AP Inter 2nd Year Civics Question Paper March 2018

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AP Inter 2nd Year Civics Question Paper March 2018

Time : 3 Hours
Max. Marks: 100

Section – A
3 x 10 = 30


  • Answer ANY THREE of the following questions in 40 lines each.
  • Each question carries 10 marks.

Question 1.
Explain the Salient features of Indian Constitution.
Introduction: The Indian constitution was prepared and adopted by the Constituent Assembly which was set up in 1946. The Constituent Assembly took nearly three years (From 9th December, 1946 to 25th November, 1949) to complete the framing of the constitution. The Constituent Assembly approved the Indian Constitution on 26th November, 1949. The Indian constitution came into force on January, 1950. Which we have been celebrating as The Republic Day’. The following are the salient or basic features of the Indian constitution.
1. Preamble: The Indian constitution begins with a preamble. The preamble clearly defines the objectives of our constitution. It declares India as a Sovereign, Socialist, Secular, democratic Republic. it provides liberty, equality; fraternity, and justice. It states that the people of India are the chief source of the political authority

2. A Lengthy Written Document: The Constitution of India is the most written, lengthy and detailed document in the world. In 1950 the Indian Constitution had 22 parts, 8 schedules and 395 articles. After subsequent amendments, it contains 12 schedules and 444 articles for the present.

3. A combination of rigidity and flexibility: The constitution of India is a blend of rigidity and flexibility. Our founding Fathers were programatic enough to provide for rigidity and flexibility as the situation demands. Article 368 provides the details of the amendment procedure.

  • Some of the provisions admission of New states (Ex: Telangana), provisions relating to citizenship, salaries and allowances of the members of the constitutional bodies like President, Vice-President, Supreme Court and High Court judges etc. Can be amended by simple majority. It is said to be flexible.
  • Some provisions can be amended by a special majority i.e., not less than Two-thirds of the members of the House present and voting. Ex: Fundamental Rights, Directive Principles of state policy etc. It is said to be half rigid and half flexible.
  • Some provisions can be amended by two-thirds majority of the Parliament and with the concurrence of half of the states. Ex: Election of the President, executive powers of the union and the states, distribution of legislative powers between the union and the states etc. It is said to be rigid.

4. Quasi-Federal polity: India is a states according to the constitution. Our constitution contains both the features of unitary and Federal Governments. It prescribed unitary system in emergencies and Federal system on ordinary occassions. Provisions of unitary state such as Single Citizenship, Single Integrated Judiciary, Single Election Commission, Role of All India Services Personnel etc., are found in our constitution. At the same time certain federal features like written, rigid constitution, Dual government, Bicameralism etc., are profoundly seen in our constitution. Thus it is a Quasi-Federal. Polity like Canada.

5. Republican government: Unlike the colonial Master, the UK, India preferred a Republican government. Here all public offices right from World member to the top president of India are open to all eligible citizens and there is no place for hereditary principle.

6. Parliamentary governmi: The constitution of India provided Parliamentary governmenb of the British type but with an elected President of Irish Model. Accordingly, the features of Parliamentary government such as P.vo executive heads, Ministerial accountability to’ the lowérhcuše of the legislature, Prime Minister leadership etc., are prevalent in our political system.

7. Fundamental Rights and Fundamental Duties: Part – III of the constitution, Articles from 12 to 35, provides for a set of
basic human rights to all. They are justiceable and ensure basic freedoms.
They are six in number.

  1. Right to equality
  2. Right to freedom
  3. Right against exploitation
  4. Right to religion
  5. Cultural and educational rights and
  6. Right to constitutional remedies

The 42 Amendment to the Constitution in 1976 incorporated the fundamental duties in Article 51A under part – IV A. Though they are not justiciable. But they put an obligation on the citizens to render certain duties in return for the protection they have been enjoying through fundamental rights. Fundamental duties relate to respecting the constitution the National Flag and National Anthem, safeguarding public property etc.

8. Single citizenship: Our Constitution provides for single citizenship for all persons who are born in India and who resided in India for a specific period. It enables the citizens to possess and enjoy identca1 rights and privileges. It also promotes unity, integrity, and fraternity among the people.

9. Universal and Adult Franchise: The makers of the Indian constitution provided for the universal adult Franchise for all citizens without any discrimination based on caste, colour, creed, community, language, religion, region, sex, property etc. At the beginning, adult Franchise was given to all the citizens who attained the age of 21 years. Later voting age was reduced to 18 years through the 1st Constitution, Amendment Acf in 1988.

10. Secular state: Our constitution stands for a secular state. It does not uphold any particular religion as the official religion of the Indian state. It ensures complete-eligious freedom to the people.

It abolishes discrimination between individuals on religious grounds in the matters of employment, education and legislation. It prohibits religious instructions in state-owned or state-aided educational institutions.

11. Independent judiciary: The Judiciary performs its functions independently. The legislature or the executive shall not
interfere in the working of the Judiciary. The Judiciary cames on its obligations according to the constitutional norms and democratic principles.

12. Directive principles of state policy: Our constitution hinted out certain directive principles as the policy of the state in part IV from Articles from 36 to 51. These principles are drawn from Irish constitution. These principles reflect the welfare state concept. They are the directions to b followed by the various governments. Equal pay for equal work, provision of employment opportunities, fair distribution of wealth, old age pension, protection of ill health, provision of education, protection of women and children etc., are the some examples of these principles. Though these principles are non-justiciable, No responsible government can afford to ignore them.

13. Bi-cameralism: The constitution of India introduced Bi-cameralism at the National level. Accordingly, The Indian Parliament consists of two houses namely the Rajya Sabha (upper house) and the Lok Sabha (lower house). While the Rajya Sabha represents the states, the Lok Sabha represents the people.

14. Panchayati Raj and Nagar Palikas Acts: The Panchayati Raj and Nagar Palikas Acts are recent features of our constitution. The 73rd and 74th Constitutional Amendment Acts gave constitutional recognition to the Rural and Urban local governments. Which came into force in 1993 and 1994 respectively had become operative all over the territory of India. The ideals of democratic decentralisation or the grass roof democracy are realised by these acts.

These acts provides for adequate representation for women, scheduled castes, scheduled tribes and other weaker sections in the policy-making bodies of the local governments.

AP Inter 2nd Year Civics Question Paper March 2018

Question 2.
Explain the various types of Directive Principles of State Policy mentioned in Indian Constitution.
Directive principles of state policy are enumerated in articles from 36 to 51 in past – IV of the Indian constitution. They are borrowed from the Irish constitution. They help in realizing the objectives mentioned in the preamble.

Types of Directive principles of state policy: Directive principles can be classffied into three broad categories namely Socialistic, Liberal-intellectual and Gandhian principles. Article 36 defines the term “State”. Article 37 declares that the directive principles shall not be enforceable by any court.
1. Socialist Principles: Articles 38, 39, 41, 42, 43 and 47 explains about the socialistic ideology of the directive principles of state policy.
Article 38 prescribes that the state shall strive to provide justice and promote wilfare of the people by creating a proper economic, social and political atmosphere.

