AP Inter 1st Year Civics Question Paper March 2019

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AP Inter 1st Year Civics Question Paper March 2019

Time: 3 Hours
Maximum Marks: 100

Section – A (3 × 10 = 30)

Note :

  • Answer any three of the following questions in 40 lines each.
  • Each question carries ten marks.

Question 1.
Discuss the significance of the study of the Political Science.
The study of Political Science is very useful and valuable. It’s knowledge is indispensible to the rulers as well as the ruled. Its significance or importance is analysed as follows.
i) Information about the State : The primary aim of studying Political Science is to inculcate knowledge of the state. It’s origin, nature, structure and functions. Knowledge of the state is of great significance to every one. Solutions to various political is¬sues are found only when we have a proper understanding of the political institutions.

ii) Knowledge of Government and Administration : The Administrators, political leaders and diplomats who manipulate the affairs of the state require a sound knowledge of political science in order to perform their functions with efficiency. Political Science, creates awareness about the organisation, control and coordination of Administrative machinery. It also covers the study of local self-governments like Gram Panchayats, Mandal Parishads, Zilla Parishads, Municipalities, Corporations etc.

iii) Provides information about Democratic values : Political Science provides accurate information about the various political terms such as State, Government, Nation, Constitution, Democracy, Sovereignty, Law etc., which are used commonly. Political Science also provides a good knowledge and awareness about the Democratic values like Liberty, Equality, Fraternity, Justice and Rights.

iv) Makes Democracy Successful : At present Democracy is in vogue in several countries of the world. It is the best form of government. People in democracy elect their representatives and are ruled by them. If honest, selfless and committed representatives are not elected, the expectations of the people will not be fulfilled. Political Science explains the significance of Franchise. It educates the common men on the conditions essential for the successful functioning of democratic government.

v) Awareness about rights and responsibilities : The study of Political Science makes people conscious of their rights and responsibilities. It also enables the citizens to be familiar with their rights and responsibilities and the interrelationship between the two. Its study makes the citizens to realize the fact that a proper exercise of rights and responsibilities is a must for leading civilised life.

vi) Teaches the Qualities of Good Citizenship : Political Science impacts the best civic knowledge by explaining the qualities of good citizenship like cooperation, sacrifice, patriotism, obedience to the state and to the laws, farsightedness, social service etc. It trains the people to become ideal citizens.

vii) Knowledge about World Affairs : The study of Political Science enriches individual’s knowledge on World Affairs. Political Science is useful for observing and understanding the contemporary world affairs. It stimulates right thinking, broad vision and universal understanding of various phenomena of international politics. It’s study is useful for proper analysis and solution of various National and International Issues.

viii) Provides knowledge about International Organizations : A citizen of the present is not only a member of the state but also a member of the world at large. The study of Political Science promotes the spirit of internationalism provides a good knowledge about International Organizations like Ignited Nations Organisation, SAARC, ASEAN, NAM, OPEC etc. It teaches about the need for harmonious relations among the nations.

ix) Develops Political Awareness : The study of Political Science is of great importance in the sense that it imports best political knowledge. It explains about the structure and functioning of different political institutions like State Government, Political parties, Occupational Associations. Hence the study of Political Science is the best training ground for knowing, following and practising the art of leadership.

x) Explains the need for Co-Operation and Toleration : National Integration has become a crucial factor in several states. Many obstacles like communalism, linguism, sub-national regional and sub-regional feelings etc., have been threatening the national integration in these states. In this context, the study of Political Science teaches about the need for adjustment, cooperation and toleration.

xi) Knowledge of Political Science is Indispensable : The study of Political Science helps everyone to understand the mechanism and constitutional system of modem governments. It creates awareness about the contemporary issues in national and international spheres. If creates awareness about Rights arid Responsibilities. It’s study is essentially indispensable for the people in developing nations like India. As the majority people in these states are poor, ignorant, illiterate and sentimental in their out look. The study of Political Science inculcates a good political knowledge among them.
Aristotle regarded Political Science as the supreme science and the master of all social sciences.

AP Inter 1st Year Civics Question Paper March 2019

Question 2.
Define Nationality. Explain%he Essential elements of Nationality.
Introduction : The concepts of Nation and Nationality have become important components in the domain of International Relations and political science respectively. Both inspired the people of several countries with patriotic feeling prior to the two world wars.

The Events that took place in the erstwhile Soviet Union, ethnic Riots between Serbians and croatians in the former Yugo slavia, the unification of East and west Germanies, the peace talks between Israel and Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) on West Asia etc., reflect the serious concern of the people for realising Nationality and Nation States.

Meaning : The Word “Nation” is derived from a latin word “NATIO” which means “BORN” (BIRTH) or “Common Descent”.

