AP Inter 1st Year Civics Question Paper March 2017

A diverse collection of AP Inter 1st Year Civics Model Papers and AP Inter 1st Year Civics Question Paper March 2017 caters to various learning preferences and styles.

AP Inter 1st Year Civics Question Paper March 2017

Time: 3 Hours
Maximum Marks: 100

Section – A (3 × 10 = 30)

Note :

  • Answer any three of the following questions in 40 lines each.
  • Each question carries ten marks.

Question 1.
Define Political Science and explain its scope.
Introduction : Political Science is a premier social science. It is mainly concerned with the study of the state in its relation with Society, Citizens, Associations and the world at large. Aristotle is hailed as the Father of Political Science. He wrote famous book “THE POLITICS”.

Origin of the word Politics : Aristotle, the Father of Political Science used the term “POLITICS” for the first time in his famous book “POLITICS”. The term “POLITICS” is derived from a greek word “POLIS” and latin word “POLITICUS” which means the city state. „

Definitions of Political Science : Political Scientists gave various definitions on Political Science. They are as follows :

  1. J.W. Garner : “Political Science begins and ends with the state”.
  2. Stephen Leacock : “Political Science deals with the gov-ernment”.
  3. David Easton : “Political Science is concerned with the authoritative allocation of values for a society”.

Scope of Political Science : The scope of Political Science means the subject matter covered by it or the topics which are included in its study. It may be explained in the following ways :
i) Study of man in Relation to the Society and State : Aristotle stated that “Man is a Social Animal”. Man can satisfy his basic needs like food, clothing, shelter and protection in the society. Political Science explains the relationship beween man and society. It examines how man Aould adjust himself with the societys. It is imperative that the ihodern man should develop proper attitude towards the society. This is possible only when he identifies himself with the society.

Political Science is concerned with the perennial and central issue of establishing proper relationship between the state and the individuals. It deals with many topics of state activity, such as limitations of Political Authority and sphere of Individual Freedoms.

ii) Study of State : Aristotle also stated that man is a Political Animal. State is a human and political institution. It came into existence for the sake of man and continue in existence for providing happy and prosperous life for man. Individuals became members of the state since its inception. We can’t imagine the life of individuals outside of the state. Political Science studies the intimate Relationship between the state and the citizens. It also studies the Nature, Functions and Various theories of state authority.

It also comprises a study of the various activities of the state from that of ancient police state to the modem welfare state. Thus, Political Science deals with the Present, Past and Future aspects of the state.

iii) Study of the Government: Government is an important essential element of Modern State. It is an instrument which fulfills aims and goals of the state. There can be no state with out a government. Government formulates, expresses and implements the will of the state. Government consists of three organs namely Legislature, Executive and Judiciary. Legislature makes the laws, Executive implements the laws and Judiciary interpretes the laws. Political Science studies the meaning, forms, structure, nature and functions of the government. It also discusses the relationship .among the various organs of the government. Hence, Political Science is treated as a science of government.

iv) Study of Associations and Institutions : Associations and Institutions help the Individuals for their moral, religious, cultural, scientific and technological progress. These carry on their activities at local, regional, national and international levels. Individuals join as members in these Associations out of their interests or purposes. There prevails a great linkage between these voluntary Associations and Institutions. Associations and Institutions in Modem times play a significant role in the Formulation and Implementation of policies of the state and government. Voluntary bodies such as trade unions, peasant groups, professional bodies etc., will have a great impact on the state and government. Political Science explains the nature, structure and functions of the various Associations and Institutions.

v) Study of Rights and Responsibilities : Scope of Political Science includes the study of Rights and Responsibilities of citizens. Citizens in democratic states enjoy certain rights such as right to life, right to liberty, right to property etc. Political Science enumerates the definition, classification and different theories of Rights. Similarly, citizens will have some Responsibilities towards the state. These include paying taxes, obeying the laws etc. It explains the significance of Rights and Responsibilities of the citizens. Hence, Political Science examines the Realtionship between Rights and Responsibilities.

vi) Study of National and International Issues : The scope of Political Science covers various issues of Modem state in relation with other states in matters of safeguarding Territorial integrity and Sovereignty. It studies the topics like Cold war, Balance of power, Disarmament, Detente etc. Modem states are not isolated. They depend upon other states in many spheres like importing raw materials, exporting finished goods, transport, technology, services and communications. This requires close relations among the states in international sphere. Political Science discusses not only the domestic policies of the state but also the issues of international dimensions. It covers a wide range of topics such as diplomacy, international politics, international law, international organisations etc.

vii) Study of Power : The behaviouralists of 20th century regarded Political Science as a study of sharing and shaping of power. They pointed out that Political Science discusses how power is grabbed, manipulated and perpetuated to have a control over the society. Morgenthau defined the power as “Man’s control over the Minds and Actions of other Men”.

viii) Study of Public Policy: Modem Political Scientists like David Easton and Gabriel Almond argued that Political Science is a “Policy Science”. They considered Political Science as the study of formulation, execution and evaluation of Public Policy, with the advent of Public Policy the scope of Political Science has further widened to include the dimensions of vital topics such as Industrial Policy, Agricultural Policy, Land Reform Policy, Education Policy, Population Policy etc. Public Policy of a Nation in the context of International Relations plays a crucial role in the formu¬lation of diplomatic, economic, military and scientific strategies.
Conclusion : The above contents show the wide range of subjects that come under the purview of Political Science.