2. Article 39 directs the state to secure its citizens.

  • Adequate means of livelihood for all citizens.
  • Equitable distribution of wealth for sub-serving the common-good.
  • Equal pay for equal work for all.
  • Protection of adult and child labour.
  • Decentralization of nation’s wealth.
  • Preserving the health and strength of workers, men and women.
  • Protecting childhood and youth against exploitation.

3. To secure right to work and education for all peoples relief in the case If unemployment; old age; sickness and disablement and in other cases of underserved want. (Article 41).

4. To make provision for just and human conditions of work and maternity relief (Article 42).

5. To secure living wage and decent standard of life so as to ensure to the workers sufficient leisure and enjoyment of social and cultural opportunities. (Article 43).

6. Raising the level of nutrition and standard of living of the people and the improvement of public health (Article 47).

2. Liberal-intellectual Principles: The priíiciples represent the ideology of liberâlism and certain objectives like provision of basic education; ‘uniform civil code: independent judiciary and international peace. They are incorporated in Articles 44, 45, 50 and 51 of the Constitution.

  1. The State shall secure for the citizen’s uniform civil code’ throughout the country. (Article 44)
  2. The State shall provide free and compulsory education for all the children below 14 years of age. The Constitution (Eighty-Sixth Amendment) Act, 2002 substituted the following words in Article 45. ‘The State shall endeavor to provide early childhood care and education for all children until they complete the age of six years.” (Article 45)
  3. The state organize agriculture and animal husbandry on modern and scientific lines (Article 48)
  4. The state protect monuments which are declared to be of national importance (Article 49)
  5. The state protect and improve the environment and to safeguard forests and wild life (Article 48 A)
  6. The State shall take steps to separate judiciary from executive in public services of the State. (Article 50)

7. The State shall

  • promote international peace, justice and security
  • Maintain just and honorable relations with other nations
  • protection of monuments and place of historical and cultural interest
  • respect for international laws and treaty obligations; and
  • encourage settlement of International dispute by arbitration. (Article 51)

3. Gandhian Principles These Principles are based on gandhian ideology. They represent the programme of reconstruction enunciated by Mahatma Gandhi during the national movement. These principles provide ideals rule in India. They are reflected in Articles 40,43, 46 and 47. They may be enumerated as under.

  1. The State shall organize village Panchayats and endow them with adequate powers and authority so as to enable them to function as the units of self-government. (Article 40)
  2. The State shall strive for the promotion of cottage industries on individual or Cooperative basis in rural areas. (Article 43)
  3. The State shall promote the educational and economic interests of the SCs, STs and BCs of society with special care, (Article 46)
  4. The State shall endeavour to bring about prohibition of intoxicating drinks and of drugs which are injurious to health (Article 47)

Other Principles: The Constitutión (Forty Second and Forty Fourth Amendrrent) Acts of 1976 and 1978 added a few more subjects to the list of Directive Principles. While the Constitution (Forty Second Amendment) Act inserted Articles 39A, 43A, and 48 A, the Constitution (Forty Fourth Amendment) Act included Article. 39 Clause (2). They comprise the following provisions.

  1. Providing opportunities for healthy development of children.
  2. Promotion of equal joice and legal aid to the poor.
  3. Securing participation workers in the management of industries.
  4. Protecting the environment, forests and wild animals.

Question 3.
Discuss the powers and functions of the prime Minister of India.
The Prime Minister is the real executive head of the Union Government. He occupies an important position in the administration of our country. Since India has a Parliamentary form of Government the real power rests with him. He is the ‘uncrowned king’ and “the keystone of the Cabinet arch in the Union Government”.


  1. He should be citizen of India.
  2. He should have completed the age of 25 years.
  3. He should be qualified for election as a member of the Lok Sabha.
  4. He should not hold any office of profit under the union or state or local governments.

Appointment: The President appoints the Prime Minister. Generally, the President has to summon the leader of the majority party in the Lok Sabha to form the Ministry If no party gets an absolute majority, the President can use his discretion and summon the leader of the party who in his opinion can manage to form a ministry. Afterwards the Prime Minister will be asked to prove his majority in the Lok Sabha.

Oath of Office: The President of India will administers the oath of office of the Prime Minister.

Term of Office: The Prime Minister shall remain in office during the pleasure of the President. But actually he assumes his
powers as long as he retains the confidence of the majority members in the Lok Sabha. He resigns when the Lok Sabha accepts a no confidence motion against his ministry.

Salary and Allowances: The salary and allowances of Prime Minister are decided by the Parliament from time to time. He gets his salary and allowances that are payable to a member of Parliament. At present the Prime Minister gets a salary and allowances of ₹ 1,60,000/- per month. Powers and Functions: The Prime Minister is the head of the union government.

He is the real executive. The Council of Ministers cannot exist without the Prime Minister. His powers are explained here under.
1. leader of the Union Cabinet: The Prime Minister is the leader of the Union Cabinet and Union Council of Ministers. He selects some eminent members of his party in parliament and sees that they are appointed as ministers by the President. He has a free choice of both allocating portfolios and reshuffling the ministry.

All the ministers are personally and politically loyal to the Prime Minister. He decides the agenda of the cabinet meetings. Further, he presides over the cabinet meetings.

2. Leader of the Union Government:
The Prime Minister acts as the leader of the union government. The union executive (Union Council of Ministers) initiates its business after the swearing in ceremony of the Prime Minister. All the ministers in the union ministry assume their office, owe their position and exercise their powers along with the Prime Minister. Infact, the Prime Minister influences the nature and working of the union government. He not only has a clear understanding but holds complete control over the affairs of the union government.

All the high-level officers and the entire ministry in the union government behave and act according to the wishes of the Prime Minister.

3. Leader of the parliament: The Prime Minister acts the leader of the Parliament in India. He is primarily a member of Parliament. He extends cooperation to the presiding officers in the smooth conduct of the two Houses. He wields complete control over his party members in the Parliament. He ensures that his party members maintain discipline during the sessions of the Parliament.

He informs out the cabinet decisions to the Parliament. He communicates the major domestic and foreign policies of the union government to the members of Parliament. He maintains rapport with the opposition leaders and discusses the major issues confronted by the nation with them.

4. Link between the President and the Council of Ministers The Prime Minister acts as the main link between the President and the Union Council of Ministers. It is his duty to communicate to the President about the decisions of the Union Council of Ministers. He furnishes the every information required by the President concerning the affairs of union government. All the ministers shall formally meet the President only with the consent of the Prime Minister.

5. Leader of the Majority Party: The Prime Minister acts as the leader of the majority party or group in the lower House of Parliament. He participates in the meetings of the party and acquaints his party members on various issues and steps taken by his ministry in implementing the party promises. He utilizes the services of the senior party leaders in running the government. He acts as the main link between the part and the government.

6. Leader of the Nation: Prime Minister is the leader of the nation. He takes initiative finding solutions to several problems in the internal matters of the country. He plays. an important role in the development of the nation.