Definitions :

  1. R.G. Gettle: “Nationality is a population having the common bonds of Race, Language, Religion, Traditions and History.
  2. J.H. Rose : “Nationality is a union of Hearts once made and never unmade”.
  3. J.W. Gamer: “Nationality is a group or portion of population which is united by Racial and other bonds”.

Essential Elements of Nationality :
1) Purity of Race : Racial purity helps in the formation and strengthening of the idea of Nationality. Race is a physical phenomenon. It depends on certain distinctions of skull, stature, hair, complexion etc. These distinctions serve as a cementing bond among the members of a group.

But we should remember that common race is not an indispensable factor in the growth of Nationality. Modern races are so mixed that none of them can claim to be pure. Pure races have disappeared because of wars and migrations. Racial purity is now a myth only.

Ex: Canada and United states have transformed into single nations inspite of their racial diversities in their respective populations. Similarly, Australia and Britain are two distinct Nations although they belong to one racial stock.

2) Common Language : Language plays a key role in the promotion of nationality. The philosophers and scientists said that common language is essential for the development of nationality. Language is a medium to express all their feelings. It helps to express one’s ownSelves to have cordial relations and to share the miseries and happiness in a group languages also promotes common feelings and traditions. Common language promotes the feeling of oneness and keeps the entire race on single track.

3) Common Religion : Religion is one important factor to strengthen nationality. There are many instances when people of different nationalities with common religion remain citizens in the same state. For instance, the main reason for the partition of In¬dian subcontinent into India and Pakistan in 1947 lies in the religion.

4) Geographical Unity: Geographical unity is necessary for the emergence of nationality. Nationality sentiments prevail and develop among the people living in a single geographical area. The people residing in such an area love, worship their country and make sacrifices for the sake of their motherland. People, who belong to one religion, converse the same language, same race living in a geographical area inculcate and improve their nationality sentiments. The formation of Israel in 1946 was purely due to the feelings of the hitherto wandering Jewish people to live in a single geographical area. Hence their desire of live in a territory made them united. This ultimately transformed them as patriotic persons.

5) Common History : Common history is considered as an important element of Nationality. It invokes an inspiration among the people and binds them together. Some historical incidents may give a chance to the people to develop national sentiments. Ex : Indians have learnt the lessons of Nationalism from the British legacy.

6) Common Culture : Culture in its broad sense means a way of life. It is reflected through certain common elements like dress, customs, conventions, food habits, religious beliefs, ethical values etc. They easily develop into a single Nation. These elements bind the people together and hold together.

7) Common Political aspirations : Nationality sentiments prevail and develop among the people having common political aspirations. The political ideas, conventions and institutions which were formed due to the single political rule will have a considerable impact and influence over the people. For instance, the Swiss people love very much their direct democratic devices in political matters. Similarly the Americans express the feeling of worship towards their constitution. The British people also feel proud of their political and judicial institutions like rule of law, parliamentary democracy and judicial review etc.

8) Common Economic ties : This element of nationality has been stressed by ‘Karl Marx’. Since then onwards the importance of this element has been increasing. The Russians have great regard for their economic system, eventhough there exist diversities. Their unflinching love for socialism inspired nationalism among them. They successfully repulsed the attacks of Germany during the Second World War. Thus the common economic ties made them united and integrated them into a nation.

AP Inter 1st Year Civics Question Paper March 2019

Question 3.
Identify the safeguards of the Rights.
Introduction : Rights are the essential conditions for the development of the personality of individuals. They are upheld by the laws of the state. Individuals cannot achieve progress in the absence of the Rights.

Definition :

  1. T.H. Green : “Rights are those powers claimed and recognized as contributory to the common good.”
  2. H.J. Laski: “Rights are those conditions of social life without which no man can seek in general to be himself at his best.”

Safeguards of Rights : Individuals enjoy their rights only when they were fully protected or safeguarded by the State. In this regard, the following elements act as the safeguards of the rights.
1) Democratic Rule : Democratic rule safeguards the rights of the people to a great extent. People can enjoy their rights perfectly in democratic states only. This system makes constitutional and legal provisions for safeguarding the right of the people.

2) Written and Rigid Constitution : A written constitution clearly defines the powers and functions of the government. It also explains about the various limitations of governmental authority. Besides, a rigid constitution will guarantee the rights of the people by making it difficult for the rulers and legislators to make amendments on flimsy grounds.

3) Constitutional Incorporation : Incorporation of funda¬mental rights in the constitution will prevent the encroachment of individual rights by the government. Such an arrangement protects the rights of the individuals to a great extent.

4) Separation of Powers : The powers of the government should be separated among the three organs of the government. Such as measure would act as a check against other organ. Ultimately, it serves as a safeguard of individual liberty.