AP Inter 1st Year Civics Question Paper March 2017

Question 2.
Define Nationality. Explain the essential elements of Nationality.
Introduction : The concepts of Nation and Nationality have become important components in the domain of International Relations and political science respectively. Both inspired the people of several countries with patriotic feeling prior to the two world wars.

The Events that took place in the erstwhile Soviet Union, ethnic Riots between Serbians and croatians in the former Yugo slavia, the unification of East and west Germanies, the peace talks between Israel and Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) on West Asia etc., reflect the serious concern of the people for realising Nationality and Nation States.

Meaning : The Word “Nation” is derived from a latin word “NATIO” which means “BORN” (BIRTH) or “Common Descent”.

Definitions :

  1. R.G. Gettle : “Nationality is a population having the common bonds of Race, Language, Religion, Traditions and History.
  2. J.H. Rose : “Nationality is a union of Hearts once made and never unmade”.
  3. J.W. Garner : “Nationality is a group or portion of population which is united by Racial and other bonds”.

Essential Elements of Nationality :
1) Purity of Race : Racial purity helps in the formation and strengthening of the idea of Nationality. Race is a physical phenomenon. It depends on certain distinctions of skull, stature, hair, complexion etc. These distinctions serve as a cementing bond among the members of a group.

But we should remember that common race is not an indis-pensable factor in the growth of Nationality. Modem races are so mixed that none of them can claim to be pure. Pure races have disappeared because of wars and migrations. Racial purity is now a myth only.

Ex : Canada and United states have transformed into single nations inspite of their racial diversities in their respective populations. Similarly, Australia and Britain are two distinct Nations although they belong to one racial stock.

2) Common Language : Language plays a key role in the promotion of nationality. The philosophers and scientists said that common language is essential for the development of nationality. Language is a medium to express all their feelings. It helps to express one’s own selves to have cordial relations and to share the miseries and happiness in a group languages also promotes common feelings and traditions. Common language promotes the feeling of oneness and keeps the entire race on single track.

3) Common Religion : Religion is one important factor to strengthen nationality. There are many instances when people of different nationalities with common religion remain citizens in the same state. For instance, the main reason for the partition of Indian subcontinent into India and Pakistan in 1947 lies in the religion.

4) Geographical Unity: Geographical unity is necessary for the emergence of nationality. Nationality sentiments prevail and develop among the people living in a single geographical area. The people residing in such an area love, worship their country and make sacrifices for the sake of their motherland. People, who belong to one religion, converse the same language, same race living in a geographical area inculcate and improve their nationality sentiments. The formation of Israel in 1946 was purely due to the feelings of the hitherto wandering Jewish people to live in a single geographical area. Hence their desire of live in a territory made them united. This ultimately transformed them as patriotic persons.

5) Common History : Common History is considered as an important element of Nationality. It invokes an inspiration among the people and binds them together. Some historical incidents may give a chance to the people to develop national sentiments.
Ex : Indians have learnt the lessons of Nationalism from the British legacy.

6) Common Culture : Culture in its broad sense means a way of life. It is reflected through certain common elements like dress, customs, conventions, food habits, religious beliefs, ethical values etc. They easily develop into a single Nation. These elements bind the people together and hold together.

7) Common Political aspirations : Nationality sentiments prevail and develop among the people having common political aspirations. The political ideas, conventions and institutions which were formed due to the single political rule will have a considerable impact and influence over the people. For instance, the Swiss people love very much their direct democratic devices in political matters. Similarly the Americans express the feeling of worship towards their constitution. The British people also feel proud of their political and judicial institutions like rule of law, parliamentary democracy and judicial review etc.

8) Common Economic ties : This element of nationality has been stressed by ‘Karl Marx’. Since then onwards the importance of this element has been increasing. The Russians have great regard for their economic system, eventhough there exist diversities. Their unflinching love for socialism inspired nationalism among them. They successfully repulsed the attacks of Germany during the Second World War. Thus the common economic ties made them united and integrated them into a nation.

AP Inter 1st Year Civics Question Paper March 2017

Question 3.
Define Rights and describe various kinds of Civil Rights.
Introduction : Rights are the essential conditions for the development of the personality of individuals. They are upheld by the laws of the state. They are regarded as a power or privilege which the law invests in a person. They are treated as the sum total of the opportunities meant for enhancing one’s personality. Individuals can not achieve progress in the absence of the rights.

Definitions of Rights : Political scientists have defined the term ‘Right’ in several ways. Some of their definitions are explained below :

  1. Earnest Barker : “Rights are the external conditions necessary for the development of the capacities of the personality of the individual.”
  2. Beni Prasad : “Rights are nothing more and nothing less than those social conditions which are necessary for the development of personality of individuals.”
  3. Bosanquet : “A right is a claim recognised by the society and enforced by the state.”
  4. T.H. Green : “Rights are those powers claimed and recognized as contributory to the common good.”
  5. H.J. Laski : “Rights are those conditions of social life without which no man can seek in general to be himself at his best.”

Civil Rights : Civil rights aim at providing basic conditions for individuals to lead a happy and dignified social life. These rights are considered vital for a civilized society. Social life becomes impossible in their absence.
Individuals in a civilized society enjoy the following Civil rights.