7. Maker of Foreign Policy: The Prime Minister plays a dominant role in shaping the foreign policy of the nation: He keeps in touch with the developments in all. countries. He meets Heads of various countries and maintains friendly relations with them.

8. Chairman of NITI Aayog: The Prime Minister heads the NITI Aayog (National Institution for Transforming: India) NITI
Aayog means policy commission. It is a policy think tank of government of India that replaces planning commission which aims to involve the states in economic policy-making in ‘India. It will provide strategic and technical advice to the centre and state governments. It will have a governing council comprising Chief Ministers of all the states and it governors of Union Territories. Union government set up the NITI Aayog on January 1, 2015.

AP Inter 2nd Year Civics Question Paper March 2018

Question 4.
Describe powers and functions of the Lok Sabha Speaker.
Articles 93 to 97 of the Indian Constitution deal with the Office of the Speaker of the Lok Sabha. The Speaker acts as head of the Lok Sabha, guardian of members, and principal spokesman of the house. He enjoys Supreme Authority and power on the floor of the house.

Election: The members of the Lok Sabha elect the Speaker from among themselves. According to the Parliamentary convention the speaker is unanimously elected or chosen by the members on the request of the Prime Minister. A person elected as the seeker must be a member of the Lok Sabha.

Tenure: The speaker continues in office for five years. Though the Lok Sabha is dissolved the speaker continues in office until the new Lok Sabha elects its speaker. (Article 94).

Removal: The speaker can be removed from office by a majority members, resolution, preceded by a 14-day prior notice to that effect.

Salary and allowances: At present, the speaker receives a monthly salary of ₹ 1,40,000. Besides he is provided with rent free accommodation, Medical, travelling and telephone facilities.

Powers and functions of the speaker:

  1. The speaker presides over the meetings of the Lok Sabha. He conducts the meetings with dignity, order and efficiency.
  2. He allots time to the members to express their views on the bills, conducts voting if necessary and announces the results.
  3. He sends bills to the Rajya Sabha after they are approved by the Lok Sabha. On the receipt of the Bills from the Rajya Sabha, he certifies and sends them to the President of India for his consent.
  4. He acts as the representative of the Lok Sabha. He sends messages and directives to the members on behalf of the Lok Sabha.
  5. He takes steps for safeguarding the rights and privileges of the members and for upholding the respect of the house.
  6. He has the privilege of determining whether a bill is money bill or not.
  7. He accords permission to the members for introducing various bills in the house. He gives his signatiron the bill approved by the house.
  8. He is empowered to permit the members to move a No-confidence motion against thç government, postpone the meetings of the house and decide the Quorum in the house.
  9. He constitutes various house committees and appoints their chairpersons.
  10. He presides over the joint session of the Parliament.
  11. He exercises his casting vote in case of a tie over a bill.
  12. He conducts the election of the Deputy Speaker in case of a vacancy.

Question 5.
Estimate the powers and functions of the District Collector.
Power and Functions of District Collector: The District Collector enjoys vast power and performs several functions as the head of the district administration.

These may be explained as follows:
A) The Collector as District Revenue Officer: The Collector is the Chief District Revenue Officer. He, in that capacity, serves as the chief guide to the farmers in the district by fulfilling several obligations. His revenue functions include various activities such as collection of land revenue, sanction of agricultural loans to farmers, rescuing the farmers in times of natural calamities by assessing the loss incurred by them, rendering assistance to the union and state authorities in emergency relief measures, etc.

B) The Collector as District Agistrate; The Collector acts as the District Magistrate. He will have supervision over the
activities of the district police personnel He sees that law and order condition in the district are normal. For this purpose he will be assisted by a large number of police personnel. The district superintendent of police and other police officers owe responsibility to the Collector in matters such is supervision over police personnel prisons etc. The Collector can inspect the police stations in the district. He is empowered to issue prohibitory orders on the occasion of break down of law and order. He can issue firing orders when all peace efforts faiied. in the restoration of normal.

C) The Collector as Chief Coordinator: The District Collector acts as the chief co-ordinator of various government departments the district., He acts as the chief counsel and coordinator of the departments such as agricuiture, irrigation, cooperation and labour affairs. The heads of these departments shall oblige and .mplement the suggestions .and guidelines of the collector the district ven though these heads formulate their policies independently, they are answerable to the District Collector in their discharge of their obligations.

D) The Collector as District Electoral Officer: The Collector acts the chief district electoral officer. He serves as the main agent of the Election Commission of India for conducting elections to the various representative bodies in the district. He takes steps for conducting the elections in fair and impartial manner. These include preparation of electoral list and its modification, hearing public grievances on voters list, registration of new voters, appointing returning officers assistant returning officers, etc.

E) The Collector as the Chief Census Officer: The Collector acts as the chief census officer in the district. He on behalf of the union and state governments, takes steps for holding census operations in the district for évery ten years He also sees that the statistical data regarding the number of much cattle, trees and domesticated animals in the district is collected properly. He also compiles such other information as required by the higher authorities in regard to the construction of houses for the poor, family welfare, women empowerment, rural infrastructure etc.

F) The Collector as Permanent invitee of Local Bodies:
The District Collector is a permanent invitee to the meetings of Panchayat Raj and urban local bodies in the district. He acts as a main link between the union and state governments and district local bodies on various matters. Does he participate in the normal? emergency meetings of Zilla Parishad and mandal parishads in the district. He sends confidential reports to the state government on the nature of functioning of these bodies. He conducts the meeting meant for considering the no confidence motion against the Zilla Parishad chairman.

Other Functions: This District Collector also performs the following functions.

  1. Matters conceriung the welfare of Ex-servicemen.
  2. Provision of irrigation facilities.
  3. Supervision over sub treasuries.
  4. Coordinating the activities of various government departments.
  5. Supervising the training programmes for Junior Officers.

Role of District Collector in Local Government: The District Collector plays a crucial role in the affairs of local governments in the district. He serves as the friend, philosopher, and guide to the common men living in the district. He also serves as a link between people and local bodies in the district. Normally the common men seek guidance and solace from the Collector in times of natural calamities and other unforeseen contingencies.

The Collector makes recommendations to the state government in regard to the working of the local bodies in the district. His valuable remarks are required for constituting new gram panchayats and mandal parishads in the district. The entire administrative, revenue, police, health, educational and agricultural personnel working in rural areas depend to a great extent upon the advice and suggestions forwarded by the Collector on may occasions.

He sees that the farmers in the district receive sufficient agricultural inputs such as fertilizers, water, rural credit, marketing facilities, etc. He supervises the activities of village extension officers and sees that the farmers receive various types of assistance for carrying on their agricultural operations smoothly. He also sees that all persons below poverty line will receive, ration and pension facilities.

The fact that the Collector heads more than one hundred committees at the district level demonstrates his role in district affairs. He, like the Chief Minister at the state level, will have tremendous influence and powers in the district Many programmes of union and state governments like National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme (NREGS), Pradhan Mantri Gram SadakYojana (PMGSY), Janani Suraksha Yojana (JSY), Aam Admi Bima Yojana (AABY), Rural Landless Employment Guarantee Programme (RLEGP). Prime Ministers Employment Generation Programme (PMEGP).