5) Decentralisation of Powers : Individuals enjoy their rights, when powers are decentralised among the governmental institutions. This involves allocation of powers at various levels – national, provisional, local either on functional or territorial basis.

6) Rule of Law : Rule of law implies equality before law. It also denotes equal application of laws to the citizens. It gives no scope for discrimination between citizens on the grounds of region, religion, caste, colour, community etc.

7) Independent and Impartial Judiciary : Independent and impartial judiciary is another safeguard of rights. Judges in higher judicial bodies will deliver judgement with impartial and independent outlook. In the process of delivering justice, they issue certain writs for immediate protection of the rights.

8) Indepedent Press : Independent and honest press is another essential safeguard of rights of individuals. Such agency will be able to disseminate news and views impartially and without fear or favour to anybody. In this regard the state should not try to threaten and silence the press. Then only individuals enjoy their rights to the maximum extent.

9) Social and Economic Equalities : Social and economic equalities are necessary for enjoying one’s rights. People will be able to utilize their rights properly and positively when there are social and economic equalities in the state. These equalities include absence of casteism, communalism, linguism, wide spread economic inequalities, exploitation etc.

10) Eternal Vigilance : Eternal vigilance .is said to be the most important safeguard of rights of individuals. Individuals must be vigilant and cautious about the policies of the government. They should oppose the despotic tendencies of the government through democratic and constitutional methods. Under no circumstances they should allow the self seeking politicians to acquire power. Besides several other elements like judicial review, recall, strong opposition etc., are considered as the safeguards of rights.

AP Inter 1st Year Civics Question Paper March 2019

Question 4.
What do you mean by Democracy ? Write about the Direct democratic devices.
Meaning : The term Democracy is derived from two greek words namely, “Demos” and “Kratos”. Demos means people and Kratos mean rule (or) authority.

Definitions :

  1. Abraham Lincoln : “Democracy is a government of the people, by the people and for the people”.
  2. Lord Bryce : “Democracy is that form of government in which the ruling power of the state is vested not in a particular class but in the members of the community as a whole”.
  3. J.R. Seely : “Democracy is a government in which every one has a share”.

Direct Democracy : Direct Democracy is said to prevail when people themselves directly express their views and participate in the deliberative and administrative affairs of the government. People in direct democracy assume all powers of making laws. They formulate laws at a meeting attended by all the people. Direct Democracy is prevalent in Switzerland. In Switzerland, the citizens living in some small cantons meet together on a Sunday in April or May to elect their representatives and to make laws.

Devices Direct Democracy :
There are four devices prescribed in direct democracies to enable the people to participate directly in the administrative activities of the State.
Those are
1) Referendum
2) Initiative
3) Recall and
4) Plebiscite.

These methods may be explained as follows.
1. Referendum : It is one of the direct democratic devices. Literally it means, “must be referred to the people”. It is a device where by the electorate may veto a proposed legislation or a bill which the legislature has already passed. In other words, bills passed by the legislature are the voters for their approval or disapproval. If majority of the voters approve them, they become acts. But if they vote against them, they will be given up. Hence, referendum is known as “Popular Veto”. It is of two types – 1) Compulsory referendum : All the constitutional bills must be sent to the people. 2) Optional Referendum : An ordinary bill passed by the legislative may be or may not be sent to the people. However, even that ordinary bill must be sent to the people, if a definite number of people demand it. Ex : In Switzerland 30,000 people or eight cantons (States) can demand referendum on an ordinary bill.

2. Initiative : It is another device of direct democracy. It is a method by means of which the people propose legislation i.e.; they can ask the legislature to pass a particular law. For instance, in Switzerland, if 50,000 voters request the legislature to pass a law, then the proposal is submitted to the consideration of the people. If majority of the people (30,000) approve it, then it becomes an act. Unlike referendum, initiative provides a chance to the people to start the making of law. It is of two types : (1) Formulative Initiative : People present a bill to the legislature (2) Unformulative Initivative : People present a demand to the legislature as king it to pass a bill.

3. Recall : It is another device of Direct Democracy. It means “Calling Back”. According to this method a specific number of voters may call back or dismiss an elected officer or a member of the legislature before the expiry of his term, if he is irresponsible. By means of this, the people can remove a representative or an officer from office when he fails to discharge his duties properly.

4. Plebiscite : The term ‘Plebiscite” is derived from a French word “Plebiscitum”, which means “decree of the people”. It is used to obtain the opinion of the people on an important political issue or when there is a dispute regarding some territory. The question of accession or secession or territory is generally solved by means of plebiscite. It is not concerned with legislation. It is not apart of legal process. It is only a democratic method of ascertaining the opinion of the people on any political issue of public importance.