These are
1) Right to life : This is the most important civil right. T.H. Green considered it as the most fundamental civil right. This right provides security to the individual’s life. Individuals can not lead their lives in the absence of this right. This right is based on the premise that the life of an individual is valuable not only to himself, but also to the society and the state as a whole. Hence it prescribes at large the state to extend protection to the life of individuals. However, it empowers the stafe to impose some reasonable restrictions upon the individual^ The state can insist any person to sacrifice his life for the sake of the nation. This right also includes the right of self-defence.

2) Right to liberty : This right enables individuals to have freedom in various walks of life. It makes their lives worth living. It enables them to develop their personality in various spheres. It includes various freedoms such as freedom of movement, speech, expression, thought, residence etc.

3) Right to equality : This right implies that individuals are equal before law. It forbids discrimination on the basis of one’s caste, colour, creed, education, region, race, religion, wealth etc. It enables equal treatment to all persons. It provides scope for uniform application of laws. It enables equal opportunities to all persons in social, economic and political fields.

4) Right to property : This right enables every individual to acquire, enjoy, donate or inherit the property. It is essential to the individual for securing higher standards of living. This right is crucial for the growth of individual’s personality.

5) Right to family: Family is a fundamental social institution. This right enables individuals to maintain family relations in society. Consequently, individuals will have freedom to marry persons of their choice. They will have choice to procreate children and rear their offspring. However, the state can impose certain restrictions upon this right keeping in view the national interests. For example, until recent times China imposed severe restrictions against their citizens in the size of their families. Recently it has made some amendments in this regard.

6) Right to religion : This right allows the individuals to have freedom to practice, propagate and profess any religion of their choice. Every individual is at liberty to preach or practice the religious doctrines as they like. The secular states provide religious freedoms to their citizens.

7) Right to contract: This right provides freedom to every individual to enter into contract or legal arrangements with others regarding his life, property and work. It regulates the two parties in carrying their contracts in letter and spirit. The state recognizes only those contracts which are helpful to the common well being of the people.

8) Right to education : In the modern era education is regarded as vital to every individual. Uneducated and innocent individuals cannot play an active role in public affairs. Similarly, illiterate persons cannot fully make use of their abilities. Education and literacy enable the people to understand the problems of the society and policies of the government. This right guarantees a minimum level of education to every citizen in democratic states.

9) Right to form associations and unions: This right enables individuals to form associations and unions for realising some specific objectives. Individuals may join, continue or keep away from the membership of associations according to their will and pleasure. The State is empowered to impose restrictions against those associations which ignore the welfare of the nation.

10) Right to constitutional remedies : Civil rights are meaningless in the absence of this right. This right is essential to every individual for safeguarding his rights. This right empowers a person (who was deprived of his liberty due to the intervention or manhandling by others including the government) to seek justice and relief from the concerned judicial organizations. The affected individuals are authorised to approach an appropriate court for correcting such imbalance. In this regard the higher judicial organizations issue several writs and effectively check such tendencies. These writs are in the form of Habeas Corpus, Mandamus, Prohibition, Quo-warranto and Certiorari etc.

AP Inter 1st Year Civics Question Paper March 2017

Question 4.
What do you mean by Democracy ? Write about the direct Democratic devices.
Meaning : The term Democracy is derived from two greek words namely, “Demos” and “Kratos”. Demos means people and Kratos mean rule (or) authority.

Definitions :

  1. Abraham Lincoln : “Democracy is a government of the people, by the people and for the people”.
  2. Lord Bryce : “Democracy is that form of government in which the ruling power of the state is vested not in a particular class but in the members of the community as a whole”.
  3. J.R. Seely : “Democracy is a government in which every one has a share”.

Direct Democracy : Direct Democracy is said to prevail when people themselves directly express their views and participate in the deliberative and administrative affairs of the government. People in direct democracy assume all powers of making laws. They formulate laws at a meeting attended by all the people. Direct Democracy is prevalent in Switzerland. In Switzerland, the citizens living in some small cantons meet together on a Sunday in April or May to elect their representatives and to make laws.

Devices of Direct Democracy : There are four devices prescribed in direct democracies to enable the people to participate directly in the administrative activities of the State.
Those are :
1) Referendum
2) Initiative
3) Recall and
4) Plebiscite.

These methods may be explained as follows.
1) Referendum : It is one of the direct democratic devices. Literally it means, “must be referred to the people”. It is a device where by the electorate may veto a proposed legislation or a bill which the legislature has already parsed. In other words, bills passed by the legislature are the voters for their approval or disapproval. If majority of the voters approve them, they become acts. But if they vote against them, they will be given up. Hence, referendum is known as “Popular Veto”.

It is of two types :

  1. Compulsory referendum : All the constitutional bills must be sent to the people.
  2. Optional Referendum : An ordinary bill passed by the legislative may be or may not be sent to the people.

However, even that ordinary bill must be sent to the people, if a definite number of people demand it. Ex-: In Switzerland 30,000 people or eight cantons (States) can demand referendum on an ordinary bill.