The union and state government, rely on the District Collector in tackling the financial, political and cultural matters of the people living in local areas, They nominate the District Collector as the chairman, co-ordinator or secretary of the above programmes at the district level. People regard the Collector as a repository of authority functioning independently with dedicated spirit: Even though some states like Gujarat and Maharashtra relieved the Collector from the perspective.

AP Inter 2nd Year Civics Question Paper March 2018

Section – B
8 x 5 = 40


  • Answer ANY EIGHT of the following questions in 20 lines each.
  • Each question cames 5 marks.

Question 6.
Write a note on the sources of Indian Constitution.
The constitution of India was formulated on the basis of various experiences. Almost all the noble features of the world constitutions have been incorporated in it. Similarly, the peculiar political, social and cultural conditions present in India have been taken into account at the time of drafting the constitution. The makers of Indian constitution ignored those conditions prevalent in other countries which are countrary to the socio-economic and political background of India.

On the whole the following sources figure prominently in making the Indian constitution.
1. Many provisions of Indian constitution have been drawn on the basis of West Minister Model (british). These include parliamentary traditions, rule of law, cabinet government, legislative-executive relations, single citizenship, nominal executive head etc.

2. Some provisions like fundamental rights, judicial review, federal system, presidents election, impeaching the president. etc., have been taken from the American constitution.

3. Items relating to Directe,Principles of State Policy have been drawn from the constitution of Ireland.

4. The emergency powers of the President have been taken basing on the German Constitution.

5. Matters such as Concurrent List, Business, Commerce, Inter-State trade, Special privileges of legislators etc., have been added on the model of Australia.

6. The Union-State relations mentioned in Indian constitution have been designed basing on the Canadian Constitution.

7. Matters of constitutional amendment procedure were drawn from South African constitution.

8. The idea of republic and the ideals of liberty equality and fraternity have been taken from the constitution of France.

9. Most of provisions of Indian constitution were drawn from the Government of India Act, 1935.

Question 7.
Explain any three fundamental rights of a citizen.

  1. Right to freedom of Religion: This right denotes the secular nature of Indian political system. It aims at transforming India into a secular state. Both the citizens and aliens of India enjoy this right. Article 25 empowers every persons to profess, practice and propagate a religion ‘of this liking. Article 26 guarantees the following rights to every person.
  2. To establish and maintain religious and charitable institutions.
  3. To mange his their religious affairs.
  4. To own and acquire moveable and immovable properties and
  5. To maintain such prices in accordance with the provision of the law.

Article 27 prohibits the state to impose or collect taxes from individuals purely on religious grounds. It also prohibits the state to impose and collect taxes for the benefit and maintenance of any particular religion or religious denominations. Article 28 bans religious instructions in educational institutions wholly or partly maintained by the state funds.

2. Educational and Cultural Rights: Indian constitution provided several cultural and educational opportunities for Indian
citizens through this right. Article 29 enables every citizen to preserve and protect his own language and culture irrespective of ones religion, language or region.

Article 30 prohibits special treatment to any citizen in the admission into educational institutions either wholly or partly funded by the state on the grounds of caste, religion, region, colour, language or sect. However, it allowed the minorities some special facilities for preserving and promoting their language and culture. The state can grant financial assistance to them in this regard.

3. Right to Constitutional Remedies: This right enables the individuals to approach a high court under article 226 or the Supreme Court under article 32 to get any of the fundamental rights restored in case of their violation. The Supreme court and the state High courts issue various writs for the implementation of Fundamental Rights. Dr. Ainbedkar described this right as the Heart and Soul of the Constitution.

Question 8.
What are the powers and functions of the Attorney General of India?
Ans. Article 76 of our Constitution provided for the office of the Attorney General of India. The Attorney General is the highest law officer of the Union Government He is appointed by the President. He holds the office during the pleasure of the President. He is entitled to all privileges and immunities allowed to a Member of Parliament. When he attends sessions of the House, he occupies a seat on the treasury government benches.

The Attorney General of India Possess the same qualifications that are necessary for a judge of the Supreme Court. They are as follows.

  1. He must be a citizen of India. :
  2. He must have served as a judge in some High Court for a period of at least five years.
  3. He must have served as an advocate in some High Court for a period of at least ten years.
  4. He must be a distinguished jurist in the opinion of the President.

Pay and Allowances
The Attorney General of India is paid not a salary but a remuneration that is determined by the President. The remuneration of Attorney General is equal to salary of a judge of the Supreme Court.

He may. quit his office by submitting his resignation to the President. He can be removed by the President in case a special address is passed charging him with ‘proved misbehavior’ or in capacity’ by each House of Parliament with its absolute majority and with two-thirds majority of the members present and voting.

Powers and functions
The Constitution assigned some specific powers and functions to the Attorney General of India. They are mentioned as follows :

  1. The Attorney General of India render advice to the Union Government upon such legal matters which are referred to him by the President.
  2. He performs such other functions of legal character that are assigned to him by the President from time to time.
  3. He discharges the Functions conferred on him by the constitution or any other Laws.
  4. He appears in any court of Law on behalf of the union government in all cases.
  5. He represents the government in any reference made by the president to the Supreme Court.
  6. He appears in any High Court on behalf of the union government.

Question 9.
Explain any three powers of the Governor.
1. Legislative Powers and Functions: Article 168 describes that the Governor is an intregral part of the State Legislature. In that capacity he exercises certain powers and performs functions related to the State Legislature.

  • The Governor inaugurate the first sessions of the State Legislative Assembly after te general elections are over.
  • He also addressing the first session of State Legislative Assembly every year i.e. budget session.
  • He appoints Pro-tern Speaker of the State Legislative Assembly.
  • He summons and prorogues the sessions of the two houses of the State Legislature.
  • He addresses the Members of the state legislature and sends messages in relation to the state legislature.
  • The Governor gives his assent to the bills passed by the State Legislature.
  • He may return a bill sent by the State Legislature for its reconsideration.
  • He dissolves the State Legislative Assembly when he feels no party is in a position to form a stable and viable Government and the advice of the Chief Minister.
  • He may promulgate Ordinances to meet an emergency which require immediate action during the recess of the State Legislature.
  • He nominates members of Anglo-Indian community to the Legislative Assembly of the state if he feels that community is not represented in the house.
  • The Governor nominates 1/6 of the total members of the State Legislative Council.

2. Executive Powers and Functions: The Governor has the following executive powers.

  1. The Governor appoints, the Chief Minister and the members of the Council of Ministers on the advice of the Chief Minister.
  2. He allocates Portfolios among the ministers and reshuffles their portfolios.
  3. He removes the Ministers on the advice of the Chief Minister.
  4. He appoints the Vice-Chancellors of the Universities in the State. He acts as the Chancellor of the universities.
  5. He appoints the Chief Secretary and Advocate General of the State Government.

6. He appoints the Chairmen and other members of the State Commissions such as

  • State Public Service Commission,
  • State Election Commission,
  • Official Language Commission,
  • Commission for Women,
  • Minorities Commission,
  • Backward Classes Commission and
  • SC & ST Commission.