Question 5.
What is Parliamentary Government ? Explain its features.
Governments are classified into (1) Parliamentary and (2) Presidential on the basis of the relationship between the legislature and the executive. A Parliamentary system of Government is one in which the executive is a part of the legislature and held accountable to it. It is also called ‘Cabinet’ or ‘Responsible form of Government’. It originated first in Britain and later was adopted by many countries including India.

Definition :
Prof. Garner defined Parliamentary Government as “a system in which the real executive-the cabinet or ministry is (i) Immediately and legally responsible to the legislature for its political policies and acts and (ii) Immediately or ultimately responsible to the electorate.”

The main features of Parliamentary Government are :
1) IXvo types of executives: There are two types of executives in Parliamentary Government. They are : 1) Nominal executive and 2) Real executive. The nominal executive is the head of the State and the real executive is the head of the Government. The’ King of Britain and the President of India are nominal-executives. Both enjoy a position of glory without any real power. In both the countries, the Prime Minister with his council of ministers is the real executive.

2) Membership of the Parliament : The ministers in this system are the members of legislature ^Parliament). Ministers who are not members of the legislature must become its members within a stipulated period. Otherwise they have to leave the cabinet.

3) Political homogeneity : The ministers in this system belong to the same political party. They have similar political views and ideals. They run the Government as a team. In case if no party gets absolute majority, coalition governments are formed.

4) Collective responsibility : The council of ministers is collectively held responsible to the lower house of Parliament for its decisions, policies, failures and success. By collective responsibility we mean that if the lower house rejects the decisions of the cabinet, it has to resign. In the same way if the lower house passes no confidence motion, it has to submit its resignation.

5) Indefinite tenure of the real executive : The tenure of the council of ministers is not definite in this system. The cabinet remains in office as long as it enjoys the confidence of the lower house of Parliament. The council of minister resigns when it loses its confidence.

6) Leadership of the Prime Minister : The Prime Minister is central to the life and death of the cabinet in this system. The council of ministers works under his leadership. He chooses his ministers, distributes portfolios to them and dismisses them. If he resigns, the whole government resigns.

7) Party discipline : Party discipline is greatly found in a real Parliamentary Government. Every party in this system imposes discipline on its members by asking them to strictly adhere to its ideology, principles and programmes. Such a policy makes the members both in the party and government to fulfil their respective obligations with honesty, impartiality and sincerity. It ultimately secures political stability in the State.

AP Inter 1st Year Civics Question Paper March 2019

Section – B (8 × 5 = 40)

Note :

  • Answer any eight of the following questions is not exceeding 20 lines each.
  • Each question carries five marks.

Question 6.
Explain any two essential elements of the state.
Essential elements of state : State is the predominant and superior politico – social institution existing in the society. It consists of 4 essential elements. These elements of state may be explained in a detailed way in the following paragraphs.

1) Population : Population is the fundamental and essential element of state. There can be no state without population. Plato, Aristotle, Rousseau and others considered this feature as an important one. The famous poet Sri. Gurajada Apparao also states that it is the people, rather than the land, that comprise the state. Political writers differ in their opinions regarding the exact size of population possessed by the state. While Plato fixed 5,040, Rousseau fixed 10,000 to be an ideal population for a state. But today we can find the countries like China and India which have more than 100 crores of population on one hand and the countries like Andora, San Marino are having small number of people on the other hand is the modem world.

2) Territory : Territory is another essential element of the state. It is necessary for the origin and existence of the state. There can be no state without territory. Every state must have more or less territory of its own. There is no unanimous opinion among the political writers regarding the size of territory of the state. Some preferred vast territory, where as others preferred small territory. But today we can find the countries like America and Canada having large territory on one hand, and the countries like Vatican, Monaco having very less territory on the other hand in the modem world.

Question 7.
Point out the differences between state and society.
Introduction : State and society are two important human organizations. Maclver described that blood relationship (kinship) created society and society in turn led to the state.

State : State is a people organized for law within a definite territory.

Society : Society is a group of men brought together by a system of common ideas, interests and aspirations.

Differences between State and Society : Inspite of close rela-tionship, state and society, differ from one another.
This may be informed through the following table.

State Society
1. State is a political organization. 1. Society is a social organization.
2. State regulates only the external relation of men in society. 2. Society controls both internal and external activities of men in society.
3. State has definite territory. 3. Society has no definite territory.
4. State has sovereignty. 4. Society has no sovereignty.
5. Membership of the state is compulsory. 5. Membership of the society is voluntary.
6. State is permanent. 6. Society is not permanent.
7. Laws of the state are uniform. 7. Rules of society are not uniform.
8. State came into existence after the origin of society. 8. Society is much older institution than the state.