2. Initiative : It is another device of direct democracy. It is a method by means of which the people propose legislation i.e.; they can ask the legislature to pass a particular law. For instance, in Switzerland, if 50,000 voters request the legislature to pass a law, then the proposal is submitted to the consideration of the people.
If majority of the people (30,000) approve it, then it becomes an act. Unlike referendum, initiative provides a chance to the people to start the making of law.

It is of two types :

  1. Formulative Initiative: People present a bill to the legislature
  2. Unformulative Initivative : People present a demand to the legislature as king it to pass a bill.

3. Recall: It is another device of Direct Democracy. It means “Calling Back”. According to this method a specific number of voters may call back or dismiss an elected officer or a member of the legislature before the expiry of his term, if he is irresponsible. By means of this, the people can remove a representative or an officer from office when he fails to discharge his duties properly.

4. Plebiscite : The term “Plebiscite” is derived from a French word “Plebiscitum”, which means “decree of the people”. It is used to obtain the opinion of the people on an important political issue or when there is a dispute regarding some territory. The question of accession or secession or territory is generally solved by means of plebiscite. It is not concerned with legislation. It is not apart of legal process. It is only a democratic method of ascertaining the opinion of the people on any political issue of public importance.

Question 5.
What are the functions of Legislature ?
Legislature is the law-making branch of the government. Its functions may be discussed under the following heads :

Functions of Legislature :

  • Legislative functions : The legislature frames new laws, changes or revises or cancels them as per the circumstances. Law-making is the most important activity of legislature.
  • Deliberative functions: The legislature discusses various matters of public concern and formulates domestic and foreign policies. It ventilates public grievances and offers solutions to different problems of the people.
  • Executive functions: In a Parliamentary Government, the legislature exercises control on the Council of Ministers through different resolutions and questions. If necessary, it can pull down the Government through a no-confidence motion.
  • Financial functions: The legislature controls the national finances. It passes the annual budget and allots the funds for various departments. It suggests the ways and means of raising the revenue and spending it.
  • Judicial functions : The legislature, especially, the upper house, performs some judicial functions. In Britain, the House of Lords functions as the highest Court of Justice. In America and India the legislatures try cases of impeachment against the Presidents and the Justices of Supreme Court and High Courts.
  • Constitutional functions’: The legislature amends the constitution as per the needs of tfie country which change from time to time.
  • Electoral functions : In some countries, the legislatures perform electoral functions also. Ex : The elected members of the Indian Parliament and the State Legislative Assemblies elect the President of India. In Switzerland, the members of Federal Assembly elect the judges of the Federal Tribunal.
  • Other functions : Besides the above, the Legislature performs functions like accepting or rejecting the ordinances issued by the Head of the State, electing the Speaker and Deputy Speaker, appointing enquiry committees etc.

AP Inter 1st Year Civics Question Paper March 2017

Section – B (8 × 5 = 40)

Note :

  • Answer any eight of the following questions is not exceeding 20 lines each.
  • Each question carries five marks.

Question 6.
Explain any two essential elements of state.
Essential elements of state : State is the predominant and superior politico – social institution existing in the society. It consists of 4 essential elements. These elements of state may be ex¬plained in a detailed way in the following paragraphs.

1) Population : Population is the fundamental and essential element of state. There can be no state without population. Plato, Aristotle, Rousseau and others considered this feature as an important one. The famous poet Sri. Gurajada Apparao also states that it is the people, rather than the land, that comprise the state. Political writers differ in their opinions regarding the exact size of population possessed by the state. While Plato fixed 5,040, Rousseau fixed 10,000 to be an ideal population for a state. But today we can find the countries like China and India which have more than 100 crores of population on one hand and the countries like Andora, San Marino are having small number of people on the other hand is the modern world.

2) Territory : Territory is another essential element of the state. It is necessary for the origin and existence of the state. There can be no state without territory. Every state must have more or less territory of its own. There is no unanimous opinion among the political writers regarding the size of territory of the state. Some preferred vast territory, where as others preferred small territory. But today we can find the countries like America and Canada having large territory on one hand, and the countries like Vatican, Monaco having very less territory on the other hand in the modern world.

Question 7.
Distinguish between State and Government.
Introduction : We often use the terms “State” and “Government” indiscriminately one for the other”. State means government in practice” said by H.J. Laski. “State means almost government machinery”.

State : State is a people organized for law within a definite territory.

Government : Government is an instrument which fulfills aims and goals of the state.

Differences between State and Government : The following are the differences between state and government.

State Government
1. State has four elements namely popu- lation, territory, government and sovereignty. 1. Government is one of the essential elements of the state.
2. State is a permanent organisation. 2. Government is a temporary organisation.
3. State consists of the whole body of people – The rulers and the ruled. 3. Government consists of only the rulers.
4. State has the sovereignty. 4. Government does not have sovereignty.
5. State is the master. 5. Government is the servant.
6. Membership of the state is compulsory. 6. Membership in government is not compulsory, to that of state is narrow.
7. All states are alike in the sense they possess the same four features (or) elements like Population, Territory, Government and Sovereignty. 7. Governments are different types, viz. Parliamentary – Presidential – Unitary – Federal, Democratic – Dictatorial etc.

Question 8.
Is India a Nation State ? Explain.
It is interesting to know whether India is a Nation-State. Some say that India is a uni-national state. As against this some state that it is a Multi-National State. It is argued that India is a Uni-National State rather than a Multi-National State due to the following reasons.