7. He regulates the postings and transfers of the All India Services personal working in the state.

3. Judicial Powers and Functions: The Governor also exercises the following judicial powers and functions. ‘

  1. The Governor renders advice to the President of India in the appointment of Chief Justice and other judges of the High Court of the State.
  2. The Governor appoints the Advocate General of the State.
  3. He makes appointments, postings and promotions of the District Judges in consultation with the Chief Justice of High Court of the State.
  4. He also appoints person of the judicial services of the state (other than the district courts) in consultation with the Chief Justice of High court and State Public Service Commission.
  5. He can grant pardon, retrieve, remit and commute the sentence of any person convicted of any offence against any law of the concerned state.

Question 10.
What do you know about Public Accounts Committee?
Public Accounts Committee consists of 20 members out of which 15 members belong to Assembly and 5 members belong to Legislative Council. They are elected through indirect election by following the principle of proportional representation for a period of one year. The Chairman is normally the member of Opposition Party. The Ministers of Cabinet cannot be member of Public Accounts Committee.

Functions: Public Account Committee performs the following functions.

  1. The committee examines the accounts showing the appropriation of sums granted by the house for expenditure of the state government.
  2. It scrutinizes the appropriation accounts of the state and the reports of the Comptroller and Auditor General.
  3. It shall be the duty of the Public Accounts Committee to examine such a trading, manufacturing and profit and loss accounts and balance sheets and the accounts of the state government and also to consider the report of the Comptroller and Auditor General.
  4. The committee carefully considers the accounting and audit procedures.
  5. The committee is not concerned with the question of policy approved by the legislature.
  6. The committee investigatès expenditure after it has already incurred. An overall, this committee is generally described as a ‘post-mortem committee’.

Question 11.
Write any two powers and functions of the State High Court.
The following are the two powers and functions of the High Court.
1. Original Jurisdiction: Every High Court in India has original jurisdiction in regard to matters? admiralty, will, marriage, divorce, company laws, contempt of court, and certain revenue cases. Every High Court is empowered to issue directions, orders or writs for the enforcement of any of the Fundamental Rights. Every High Court is empowered to settle disputes relating to election of members of Parliament and State Legislatures.

The High Courts of Bombay, Calcutta and Madras possess original jurisdiction in Civil as well as Criminal cases arising within the presidency towns. They are authorized to hear Civil Cases involving property of the value of ₹ 20,000/- or more. They enjoy exclusive privileges and authority in this regard. In fact this power of High Court was in vogue before independence. It has been retained in the new Constitution.

The other High Courts also enjoy the same jurisdiction as was available to them before independence. Under Article 226, the High Courts is empowered to issue writs for enforcing Fundamental Rights. The High Court issue writs like Habeas-corpus, Certiorari, Mandamus, Quo-warranto and Injunction for protecting the Fundamental Rights of the India Citizens.

2. Appellate Jurisdiction: Every High Court hears appeals against the judgement of the subordinate courts. The appellate Jurisdiction of the High Court extends to both Civil and Criminal Cases.
a) Civil Cases: An appeal to the High Court on the civil side is either a first appeal or a second appeal. In civil cases, appeal to the High Court lies from the decision of a District Court. Appeals can also be made from the subordinate courts directly provided the dispute involves a value of more than ₹ 5,00,000/- (or) a question of fact of law. When a court subordinate to the High Court decides an appeal differing from the decision of an inferior court, a second appeal can be made to the High Court.

b) Criminal Cases: In Criminal cases, it hears the appeals in which the accused has been sentenced to more than seven years imprisonment by the Sessions Judge. All cases involving capital punishment awarded by the Sessions Court come to High Court as appeals. Its approval is necessary for the imposition of death sentences by the District Sessions Judge. It also hears cases involving the interpretation of the Constitution.

Question 12.
Discuss the administrative relations between the Union and the States of India.
Articles 256 to 263 in Part XI of our Constitution deal with the administrative relations between the Union and States. They are discussed under the following heads:

  • during emergencies,
  • in normal times.

In normal times:
In normal times, our Constitution has devised techniques of control over the states by the Union to ensure that the State Governments do not interfere with the legislative and executive policies of the Union. The Union Government exercises its influence over the State Governments in the following ways. The ‘Union Government is empowered tcl issue directions to the State Governments in the following matters:

  • To ensure due compliance with the Union laws in the implementation of the State laws.
  • To ensure that the exercise of the executive power of the State does not impede the implementation of the Union laws.
  • The ensure the Constitution and the Maintenance of the means of communication of military or national importance.
  • To ensure protection of Railways within the state.
  • To devise and execute schemes for the welfare of the tribal communities as mentioned in the directions.
  • To secure the provisions of the adequate facilities for the instruction in the mother tongue at the primary stage to linguistic minorities.
  • To ensure the development of Hindi language.
  • To entrust certain functions of the Centre to the State and its officers and the Centre will meet the additional expenditure involved in carrying out such functions.
  • To issue directions to the State for the welfare of the scheduled castes and scheduled Tribes.
  • The State Governments have to see that the laws made by the Parliament and other laws prevalent in the State are properly executed. The Union Government is empowered to give directions to the States for this purpose.
  • The Parliament can frame rules regarding the settlement of disputes between two States with regard to the use of water and boundaries.
  • The President is empowerd to constitute an Inter-State Council to advise the State in settlihg their disputes.
  • The personnel belonging to All India Services working in the State are governed by the rules, regulations and service conditions laid down by the Central government only. They can be removed only by that government.
  • The Central Government dispatches the central resource power to the States for tackling any situation of disturbances affecting law and order conditions in the State.
  • The Union can impose presidential rule in any State if there is a breakdown of the Constitutional machinery in the State.
  • The Election Commission, an independent Constitutional body constituted by the Central Government conduct elections of the Union and State legislatures.
  • The Parliament can empower to make grant in aid to any State which is in need of such assistance.

During Emergencies: During the operation of a national emergency; the Union Government will work a a powerful body. The state governments are brought under its complete control.

However, they can’t be suspended by the union, When the President’s rule is imposed in a state the President can assume to himself the functions of the state government. He can assign such functions to the Governor. During the financial emergency, the union can direct the states to observe canons of financial propriety. The President can Issue directions including the reduction of salaries of persons serving in the state government and the High Court Judges.

AP Inter 2nd Year Civics Question Paper March 2018

Question 13.
Evaluate the recommendations of the Sarkaria Commission.
The Union Government appointed a three-member Commission on Centre-State relations under the Chairmanship of R.S.Sarkaria, a retired jûdge of the Supreme Court. B.Sivaraman, S.R.Sen, and Rama Subramaniam were appointed as other members. The Commission. was asked to overhaul and review the working of existing arrangements between the Union and States in all spheres as and recommend such changes and measures as may be appropriate.

It was initially given one year time to complete its work, but its term was extended four times. The final report was submitted on October, 27, 1987 and the summary was later officially released in January, 1988.