Question 8.
What are the differences between Nation and Nationality ?
The concepts of Nation and Nationality laid formidable foundations to several modem political systems.

Nation : “Nation is a nationality which has organised itself into a political body either independent or desiring to be independent”.

Nationality : “Nationality is a population having the common bonds of race, language, religion, traditions and history”.

Differences between Nation and Nationality :

Nation Nationality
1) Nation is a political concept, logical feeling. 1) Nationality is a psycho
2) Nation is always a politically organised state. 2) Nationality is always an unorganised and flexible feeling.
3) Nation is always independent. 3) Nationality is not independent.
4) There can’t be a nation without nationaltiy. 4) There can be nationality without a nation.
5) People who form into a nation should obey the laws of the state. 5) Untill the people of nationality form into a nation. There can’t be constitutional laws. But they oblige certain common rules in their best interests.

AP Inter 1st Year Civics Question Paper March 2019

Question 9.
Write about any three sources of law.
Definitions : The English word ‘Law1 originates from the ancient Teutonic word ‘Lag’ which means “something that lies fixed or uniform”. Political thinkers defined law in different ways which are listed below :

  1. “Law is the command of the sovereign”. – John Austin
  2. “Law is the system of rights and obligations which the State enforces”. – T.H. Green

Sources of Law :
1) Customs, Practices and Traditions : These are one of the important sources of law. In primitive societies, there were no laws in written form. All disputes were settled in accordance with social customs and traditions. Customs regulated the social life in the early societies. Customs and traditions cannot be laws in political sense. But, when the State recognises certain traditions, they in turn become laws. Ex : The laws relating to marriage, divorce etc., found in our Country are based on traditions, the common law of England.

2) Religion : In ancient times customary laws and religious laws were intermixed. The religious teachers enjoyed unlimited powers in those times. Their decisions were treated on par with laws. The primitive men believed that the judgements of the religious teachers had divine sanction. The ancient Roman laws were merely the religious laws. The Hindu and Muslim laws derived inspiration mainly from religion.

3) Judicial Decisions / Adjudication / Judgement of the Courts : The judgements of the judges also serve as a source of law. Generally, judges interpret laws, apply them to particular cases and deliver judgements. Their judgements become precedents and are usually followed by other judges in similar cases. In course of time such judgements acquire the status of law. In this way judges add to the law of the country. There are many instances that new laws have evolved by way of interpretation. Many of the laws in Britain, America and India have originated from the judgements of the Judges of the respective countries.

Question 10.
What is equality ? Explain any three types of equality.
Meaning and explanation of Equality : The concept of Equality is of great significance in the study of political science. The term Equality’ became an important slogan and inspired the people of France, America, Russia and India during their struggle for freedom and independence.
The term “Equality” implies absolute equality of treatment.

In Political science, the term ‘Equality’ refers to a state which , grants its citizens equality before the law and equal opportunities to develop their personality. But it may be noted that individuals are not equal in many respects. While some of them are strong, some others may be weak. Similarly some are more intelligent than others. In this way, men differ in many respects. Hence, equality of treatment is not possible. In other words, it implies that State should grant to its citizens equality before law and equal protection by law.

Definitions :

  1. “Equality means first of all the absence of special privilege. In the second place “It means that adequate opportunities are laid open to all”. – H.J. Laski
  2. “Equality implies equal rights for all the people and abolition of special rights and privileges”. – Barker

Types of equality : There are many types of equality. They may be analysed in the following.
1. Natural equality : This kind of equality existed in the “State of Nature”. It is based on the principle that nature has created everyone as equal. But natural equality exists no where in the world. Nature has not created all people with the same qualities. So by natural equality we generally mean the provision of equal opportu¬nities to ail. It implies the abolition of man-made and artificial – inequalities.

2. Political equality : Political equality is an important kind of equality. It means that all citizens will have equal access to the avenues of authority. All of them possess the same political rights, an equal voice in government and equal right Jo hold public offices. It may be noted that political equality is enjoyed by the citizens only. It is not given to aliens and foreign nationals living in a state. Citizens have to utilise the opportunities given by political equality with great case, farsighted outlook and broad-mindedness. Then only political equality brings the required fruits. Then only political equality brings the required fruits. Political equality prevails and flourishes when all citizens were provided with political rights like Right to vote, Right to contest elections, Right to make petitions and Right to criticism. That means political equality flourishes only in democratic countries.

3. International equality : International equality means that all the states are treated equally irrespective of their geographical, economic or military composition. According to this element all nations of the world are equal whether they are large or small. For instance, the United Nations have extended equal dignity and status to all the nations in its Charter. International Equality reflects the traits of humanism. It emphasizes the peaceful settlement of disputes between the nations. Some cautioned about the occurrence of Third World War in the absence of respect to international law. They expressed apprehensions thinking that human beings will go back to the stone ages.