  • It consists of people who possess the features of uni-national state like common history, common culture and traditions.
  • The Indians showed their spirit of National integration on many occassions after independence.
  • They stood as one and extended support to their government when our country was faced with wars from Pakistan and China in 1962 and 1965 respectively.
  • They stood united under the leadership of Mahatma Gandhi throughout the freedom struggle against the British rule in India.
  • From the begining, our country won name and fame for its unity in diversity. Even- though the people of India belong to different regions, they are Indians first and Indians in the last resort i.e., they owe indebtedness to their respective religions and languages.
  • Some common elements concerning national anthem, national heritage, culture, constitution, national flag and the government inspire the nationalist feelings and inculcate the national integration among the people.
  • People celebrate all the national festivals with great enthusiasm and spirit.
    Hence we may say that India is a nation state with the characteristic features of unity in diversity.

AP Inter 1st Year Civics Question Paper March 2017

Question 9.
Write about any three sources of Law.
Definitions : The English word ‘Law’ originates from the ancient Teutonic word ‘Lag’ which means “something that lies fixed or uniform”. Political thinkers defined law in different ways which are listed below :

  1. “Law is the command of the sovereign”. – John Austin
  2. “Law is the system of rights and obligations which the State enforces”. – T.H. Green

Sources of Law :
1) Customs, Practices and Traditions : These are one of the important sources of law. In primitive societies, there were no laws in written form. All disputes were settled in accordance with social customs and traditions. Customs regulated the social life in the early societies. Customs and traditions cannot be laws in political sense. But, when the State recognises certain traditions, they in turn become laws. Ex: The laws relating to marriage, divorce etc., found in our Country are based on traditions, the common law of England;

2) Religion : In ancient times customary laws and religious laws were intermixed. The religious teachers enjoyed unlimited powers in those times. Their decisions were treated on par with laws. The primitive men believed that the judgements of the religious teachers had divine sanction. The ancient Roman laws were merely the religious laws. The Hindu and Muslim laws derived inspiration mainly from religion.

3) Judicial Decisions / Adjudication / Judgement of the Courts : The judgements of the judges also serve as a source of law. Generally, judges interpret laws, apply them to particular cases and deliver judgements. Their judgements become precedents and are usually followed by other judges in similar cases. In course of time such judgements acquire the status of law. In this way judges add to the law of the country. There are many instances that new laws have evolved by way of interpretation. Many of the laws in Britain, America and India have originated from the judgements of the Judges of the respective countries.

Question 10.
Explain about any three safeguards of Liberty.
Introduction: The concept of Liberty is of great significance in the study of political science. Liberty is an essential condition without which man cannot develop his personality. It became a source of inspiration to the millions of the people living all over the world.

Meaning : The term liberty is derived from the Latin word ” LIBER”-which means free from restrictions.

Definition :

  1. “Liberty means the absence of restraints”. – J.R. Seely
  2. “Liberty means the positive power of doing or enjoying something worth doing or enjoying”. – T.H. Green

Safeguards of liberty : Liberty is the most cherished ideal of human beings. Hence, it must be safeguarded in the larger interest of the society and state. In this context, the following safeguards of liberty are worth mentioning.

1) Democratic rule : Democratic rule is considered as a heaven to liberty. Liberty flourishes only in a democratic State. The reason is that democratic state extends protection to individual’s liberties through various laws. It creates a conducive atmosphere for the individuals to enjoy their liberties freely and impartially. It makes the people to participate in the government process directly or indirectly. It makes the people to participate in the governmental process directly or indirectly. It makes the government answerable to the people. It allows the people the right to change the government through public opinion or ballot when the government acts improperly.

2) Written and rigid constitution : A written and rigid constitution is considered the most important safeguard of individual liberty. Such a constitution incorporates the various freedoms of individuals in several provisions. It acts as a custodian of people’s rights and liberties. It demarcates the spheres of governmental activity. It mentions about the various measures to be taken in case of people’s freedoms are infringed or confiscated by others including governmental authorities. It also imposes restraints on the political parties by not allowing them to amend the constitutional provisions for furthering their partisan interests.

3) Independent judiciary : An independent and impartial judiciary is another safeguard of individual liberty. The judiciary will uphold the constitution and keeps the government accountable to the people. It prescribes various safeguards for protecting the fundamental rights of citizens. The judges in higher courts will deliver justice to the people on fair, free and impartial manner. Pro. Laski, while recognizing this safeguard,, stated that good governance depends upon the effective functioning of judiciary.

AP Inter 1st Year Civics Question Paper March 2017

Question 11.
What are the features of Human Rights ?
Human rights are the amenities required for the basic existence of human beings. They are available to all persons irrespective of caste, creed, community, religion, region, language etc. The constitutional and ordinary laws in democratic states recognize these rights. The various governments in democratic – states will take appropriate steps for providing human rights to their people.

Definition : “Human rights are freedom to all irrespective of place, sex, religion, language etc.” . – U.N.O.

Features of human rights : There are some common features of human rights. They may be mentioned as follows :

  1. Human rights are enjoyed by all the people without discrimination.
  2. These rights are universal.
  3. They treat all people alike.
  4. They regard individuals basically as human beings.
  5. They encompass some fundamental principles of humanity.
  6. They have no geographical limitations.