The Sarkaria Commission made 247 recommendations to improve the center-state relations. The important recommendations are mentioned below:

  1. A permanent Inter-State Council called the Inter-Governmental Council should be set up under Article 263.
  2. Article 356 (President’s Rule) should be used very sparingly in extreme cases as a last resort when all the available alternatives fail.
  3. The institution of All India Services should be further strengthened and some more such services should be created.
  4. The residuary powers of taxation should continue to remain with the Parliament, while the other residuary powers should be placed in the Concurrent List.
  5. When the President withholds his assent to the State bills, the reasons should be communicated the State Government.
  6. The National Development Council (NDC) should be renamed and reonstitutéd as the National Economic and Development Council (NEDC).
  7. The zonal councils should be constituted afresh and reactivated to promotethe spirit of federalism.
  8. The Union should have powers to deploy its armed forces, even without the consent of States. However, it is desirable that the States should be consulted.
  9. The Centre should consult the States before making a law on a subject of the Concurrent List.
  10. The procedure of consulting the Chief Minister in the appointment of the State Governor should be prescribed in the Constitutional itself.
  11. The net proceeds of the Corporation tax may be made permissibly shareable with the States.
  12. The Governor cannot dismiss the Council of Ministers so long as it commands a majority in the assembly.
  13. The Governor’s term of five years in a State should not be disturbed except for some extremely compelling reasons.
  14. No commission of enquiry should be set up against a State Minister unless a demand is made by the Parliament.
  15. The surcharge on income tax should not be levied by the Centre except for a specific purpose and or a strictly limited period.
  16. The present division of functions between the Finance Commission and the Planning Commission is reasonable and should continue.
  17. Steps should be taken the iniformly implement the three language formula in its type spirit.
  18. No autonomy for radio and television but decentralization in their operations.
  19. No change in the role of Rajya Sabha and the Centre’s power to reorganize the States.
  20.  Giving powers to the Municipalities to issue tax free bonds.

The Union Government has implemented 180 (out of 247) recommendations of the Sarkaria Commission. The most important is the establishment of the Inter-State Council in 1990 but it has not served the purpose.

Question 14.
Write a short note on composition and functions of Election Commission.
Composition: The Election Commission of India consists of the Chief Election Commissioner and two other commissioners. They are appointed by the President of India.

Functions of Election Commission:

  1. It prepares all periodically revised electoral rolls.
  2. It makes every effort to ensure that the voters’ list is free of errors like non-existence of names of registered voters or existence of names of that non-eligible or non-existent.
  3. It notifies the dates and schedules of election and scrutinizes nomination papers.
  4. During this entire process, the Election Commission has the power to take decisions to ensure a free and fair poll.
  5. It can postpone or cancel the election in the entire country or a specific State or constituency on the grounds that the atmosphere is vitiated and therefore, a free and fir election may not be possible.
  6. The Commission also imiplements a model code of conduct for parties and candidates It can order a re-poll in a specific constituency.
  7. It can also order a recount of votes when it feels that the counting process has not been fully fair and just.
  8. The Election Commission accords recognition to political parties and allots symbols to each of them.
  9. It advices the President whether èlections can be held in a state under President’s rule in order to extent the period of emergency after one year.
  10. It advices the Governor on matters relating to the disqualifications of the members of State Legislature.

Question 15.
Explain briefly about Bharatiya Janata Party.
Bharatiya Janatha Party is one of the All India Parties in India. It was established on April 6, 1980. Earlier it was known as
Bharatiya Jan Sangh founded by shyam Prasad Mukherjee on October 21, 1951. Deenadayal Upadhyaya, Atal Bihari Vaj Payee, Lal Krishna Advani, Murali Manohar Joshi, Jana Krishna Murthy, Kushbhav Thakre and Venkaiah Naidií acted at it’s presidents. Although initially unsuccessful, winning only two seats in the 1984 general election, it grew in strength on the back of the Ram Janmabhoomi and Babri Majid issue.

Following victories in several state elections and better performances in national elections, the BJP became the largest party in the Parliament in 1996; however, it lacked a majority in the lower house of Parliament, and its government lasted only 13 days. After the 1998 general election, the BJP-led coalition known as the National Democratic Alliance (NDA) formed a government under Prime Minister Atal Bihari Vajpayee for a year. Following fresh elections, the NDA government, again headed by Vajpayee, lasted for a full term in office; this was the first non-Congress government to do so. In the 2004 general election, the BJP-led NDA suffered in unexpected defeat, and for the next ten years the BJP was the principal Opposition party.

Long time Gujarat Chief Minister Narendra Modi, a principal campaigner and charismatic leader of the party, led it to a landslide victory in the 2014 general elections. Since that election, Narendra Modi leads the NDA government as Prime Minister with the alliance of 13 states owned parties.

Sri Amith Shah is the present President of the party. The party had spread its influence in Madhya Pradesh, Chattisgarh, Jarkhand, Rajsthan, Gujarat, Himachal Pradesh, Delhi, etc.

Bharatiya Janata Party favours a strong unitary state in place of the present quasi-federation. It has the following policies.

  1. The party is committed toadopt the principles of nationalism, democracy, value based politics, national integration, positive secularism and Gandhian socialism.
  2. It strives to implement five concepts, namely Suraksha, Sucharita, Swadeshi, Somrastha and Suvajya.
  3. It aims at the construction of Ram temple at Ayodhya, abrogation of Article 3 to and implementation of Uniform Civil code.
  4. It also aims at adopting electoral reforms.
  5. It believes in the implementation of Swadeshi and Swabhiman policies.
  6. It also aims at the adoption of a practical non-aligned policy in foreign affairs. It favours settlement of all disputes with the neighbouring states through dialogue and discussion. It strongly believes in the utilization of nuclear energy and arms for achieving peace and prosperity. It demands more democratization of the United Nations ‘Organisation by expanding the membership of the Security council.
  7. It favours the continuation of the economic reforms initiated by the earlier governments through the policies of liberalization, privatization and globalization.
  8. It vehemently opposes dynastic rule, assigning top executive offices and strongly supports decentralization of power and empowerment of women.

Question 16.
Describe the formation of Andhra Pradesh state.
During Vandhematararn movement, the senior congressmen of Andhra Region, Sri Bhoga Raju Pattabhi, Seetha Ramaiah, Mutnuri Krishna Rao, Konda Venkatappiah and Tanguturi Prakasam Met at Machiipatnam and discussed about formation of an Integrated Andhra state by uniting the regions of Andhra, Rayalaseema and Telangana. In the Madras State, There are 58% of Telugu areas and 40% of Telugu people were remained backward.

This created the feeling of separate state of Andhra among them strongly. In 1912 the joint session of Godavari, Krishna and Guntur was held at Nidadavole under the chairmanship of Sri Vemavarapu Ramadas and passed.a Resolution for formation of separate Andhra State.
1. The First Andhra Mahasabha, Bapatla 1913: In 1913 at Bapatla of Guntur district, the First Andhra Mahasabha was held which was presided by Sri B.N.Sarma. It was attended by 800 delegates and 2000 Audience.