Question 11.
Explain Political Rights.
Political rights are those rights which enable the individuals to participate in the political affairs of the state.

The following are the important political rights :
1) Right to vote : Right to vote is the most important political right enjoyed by the citizens in modem democratic states. It serves as a powerful weapon for adult citizens in choosing their representatives to various legislative bodies. It makes them as real sovereign. All the citizens are entitled to this right without any discrimination based on creed, colour, language, race, region, religion, sex etc. However, persons such as aliens and minors are deprived of this right.

2) Right to contest in elections : This right empowers the citizens to contest as candidates to various legislative bodies in the state. Especially this right enables those, who have political sagacity, enthusiasm and dynamic nature, to actively participate in the political dynamics of the state. As a result, it increases political enthusiasm among the citizens. Such an element is considered as a base of democratic polity.

3) Right to hold public offices : This right provides opportunities to the citizens to hold various public offices for a definite period. It gives no scope for exclusion of citizens or conferring special privileges to some at the cost of others. This helps the citizens to exercise authority in a dignified manner.

4) Right to petition : This right enables the citizens to forward petitions denoting their requirements or grievances. It is considered as a vital political right in the modem state. The citizens could be able to find solutions to their immediate or long pending issues by bringing them to the notice of the government through this right. It also helps the public authorities to know the grievances of the people and attend to them properly and promptly.

5) Right to criticism : This right gives opportunity to the citizens to criticize the various public policies and programmes. It also enables them to highlight the omissions and commissions of the leaders, and administrative personnel at various levels. It also gives scope for the citizens to render positive and constructive criticism about the on goings in the government from time to time. Ultimately it keeps the administrative authorities and policy makers to be vigilant in discharging their obligations.

AP Inter 1st Year Civics Question Paper March 2019

Question 12.
Describe any three types ofglustice.
1. Natural Justice : Natural Justice is based on the notion that every person in the world possesses some rights for availing the natural resources. Natural resources provide support to the life of each and every creature on earth. As the human beings are the only rational creatures, it is their responsibility to see that natural resources have to be judiciously exploited. Human beings must keep in mind the requirements of future generations in this regard.

2. Social Justice: Social Justice envisages a balance between rights of individuals and social control. It facilitates the fulfillment of the legitimate expectations of the individuals under the existing laws. It ensures several benefits and extends protection to the individuals against the interference or encroachment from others in society. It is consistent with the unity and the integrity of the nation. It fulfills the heeds of the society.

Social Justice enforces the principle of equality before law. It also ensures eradication of social evils like poverty, unemployment, starvation, disease etc. It also extends protection to the downtrodden and weaker sections of society. Ultimately it provides those conditions essential for the all round development of individuals.

3. Political Justice : Political Justice symbolises political equality. It implies provision of political rights to all the adult citizens in a state. It facilitates free and fair participation of the citizens in the governance of the country. It is manifested to the full extent in times of elections. It allows the citizens for their active participation in day-to-day administration. It is based on the premise that everyone is counted as one and none for more than one. It may be noted that political justice prevails in the State when the following conditions are prevalent

  1. Rule of law
  2. Independent Judiciary
  3. Popular elections to the representative bodies
  4. Political parties
  5. Freedom of press and assembly
  6. Democratic rule etc.

Question 13.
How citizenship is lost ?
Citizens loose their citizenship under the following conditions :
1) Renunciation : A person is deprived of his citizenship, if he wishes to become the citizen of another state. One will lose the citizenship of one’s parent state and may become the citizen of a foreign state by naturalization. In India, the Constitution prescribes that a person who voluntarily acquires Citizenship of any other state will no longer be an Indian citizen.

2) Marriage : Generally a woman loses her citizenship when she marries an alien. However some states allow retention of citizenship. For instance in Britain, there is an option to retain British citizenship who marries an alien.

3) Accepting Foreign Service : A person may lose his citizenship when he enters into the service of another state. If a person accepts a permanent job in the government of a foreign state, he foregoes the citizenship of his native state.

4) Obliging Foreign Decorations or Titles : When a citizen obliges to receive foreign decorations or titles, it may lead to the forfeiture of his Citizenship.

5) Prolonged AbsenceProlonged absence in the native state beyond a certain period may lead to the loss of citizenship. In some states like France and Germany citizens who are absent themselves from their native country for more than ten years will loose their citizenship.

6) Treason or Crime : Involvement of a citizen in a serious crime and subsequent proof of his action will also lead to the loss of citizenship. Especially those persons who directly or indirectly participate or extend assistance to anti-state, anti-social and antigovernmental activities, will loose their Citizenship by a special notification to that effect.