Almost all members of the united nations organisation have affirmed to follow the human tights in theory.

Question 12.
Point out any three sources of Justice.
Meaning : The word “Justicg” is derived from a Latin word “JUS” which means “to bind”.

Definition : “Justice means speaking the truth and paying one’s debts” – Caphalous

Sources of Justice :
Earnest Barker gives four sources of Justice. They are mentioned as below.
1. Nature
2. Ethics
3. Religion
4. Economic elements

1. Nature: The Greek stoics perceived nature to be a source of Justice. Their perception of nature was a combination of moral philosophy and religious beliefs. For them nature, God and reason were inseparable entities. They pointed out that men who lived according to nature shared similar views of reason and God. They viewed that nature embodies three things.
They are

  1. Man should be free,
  2. Man should be treated equally,
  3. Man should be associated with his fellow beings by the common element of reason.

These three things in turn have remained as a basis for liberty, equality and fraternity in society in course of time.

2. Ethics: Idealist thinkers like Plato, Emanuel Kant, Thomas Hilly Green, Earnest Barker and other propounded that justice originated from ethical practices. They pointed out that values accepted by the society over a period of time have intum become the impersonal source of positive Justice. The state enforced this positive justice in course of time.

3. Religion : Religion is regarded as another source of Justice. This source has been in force since medieval age. The church authorities held the notion that it was God who propounded the notions of justice, right and wrong. God, through church, initiated^ the concept of justice as the rule of the theory of might.

Thomas Acqinas a philosopher turned saint believed that the Church is the manifestation of religion. According to him, life based on laws is the best one. The king must lead the people in right directions. He must exercise his authority in compliance to the church authority.

Question 13.
How is naturalized citizenship acquired ?
Naturalised Citizenship : Citizenship may also be acquired through naturalization. According to this method, an alien will become a citizen after fulfilling certain conditions. These conditions vary from state to state. Some of them may be summed up as follows.

1) Residence: An alien who resides in a state for a prescribed period automatically become its citizen. Residence in any part of the state is a must for an alien. The period of residence varies from state to state. For instance it is 5 years in Britain and United States and 10 years in France respectively.

2) Choice : The children of alien parents could receive citizenship of the state according to their option and choice.

3) Application : An alien in a state may apply for the citizenship of that state. Then the government of that state considers his application on its merits. It grants citizenship to him with or without some conditions. These prescribed conditions refer to a minimum period of residence, good moral character, financial capability and knowledge of one of the national languages. Besides, an alien must take an oath of allegiance before he assumes the citizenship of another state.

4) Fixed Assets : An alien who buys some portion of land or acquires some fixed property can.acquire citizenship in a state.

5) Service (Public or Private) : An alien who serves in the government of a state or in a private recognised enterprise could become the citizen of that state. He is entitled for such citizenship if he serves in the public or pnVate authorised departments. He may also be given Citizenship if the renders meritorious service in another state.

6) Marriage : An alien woman acquires citizenship of a state when she marries the citizen of that state. In some countries when a person marries an alien, Citizenship of either of the husband or wife is acquired. For instance, a British lady will acquire Indian citizenship if she marries an Indian citizen. Japanese women do not lose their citizenship even if they marry persons of alien states. The alien person on the other hand, acquires the citizenship of Japan if he marries a Japanese lady.

AP Inter 1st Year Civics Question Paper March 2017

Question 14.
Explain any three merits and demerits of Democracy.
Merits : Democracy has the following merits.
a) Efficient government : Prof. Garner described democracy as an efficient and effective government. The government in democracy carries all its activities efficiently and effectively both in normal times and emergencies.

b) Upholds individual liberties : Democracy is the only government that upholds individual liberties. It guarantees certain civil rights to the people thereby providing an opportunity for them to become ideal and responsible citizens.

c) Assures equality : Democracy assures equality of individuals in political and economic spheres. The people living in democratic nation enjoy all the political. Civil and economic rights and privileges equally without any discrimination.

Demerits : Democracy has the following demerits,
a) Rule of Ignorance : Plato criticised democracy as a rule of ignorance. Aristotle called it a perverted form of government. Anybody can become a ruler in this system and no special qualifications are prescribed for voters or rulers.

b) Favourable to rich : The\uling political party in democracy depends on the rfch people for their financial support at the time of elections. Therefore it becomes an obligation to the party in power to make laws which are favourable to the rich.

c) Quality is ignored : The votes in democracy are counted not weighted. Everything is decided according to majority opinion. The quality of majority cannot always be correct. Thus quantity is given greater importance than quality.

Question 15.
What are the features of Secular State ?
Features of Secular State : Secular State comprises the following features.
1. No place for religion : Secular States does not assign significance to any particular religion. It will not make laws or implement them on religious grounds.

2. Equal status : Secular State accords equal status to its people. It makes no differentiation between individuals on the grounds of their caste, colour, community, religion, race, region, language etc. As a result, people will have satisfaction and extend co-operation to the government in the implementation of various policies and programmes. They live together with the fellow members of other religious denominations.

3. No state religion : Secular state does not recognize any particular religion as the state religion. It adopts neutral policy in religious matters. It implements various laws and social welfare measures without basing on the religious feelings of the people. It will not assign special role to any particular religion in public activities. All public places like educational institutions, government offices and judicial organizations will carry on their activities with out aligning to a particular religion.