2. The Second Andhra Mahasabha, Vijayawada 1914: On 11th April of 1914 the second Andhra Mahasabha was held at Vijayawada which was presided by Sri’ Nyapathi Subba Rao, Sri Ayyadevara Kaléswara Rao of Vijayawada was its Convener. It was attended by 1600 delegates.

3. The Third Andhra Màhasabha, Visakhapatnam 1915: In 1915, May the third Andhra Mahasabha was held at Visakhapatnam under the chairmanship of Sri Panagallu Raja Rama Rayanim. It pass two resolutions.

  • Formation of separate Andhra State, Inevitable
  • Teaching in mother tongue up to secondary school level

The Nagpur congress session in 1920 has declared officially by accepting the doctrine of linguistic states. It has Recoginsed 21 languages on that basis the separate Pradesh congress was launched. Article 52 of Indian council Act of 1919 which was made on the Report of Montague – Chelmsford stated that the government may accept the proposal of separate Andhra State if such resolution is passed by majority in the state legislature.

In 1926, the Andhra University was established with a view to provide higher education to Andhra people due to sincere efforts by the then education minister, Sri Anem Parasuram Pathro. In 1932, under the chairmanship of Sri Kadapa Kotireddy, The separate Andhra Mahasabha was held at Madras. Sri Kasinadhuni Nageswara Rao Pantulu and Prominent leaders of Andhra and Rayalaseema were participated.

4. Sri Bagh Pact: On 14th November, 1937 at Madras in the residence of Sri Kasinadhum Nageswara Rao penghulu namely “Sri Bagh” the meeting of leaders of Andhra and Rayalaseema was held.

Leaders from Aridhra region were Dr. Bhoga Raju, Pattabhi Seetha Ramaiah, Konda Venkatåppaiah, Mahboob Alibegh, Desi Raju Hanumantha Rao, Mullapudi Pallam Raju and Kasinadhuni Nageswara Rao Pantulu.

Leaders from Rayalaseema were Sri Kadapa Kotireddy, Seetha Rami Reddy, Subbu Rami Reddy, T.N.Rama Krishna Reddy,
Pappuri Ramachari and Varadachari.

On 30th march, 1938 KondaVenkatappaiah introdiiced a Resolution in Madras Assembly and it was seconded by Kadapa
Koti Reddy. The then chief minister addressed the house on resolution. Later it was passed by the house unanimously. In 1938 The Andhra Mahasabha was held which was presided by Dr. Sarvepalli Radha Krishna and discussed about capital.

In 1938 The Andhra Mahasabha was held which was presided by Dr. Sarvepalli Radha Krishna and discussed about capital.

  • The First Andhra Mahasabha, Bapatla 1913
  • The Second Andhra Mahasabha, Vijayawada 1914
  • The Third Andhra Mahasabha, Visakhapatnam, 1915
  • Sri Bagh Pact
  • Events that led to the formation of Andhra State.
  • J.VR Report
  • Hunger Strike of Swami Seetharam
  • Hunger Strike fast up to death of Potti Sreeramulu
  • Waanchu Committee 1953

5. J.V.R Report: The Jaipur congress session appointed three men committee which consists of Jawaharlal Nehru, Vallabhaipatel and Pattabhi Seetha Ramaiah, Popularly Known as JVP Committee to re consider the Separate state demand. The committee submitted report in 1949 April Stating that the separate state can be formed upon a condition that the Andhra people has to set a side the desire of Madras city.

6. Hunger Strike of Swami Setha Ram: With a view to get easy and speedy formation of sepàrate Andhra State by over coming of all hurdles Sri Swami Seetha Ram (Sri Gollapudi Seetha Ram Sasthri) Started hunger strike on 15th August, 1952 at Guntur Town hail it was continued for 36 days.

7. Hunger Strike Fast up to death of Potti Sreeramulu: For the Separate state hood of Andhra Potti Sreeramulu has started fast up to death on 19th October, 1952 at the Residence of Maharshi Bulusu Sambamurthy and it was later named as Yagnasala”. Under these circumstances on 9th December 1952 the union government announced that the government would consider the issue of Separate Andhra state if the Andhra people will agree for separate Andhra apart from Madras By that time Fast up to death of Potti Sreeramulu has gone to 52nd day on 15th December 1952 at 11.39 p.m. Potti Sreeramulu Possess away.

8. Waanchu Committee 1953: In Jan, 1953 the Govemment of India has appointed Justice Waanchu, the chief Justice of Rajasthan High Court to study the formation of separate Andhra state soon after the receipt of Waanchu report prime minister Nehru announced that the Andhra state will be formed on 18th October 1953 and furtherly he stated it is the responsibility of Andhra Legislators to decide the capital, which has to be Set up in Andhra region except Madras.

Formation of Andhra State: The government of India appointed C.M. Trivedi as special officer to look into the New state formation activities. The separate state of Andhra was officially formed with ‘Kurnool as its capital on 18th October, 1953 as announced earlier. New Andhra State Consists of 11 Andhra districts Viz, Srikakulam, Visakhapatnam, ‘East Godavari, West Godavari, Krishna, Guntur, Nellore, Chittoor, Kadapa, Anantapur and Kurnool.

High court was set up at Guntur on July, 1954 Justice Koka Subba Rao was the first chief justice C.M. Trivedi was the First Governor of Andhra state. ‘Tanguturi Prakasam Panthulu’ was the first chief minister. Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru launched the Andhra State on 1st October, 1953. The people throughout the state had Celebrated it as great event and Festival.

AP Inter 2nd Year Civics Question Paper March 2018

Question 17.
What are The different options suggested by Sri Krishna Committee regarding the status of Andhra Pradesh state?
The government of India constituted a Committee for consultations on the situation in Andhra Pradesh on 3rd” February, 2010 headed by Justice B.N.Sri Krishna. It Examined two main issues namely:

  • The demand for separate statehood of Telangana.
  • Keeping the state united in the present form, Andhra Pradesh.

The Committee submitted its report on 30 December, 2010 to the union home iñinistiy. The committee’s report contained the following Six options.

  1. Maintaining the status quo.
  2. Bifurcation of the state into Seemandhra and Telangana. Each state is to develop its own capital. Hyderabad is to be converted into a union Territory.
  3. Dividing A.P into two states – one of Rayala Telangana with Hyderabad as its capital and the second one of the coastal Andhra Pradesh.
  4. Dividing Andhra Pradesh info Seemandhra and Telangana with Hyderabad metro polis as a separate union Territory. It will be linked geographically to guntur district in coastal Andhra via Nalgonda district in the south East and via Mahaboob Nagar district in the South to Kurnool district in Rayalaseema.
  5. Bifurcation of the state into Telangana and Seemandhra as per existing boundaries with Hyderabad as capital of Telangana and Seemandhra to have new capital.
  6.  Keeping the state united and providing for creation of statutorily empowered Telangana Regional council for Socio-economic development and political development of Telangana Region.

Section – C
15 × 2 = 30


  • Answer ANY FIFTEEN of the following questions in 5 lines each.
  • Each question cames 2 marks.