7) Desertion from Army : Desertion from army thereby jeopardizing the security of a state leads to the forfeiture of citizenship.

AP Inter 1st Year Civics Question Paper March 2019

Question 14.
What are the features of secular state ?
Features of Secular State : Secular State comprises the following features.
1. No place for religion : Secular States does not assign significance to any particular religion. It will not make laws or implement them on religious grounds.

2. Equal status : Secular State accords equal status to its people. It makes no differentiation between individuals on the grounds of their caste, colour, community, religion, race, region, language etc. As a result, people will have satisfaction and extend co-operation to the government in the implementation of various policies and programmes. They live together with the fellow members of other religious denominations.

3. No state religion : Secular state does not recognize any particular religion as the state religion. It adopts neutral policy in religious matters. It implements various laws and social welfare measures without basing on the religious feelings of the people. It will hot assign special role to any particular religion in publicetivities. All public places like educational institutions, government offices and judicial organizations will carry on their activities with ?ut aligning to a particular religion.

Question 15.
Define constitution. Explain its features.
Features of the Constitution :
1) Preamble : Every Constitution will have a preamble. The preamble denotes the aims and aspirations of the Cdnstitution. It is like the soul of the Constitution. Hence, preamble is considered as an important feature of the Constitution.

2) Clarity : Clarity is another important feature of the Constitution. The Constitution clearly explains about .the different policies and methods of governance. It is written in a simple and clear language.

3) Incorporation of Fundamental Rights : Every Constitution includes some fundamental rights. These fundamental rights are meant for safeguarding the freedoms of the citizens. They enable the citizens to realise their personality in various spheres. They help the citizens for leading a happy and honourable life in the state.

4) Brevity : Brevity is another feature of a Constitution. Brevity avoids confussion among the individuals in understanding and interpreting provisions. Unnecessary elements are not included in the Constitution. It should be precise. It must not contain large number of clauses.

5) Flexibility : The Constitution must be flexible for adapting the wishes are aspirations of the people from time to time. There must be a scope of amending the provisions of the Constitution if necessary. Frequent changes in the Constitution tend to weaken the spirit of the Constitution. But, at the same time, the Constitution of a modem state should be adaptable to the progressive changes.

6) Permanence : Permanence is one more feature of the Constitution. The Constitution must have everlasting values for the welfare of the whole nation. It represents the actual structure of the state and its political institutions. It obliges the customs of the people.

AP Inter 1st Year Civics Question Paper March 2019

Question 16.
What are the features of Unitary Government ?
Definition : A.V Dicey “A Unitary Government is the habital exercise of supreme legislative authority by one central power”.

Features of Unitary Government:
The basic or essential features are as follows :

  • Single government : A Unitary government consists of a single Central Government for the entire country. It has all the powers. The concentration of all powers in the Central Government is meant for uniformity and efficiency in administration.
  • Provincial government : In a Unitary Government, the provisional governments are not created by constitution. They are created by the Central Government for the sake of administrative convenience. The Central Government has the power to destroy the provincial governments. The states are the agents of the Central Government.
  • Transfer of powers : For the sake of administrative convenience, the Central Government may transfer some of its powers to the provincial governments. These powers can also be taken back by the centre at any time.
  • Constitution : A Unitary Government may have an unwritten constitution. Ex : Britain has an unwritten constitution. However, all the unitary states do not follow the model of Britain. France, a unitary state has a written constitution.
  • Single citizenship : In a unitary state, all the citizens will have only one citizenship. No citizen will have the citizenship of the state in which he lives.
  • Unicameral legislature : A unitary state may also function with a unicameral legislature (one house only). It is possible because, in a unitary state, the states need not have representation in the upper chamber. However, all the unicameral states do not opt for it. Ex : Britain, France, China have bicameral legislatures.

Section – C (15 × 2 = 30)

Note :

  • Answer any fifteen of the following questions in not exceeding 5 lines each.
  • Each question carries two marks.

Question 17.
Write about Ancient city states.
Ancient Greece consisted of a large number of city states. They were small both in size and population. For example, Athens,Sparta, Corinth. Each city state had its own government. The greeks based their political philosophy on the concept of city-state. The population of the city-state was divided into three groups :

  1. Citizens
  2. Aliens and
  3. Slaves.

AP Inter 1st Year Civics Question Paper March 2019

Question 18.
What do you know about association ?
Association is a group of people united for a specific purpose or a limited number of purposes. Associations are of various types viz., social, economic, political, cultural, religious etc. It’s membership is optional. A person can be a member of a number of associations.

Question 19.
Rule of law.
Rule of Law is an important type of administration of justice. It originated in England. It implies :

  1. Legal Equality : All are equal before law.
  2. No Arbitrary Action : Punishment is given only when an existing law is violated.
  3. No Special Rights : No individual is above law and law does not recognise any special privileges.