Question 16.
Distinguish between Written and Unwritten Constitution.
Written Constitution : A written constitution is formulated and adopted by a Constituent Assembly or a Convention. It comprises several principles and rules of the Government in a written’Torm or document. The Constitution of India is an example of written constitution. The American Constitution is the first written constitution in the world.

Unwritten Constitution: Unwritten constitution is one whose provisions are not written in a single document. It includes several customs and traditions which are manifested in the form of the laws. The Constitution of Britain is the best example of unwritten constitution.

Differences between Written and Unwritten Constitutions.

Written Constitution Unwritten Constitution
1. Written constitution implies a document or few documents in which the rules regulating the main institutions of Government are written down. 1. Unwritten constitution denotes a sum of customs, conventions and usages which have not been systematically documented.
2. All the basic principles of the State are clearly written. 2. All the basic principles of the State exist in the form of customs and traditions.
3. Written constitution is framed by a special assembly convened at a particular point of time. 3. Unwritten constitution contains some written elements also in the form of enactments of fundamental charters made from time to time.
4. It is suitable to the educated and literate people. 4. It is suitable to the uneducated and illiterate people.
5. Courts of law protect the liberties of the citizens. 5. Courts of law cannot provide much protection.
6. It is formulated at a particular time. 6. It is evolutionary in nature.
7. It provides political stability. 7. It could not ensure political stability.
8. It cannot be easily amended. 8. It can easily be amended.
9. It is useful to federal states. 9. It is advantageous to the unitary states.

AP Inter 1st Year Civics Question Paper March 2017

Question 17.
Discuss the features of the Federal Government.
Governments are classified into Federal and Unitary on the basis of the distribution of powers between the Centre and the States. A federal system is one in which the powers of the government are distributed constitutionally between the Centre and the State Governments. Ex : America, Switzerland etc.

Meaning : The term “Federation” is derived from a Latin word “Foedus” which means “Treaty of Agreement”.

Definitions :

  1. A.V. Dicey : “A federal government is a political contrivance intended to reconcile national unity with the maintenance of State’s rights.
  2. J.W. Garner : Federal government is a system in which the totality of governmental power is divided and distributed between the Centre and the States by the National Constitution”.
  3. Hamilton : “Federation is an association of states that forms a new one”.
  4. K.C. Wheare : “A fed’eral^government is a method of dividing powers so that the regional and Central Government are each within their sphere, co-ordinate and independent.”

Features of Federal Government : Federal Government comprises several features. They may be denoted as follows :
1. Written Constitution : A Federal Government normally has a Written Constitution. Such a Constitution is considered as the supreme law of the land. It defines, decides and devises powers between the Central and State Governments. Hence, it became a practical necessity of Federal Government.

2. Dual Citizenship: Federal State provides dual citizenship to the citizens. Accordingly, the citizens will have membership in both the Centre and the States simultaneously. As a result, they participate in the election of representatives to both the national and provisional bodies.

3. Division of Powers : In a Federation, the Powers of Government are divided between the Centre and the States. The Central Government exercises control over matters of national importance like defence, external affairs, customs, exports and imports etc. On the other hand, certain matters like education, agriculture, health, irrigation etc., having provincial importance are allocated to the State Governments.

4. Bicameralism: Bicameralism is another important feature of a federation. In a federal state, we observe two chambers in the union legislature and some of the provincial legislative organisations. The first or lower chamber represents the interests of the people. The second chamber or upper house comprises the members representing the States.

5. Rigidity : Generally, the Constitution of a federation is very rigid. So it cannot be amended easily. The concurrence of the Centre and States is required for amending some of the important provisions. So, neither the Centre nor the states unilaterally can amend the constitutional provisions.

6. Independent Judiciary: Independent judiciary is another essential feature of a Federal Government. Such an organisation will settle disputes between the Centre and the States. The Judges in Judiciary constitutionally enjoy independent position. Once appointed, they could not be removed by any body under normal conditions. They will be there to safeguard the fundamental rights of citizens. They can check the misuse of powers by the executive and legislative authorities.

Section – C (15 × 2 = 30)

Note :

  • Answer any fifteen of the following questions in not exceeding 5 lines each.
  • Each question carries two marks.

Question 18.
Write about ancient City States.
Ancient Greece consisted of a large number of city states. They were small both in size and population. For example, Athens,Sparta, Corinth. Each city state had its own government. The greeks based their political philosophy on the concept of city – state. The population of the city-state was divided into three groups :

  1. Citizens
  2. Aliens and
  3. Slaves.

AP Inter 1st Year Civics Question Paper March 2017

Question 19.
What do you know about ‘Association’ ?
Association is a group of people united for a specific purpose or a limited number of purposes. Associations are of various types viz., social, economic, political, cultural, religious etc. It’s membership is optional. A person can be a member of a numer of associations.

Question 20.
What are the features of Law ?
The following are some important features of law :

  1. It is enforced by the State.
  2. It is definite, precise and universal.
  3. It reflects the will of the people.
  4. Laws are compulsory and cohesive in nature.
  5. Any violation of law leads to punishment.

Question 21.
Define the term “Rule of Law”.
Rule of Law is an important type of administration of justice. It originated in England. It implies :

  1. Legal Equality : All are equal before law.
  2. No Arbitrary Action : Punishment is given only when an existing law is violated.
  3. No Special Rights : No individual is above law and law does not recognise any special privileges.