Question 18.
The Indian constitution beings with a preamble. The preamble clearly defines the objectives of our constitution. It declares India as a sovereign, as a socialist, secular Democratic Republic. provides liberty, equality, fraternity and justice. It states that the people of India are the chief sources of the political authority.

Question 19.
Quo-Warranto literally means What Warrant or Authority”. It enables the competent court to enquire into the legality of the cliam which a party assets to a public office and to oust him from its enjoyment. if the claim is not well founded.

Question 20.
Article 352
Article 352 of the Indian constitution empowers the President to impose National Emergency during the period of war, External Aggression, Armed Rebellion or internal disturbance. So far National Emergency was proclaimed on Four occasions.

They are:

  • Chinese Aggression (1962)
  • Indo – Park war (1965)
  • Indo-Park war in the context of Bangladesh Liberation movement (1971) and
  • Opposition’s call for blocking Parliament (1975)

Question 21.
Collective Responsibility.
Article 75 (3) of Indian constitution stated that the Union Council of Ministers shall be collectively responsible to the Lok Sabha, for all their acts of omissions and commissions. They act as a team under the leadership of the Prime Minister. They sail together, they swim, together and they sink together.

Question 22.
Quorum of Lok Sabha.
Quorum implies minimum attendance of members required for conducting the meetings of the Lok Sabha. Quorum is fixed at 1/10th of the total membership. The speaker determines whether there is Quorum on a particular day for conducting the meetings. Whenever there is no Quorum, he postpones the meetings for an hour or two or for the next day. There are several instances where in the meetings of the Lok Sabha were deferred due to lack of Quorum.

Question 23.
Question Hour.
In both houses of Parliament first pour is allotted to question hour. The members, by giving notice to the presiding officer, can ask questions pertaining to public issues, administrative inefficiency or about the role of the government.

Question 24.
Seat of the Supreme Court.
The Supreme Court ordinarily shall sit at New Delhi. The Supreme Court of India was inaugurated on January 28, 1950. All general cases are adjudicated by a division Bench comprising two or more judges. Cases involving the constitutional mailers are heard by a constitution bench consisting five judges. For considering special causes larger benches consisting of five or more than five judges are constitute.

Question 25.
State Executive.
Articles 153 to 167 deal with the matters of the state executive. The state executive consists of

  • the Governor
  • the Chief Minister and
  • Members of the State Council of Ministers.

In our parliamentary system Governor is the titular or constitutional head of the state. The Chief Minister is the real executive head of the Government. The Chief Minister and the Ministers being represents the people.

Question 26.
Composition of the State Council of Ministers.
The State Council of Ministers is generally a three-tie body.
It consisting of.

  1. Cabinet Ministers
  2. Ministers of state and
  3. Deputy Ministers.

There will be some only Parliamentary Secretaries in some states on rare occassions. It constitutes the fourth wing of the hierarchy of the Council of Ministers.

AP Inter 2nd Year Civics Question Paper March 2018

Question 27.
Qualifications of M.L.A.
A person who wishes to contest for the membership of the State Legislative Council must possess the following qualifications.

  • He should be a citizen of India.
  • He should have completed 30 years of age.
  • He should possess such other qualifications as laid down by an Act of Parliament.

Question 28.
Types of committees.
The committees are of two types i.e., Standing committees and Ad-hoc committees.

  • Standing Committees: Standing committees deal with specific business (financial matters) Ex: Estimates committee, Public accounts committee and Committee on Public Undertakings.
  • Ad-hoc Committees: Ad-hoc committees are concerned with the matters of temporary nature. They cease to exist after completion of the work. They perform some specific functions assigned to them from time to time.

Question 29.
Appointment of High Court Judges.
The Chief Justice of High Court is appointed by the President after consultation with the Chief Justice of India and the Governor of the concerned State. The other judges of High Court are appointed by the President with the consultation of the Chief Justice of High Court of the concerned State. In casse of a common High Court for two or more States, the governors of concerned States are consulted by the president.

Question 30.
Punchchi Commission.
The UPA government set up a Commission on Centre-State Relations in April 28th 2007 under chairmanship of Madan Mohan Punchchi, a retired Chief Justice of India. The Commission was required to look into the issues of centre-state relations keeping in view the sea-change that have taken place in Indian polity since the Sarkaria Commission had last looked at the issue of Union State relations over decades ago. The commission submitted its report to the government in April 20, 2010.

Question 31.
Mandal Parishad Development Officer (MPDO) is the administrative head of Mandal Parishad the plays a crucial role in the administrative affairs of the Mandal Parishad. He prepares the agenda of the parishad meetings and participates in the meeting and renders advice to the members on several matters of the Mandal Parishad. He prepares the annual budget of the Mandal Parishad. He takes steps for the effective working of the Mandal Parishad.

Question 32.
Port Trusts.
Port Trusts is set up in the areas where port personnel are in considerable member. It manages the affairs of ports. It takes proper steps for protecting the interests of Personnel in the port areas. The union government constitutes port affairs committee. The committee comprises both nominated and elected members.

Question 33.
Electronic Voting Machines.
An Electronic voting machine is a simple electronic device used to record votes in place of ballot papers and boxes which were used earlier in conventional voting system. The advantages of the EVM over the traditional ballot paper system are give below.

  • It eliminates the possibility of invalid and doubtful votes.
  • It makes the process of counting of votes much faster that the conventional system.
  • If reduces to a great extent the quantity of paper used, thus saving a large number of trees.
  • It reduces cost printing as only one sheet of ballot papers required for each polling station.

Question 34.
Electoral Reforms.
The various committees and commissions have recommended various reforms that have to be introduced in our electoral system, election machinery, and election process. These can be mentioned briefly here under.

  1. Lowering of voting age,
  2. Deputation to Election commission
  3. Electronic voting machines
  4. Prohibition on the sale of liquor
  5. Number of Proposers

Question 35.
National Parties.
A political party which. participates in four or more states in Lok sabha elections and secures 6 % of valid polled votes plus 4 Lok Sabha seats can be recognised as National Party by the election commission of India. At present there are 6 National Parties in India. Indian National Congress, BJP, CPI, CPM, BSP, NCP.

AP Inter 2nd Year Civics Question Paper March 2018

Question 36.
Bahujana Samaj Party.
It is a dominant party in India. It was established by Kanshi Ram in 1985 a retired civil servant. It’s main motto was the
preservation and promotion of the interests of downtrodden sections in the society. It vehemently opposese the preaching of many and practices of upper casts in society. That is why it always opposed in B.J.P It’s strength in the Thirteen Lok Sabha, stood at 14. This party came to power in U.P. THrice under the leadership of Mayavathi Mayavathi is the present President of this party.

Question 37.
JVP Committee.
The Jaipur Congress session appointed three men committee which consist of Jawaharlal Nehru, Vallabhaipatel and PattabhiSeetha Ramaiah popularly known as JVP Committee to reconsider the separate state demand. The committee submitted report in 1949 April stating that the separate state can be formed upon a condition that the Andhra people has to set a side the desire of Madras city.

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