Question 20.
Explain the origin of the term law.
The term “LAW” is derived from the Teutonic route (German) “Lag” which means “To Lay”, “To Set” or something fixed. The second dimension is that the word “Law” had its roots in the Latin Words “Jus and Jungere” which mean bond or tie.

Question 21.
Mention the names of four types of liberty.
Liberty is of in the following types namely :

  1. Natural liberty
  2. Civil liberty
  3. Economic liberty
  4. Political liberty and
  5. National liberty.

Question 22.
Give any two definitions of liberty.

  1. “Liberty means the absence of restraints”. -J.R. Seeley
  2. “Liberty is the freedom of an individual to express without any external hindrance to his personality”. – G.D.H. Cole

Question 23.
Classify Rights.
Rights are broadly classified into three categories namely,

  1. Natural rights
  2. Moral rights and
  3. Legal rights.

Legal Rights intum classified into

  1. Civil rights
  2. Political rights and
  3. Economic rights.

AP Inter 1st Year Civics Question Paper March 2019

Question 24.
Give two examples of Responsibilities.
The following are some examples of Responsibilities :

  1. Payment of Taxes
  2. Co-operation in law and order matters
  3. Honest exercise of Franchise etc.

Question 25.
Define Justice.
“Justice is giving to every man his due. It is a combination of reason, courage, appetite and will in terms of the state” – Plato

Question 26.
What is Distributive Justice ?
Distributive justice implies the distribution of goods and wealth of citizens by the state on merit basis. Aristotle stated that Justice is a sort of proportion. He regarded it as the most powerful instrument against revolutions. But modem writers like John Rawls denied Aristotle’s view. He pointed out that inequalities are inherent in the society. He remarked that inequalities must be balanced by some restrictive arrangements in the political system.

Question 27.
Who is an Alien ?
An Alien is a person living in a state but owing Allegiance to another State. Aliens are entitled to such rights and obligations which are incorporated in the covenants of the Foreign State.
Ex : In America, Aliens must obey the laws and pay taxes just like the American Citizens.

Question 28.
Define citizenship.

  1. Prof. Laski defines “Citizenship is one’s contribution of instructed judgement to the public good”.
  2. T.H.Marshall defines “Citizenship is a status bestowed on those who are full members of a community. All who possess this status are equal with respect to the rights and duties with which the state is endowed”.

Question 29.
Write any four conditions essential for the success of Democracy.

  1. Sound system of Education
  2. Independent Press
  3. Strong Opposition
  4. Social Equality.

AP Inter 1st Year Civics Question Paper March 2019

Question 30.
Write two definitions of Democracy.
Definitions :

  1. Abraham Lincoln : “Democracy is a government of the people, by the people and for the people”.
  2. J.R. Seely : “Democracy is a government in which every one has a share”.

Question 31.
What are the types of Secularism ?
Secularism is of two types, namely, i) Subjective ii) Objective Subjective Secularism means the gradual separation of religious feelings from everyday transactions of the people. Objective Secularism implies the elimination of religious rituals and institutions from public life and government activity.

Question 32.
What do you mean by Theocracy ?
The state having an official religion is called a Theocratic State. In such states all other religions or religious activities are either prohibited or discouraged or highly regulated or controlled by the state. All the official and important offices of the state are either appointed or elected only those from the official religion. State officially participates in the religious affairs and rituals.

Question 33.
Mention any two differences between Rigid and Flexible Constitution.
Differences between Flexible and Rigid Constitution :

Flexible Constitution Rigid Constitution
1. Constitutional matters are not clearly mentioned. 1. Constitutional matters are clearly written.
2. Constitution can be easily amended. 2. Constitution cannot be easily amended.

Question 34.
What is an Evolved Constitution ?
Evolved constitution is also called Cumulative constitution. It is the result of evolutionary changes. It may be the product of collected material. It acts as the basis to the political institutions of a country. Several customs, usages, traditions, principles and judicial decisions are the major sources of this Constitution.
Ex : British Constitution.

AP Inter 1st Year Civics Question Paper March 2019

Question 35.
What do you mean by Federal Government ?
Governments are classified into Federal and Unitary on the basis of the distribution of powers between the Centre and the States. A federal system is one in which the powers of the government are distributed constitutionally between the Centre and the State Governments. Ex : America, Switzerland etc.

Meaning: The term “Federation” is derived from a Latin word “Foedus” which means “Treaty of Agreement”.

Question 36.
Write the meaning of Aristocracy.
Aristocracy is a noble form of Government in which few persons by virtue of their birth, talent, status, wealth etc., will act as rulers. When these persons exercise their powers with selfish motivations, such a Government is known as oligarchy.

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