Question 22.
What is Civil Liberty ?
Civil liberty is also known as personal liberty. It is the essential pre requisite to the existence and survival of human beings. It enables them to lead happy, honourable and civilised life in the state. Civil liberty is manifested in several rights like A) Right to Life B) Right to Work C) Right to Property D) Right to Religion E) Right to Speech, Expression, Assembly, Movement and Residence etc.

Question 23.
What do you mean by Social Equality ?
Social equality stands for equality of status and absence of class distinctions and discriminations. It exists when no individual is made to suffer on account of his caste, class, colour, creed, race etc. In fact it has opposed the practice of untouchability.

AP Inter 1st Year Civics Question Paper March 2017

Question 24.
Moral Rights.
Moral rights denote claims based on the ‘moral’ code of the community. These rights are moraHy prescribed to men in the society. The ethical or moral principles in the society act as the basis of the moral rights. Customs, traditions and usages are regarded as the basic source of these rights. Men enjoy these rights in a civil society. These rights are based on the moral conscience of the people. They don’t have legal support. However, they are backed by the society. So violation of these rights is not considered as a crime. Individuals could be punished for their violation. Moral rights are indefinite and vague. But they are popular in nature. The State cannot ignore these rights for a long time.

Question 25.
Classification of Responsibilities.
Responsibilities are broadly classified into (i) Moral responsibilities (ii) Legal responsibilities. Legal responsibilities are further classified into (i) Positive responsibilities (ii) Negative responsibilities.

Question 26.
Define Justice.
“Justice is giving to every man his due. It is a combination of reason, courage, appetite and will in terms of the state” – Plato

Question 27.
What is mean by Social Justice ?
Social Justice envisages a balance between rights of individuals and social control. It facilitates the fulfillment of the legitimate expectations of the individuals under the existing laws. It ensures several benefits and extends protection to the individuals against the interference or encroachment from others in society. It is consistent with the unity and the integrity of the nation. It fulfills the needs of the society.

Social Justice enforces the principle of equality before law. It also ensures eradication of social evils like poverty, unemployment, starvation, disease etc. It also extends protection to the downtrodden and weaker sections of society. Ultimately it provides those conditions essential for the all round development of individuals.

Question 28.
What do you mean by JUS SOLI mean ?
Jus Soli means acquisition of citizenship by the principle of place of birth. According to this method, a child acquires the citizenship of a State, where it borns. It is the place of birth Which determines citizenship. This method is not more popular in modem times. At present, this method is observed exclusively in Argentina.

AP Inter 1st Year Civics Question Paper March 2017

Question 29.
Who is an Alien ?
An Alien is a person living in a state but owing Allegiance to another State. Aliens are entitled to such rights and obligations which are incorporated in the covenants of the Foreign State.
Ex : In America, Aliens must obey the laws and pay taxes just like the American Citizens.

Question 30.
Write two definitions of Democracy.
Democracy is form of government in which the people rule themselves directly or indirectly through their periodically elected representatives.

Definitions :

  1. Abraham Lincoln : “Democracy is a government of the people, by the people and for the people”.
  2. J.R. Seely : “Democracy is a government in which every one has a share”.

Question 31.
Write any four conditions essential for the success of Democracy.

  1. Sound system of Education
  2. Independent Press
  3. Strong Opposition
  4. Social Equality

Question 32.
Define Secularism.
Meaning : The term “Secular” in Latin language means “Of this World”. It denotes the meaning “the opposite of Religion”.

Definitions :

  1. E.S. Waterhouse : Secularism is an ideology which provides a theory of life and conduct as against one provided in Religion”.
  2. G.J. Holyoake : “Secularism is an idea of promoting a social order as separate from religion without actively dismissing or criticising religious beliefs”.

Question 33.
What do you mean by Theocracy ?
The state having an official religion is called a Theocratic State. In such states all other religions or religious activities are either prohibited or discouraged or highly regulated or controlled, by the state. All the official and important offices of the state are either appointed or elected only those from the official religion. State officially participates in the religious affairs and rituals

Question 34.
What do you mean by Constitution ?
The term constitution implies a written document embodying the provisions relating to the powers and functions of the Government organs, the rights and duties of the citizens.

AP Inter 1st Year Civics Question Paper March 2017

Question 35.
What is an Enacted Constitution ?
Enacted constitution is also known as Conventional constitution. It is consciously made. It is the outcome of the deliberations of the Constituent Assembly specially constituted for that purpose. It is promulgated by the Sovereign Authority i.e., king or queen or Parliament. Ex : The Constitutions of India and the U.S.A.

Question 36.
What is a Unitary Government ?
Meaning: The word ‘Unitary’ consists of two words, namely, ‘Uni’ and ‘Tary’, uni means one and tary means ‘rule’. Unitary Government is a single integrated government with all executive powers. The Constitution vests all powers in the Central Government.

Definition : A.V. Dicey “A Unitaiy government is the habital exercise of supreme legislative authority by one central power”.

Question 37.
How many organs of government are there, name them ?
There are three organs of Government.
They are :

  1. Legislature,
  2. Executive and
  3. Judiciary.

Leave a Comment