs. Then only individuals enjoy their liberties without fear from the governmental interference. His theory became the basis of American Constitution. It is aptly said that the American Constitution is an essay on the theory of separation of powers propounded by Montesquieu. The constitutions of many countries including India have incorporated the ideas of Montesquieu.

Section – C (15 × 2 = 30)

Note :

  • Answer any fifteen of the following questions in not exceeding 5 lines each.
  • Each question carries two marks.

Question 18.
How does Political Science teach the qualities of good citizen-ship ?
Political Science imparts the best civic knowledge by explaining the qualities of good citizenship like cooperation, sacrifice, patriotism, obedience to the state and to the laws, forsightedness, social services etc. It trains the people to become ideal citizens.

Question 19.
What do you understand by “Society” ?
The term “Society” refers to the interaction of complex norms among the people. It can be defined as a group of men brought together by a system of common ideas, interests and aspirations. It is a voluntary association. It’s membership is optional. It originated much earlier than the states.

AP Inter 1st Year Civics Question Paper May 2015

Question 20.
What do you mean by “Administrative Law” ?
Administrative law plays an important role in the smooth functioning of administration. It regulates the administrative relations between the authorities and people. It helps the government to bring reforms in the spheres of development and welfare programmes. Administrative law brings discipline among the personnel in the government. Now it is implementing in France and India.

Question 21.
Define the term “Rule of Law”.
Rule of law is an important type of administration of justice. It originated in England it implies.

  1. Legal equality : All are equal before law.
  2. No Arbitrary action : Punishment is given only when an existing law is violated.
  3. No Special Rights : No Individual is above law and law does not recognise any special privileges.

Question 22.
Mention the names of four types of liberty.
Liberty is of in the following types namely :

  1. Natural Liberty.
  2. Civil Liberty
  3. Economic Liberty.
  4. Political Liberty and
  5. National Liberty.

Question 23.
Mention the measures adopted for achieving ‘Economic Equality’.
The following measures are adopted for achieving economic equality.

  1. Provision of adequate means of employment.
  2. Implementation of Land reforms.
  3. Providing housing facilities to the poor.
  4. Provision of free education to the poor.
  5. Provision of minimum wages etc.

Question 24.
What are Political Rights ?
Political rights are those rights which enable the individuals to participate in the political affairs of the state. Right to vote, right to contest as candidates in elections, right to hold public offices, right to petition, right to criticize the government etc., are some examples of the political rights.

Question 25.
Classification of Responsibilities.
Responsibilities are broadly classified into (i) Moral responsibilities (ii) Legal responsibilities. Legal responsibilities are further clasified into (a) Positive responsibilities (b) Negative responsibilities.

Question 26.
What is distributive justice ?
Distributive justice implies the distribution of goods and wealth of citizens by the state on Merit basis. Aristotle stated that justice is a sort of proportions. He regarded it as the most powerful instrument against revolutions. But modern writers like John Rawls denied Aristotle’s view. He pointed out that inequalities are inherent in the society. He remarked that inequalities must be balanced by some restrictive arrangements in the political system.

AP Inter 1st Year Civics Question Paper May 2015

Question 27.
Define Justice.
“Justice is giving to every man his due. It is a combination of reason, courage, appetite and will in terms of the state”.

Question 28.
What does the term “Jus Soli” mean ?
Jus soli means acquistion of citizenship by the principle of place of birth. According to this method, a child accquites the citizenship of a state, where it borns. It is the place of birth which determines citizenship. This method is not more popular in modern times. At present, this method is observed exclusively in Argentina.

Question 29.
Mention any two qualities of a good citizen.

  1. Good character : Good character is essential for a good citizen. A good citizen should be courageous, just, helpful, kind-hearted, sympathetic, truthful and virtuous in letter and spirit.
  2. Sound health : A good citizen should have good health and strength. Healthy citizens make the nation healthy and wealthy.

Question 30.
What is meant by “Recall” ?
Recall means to call back. The representatives will be called back by the people in case they are inefficient. Hence, this method helps the responsibilities properly for fear of being called back on the grounds in inefficiency.

Question 31.
What do you understand by Representative Democracy ?
Indirect democracy is also known as representative democracy. In this type, the people exercise their governing power through their representatives who are periodically elected. The will of the state is expressed through representatives. Indirect democracy was established in Britain in the 17th century. Now a days it is existing in different countries.

Question 32.
Define secular state.
D.E. Smith defined secular state as “None while guaranteeing individual and corporate freedom of religion, which deals with the individual as a citizen irrespective of his religion”.

Question 33.
List out any two differences between Secular state and Theocratic state.

  1. Secular state is based on elements other than religion, whereas theocretic state is based on religious elements.
  2. There will be no official religion in a secular state, whereas there will be a particular religion which is declared as official religion in a theocretic state.

AP Inter 1st Year Civics Question Paper May 2015

Question 34.
Mention any two differences between Flexible and Rigid Constitution.

Flexible constitution Rigid constitution
1. Constitutional matters are not clearly mentioned. 1. Constitutional matters are clearly written.
2. Constitution can be easily amended. 2. Constitution cannot be easily amended.

Question 35.
What is an Evolved Constituion ?
Evolved constitution is also called cumulative constitution. It is the result of evolutionary changes. It may be the product of collected material. It act as the basis to the political institutions of a country. Several customs, usuages, traditions, principles and judicial decisions are the major sources of this constitution.
Ex : British constitution.

Question 36.
Write about Aristotle’s classification on Government.
Aristotle classified governments on the basis of two elements, namely :

  1. Number of rulers
  2. Aims of the state.

He again classified Government into normal and perverted forms. He says monarchy, aristocracy and polity as the normal form of governments. Tyranny, oligarchy and democracy are the perverted form of Governments.

Question 37.
How many organs of government are there ? Name them.
There are three organs of government.
They are:

  1. Legislature
  2. Executive and
  3. Judiciary.

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