AP Inter 1st Year Civics Question Paper March 2016

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AP Inter 1st Year Civics Question Paper March 2016

Time: 3 Hours
Maximum Marks: 100

Section – A (3 × 10 = 30)

Note :

  • Answer any three of the following questions in 40 lines each.
  • Each question carries ten marks.

Question 1.
Define political science and explain its scope.
Introduction : Political Science is a premier social science. It is mainly concerned with the study of the state in its relation with Society, Citizens, Associations and the world at large. Aristotle is hailed as the Father of Political Science. He wrote famous book ‘THE POLITICS”.

Origin of the word Politics : Aristotle, the Father of Political Science used the term “POLITICS” for the first time in his famous book “POLITICS”. The term “POLITICS” is derived from a greek word “POLIS” and latin word “POLITICUS” which means the city state.

Definitions of Political Science:
Political Scientists gave various definitions on Political Science.
They are as follows :

  1. J.W. Garner : “Political Science begins and ends with the state”.
  2. Stephen Leacock : “Political Science deals with the government”.
  3. David Easton : “Political Science is concerned with the authoritative allocation of values for a society”.

Scope of Political Science: The scope of Political Science means the subject matter covered by it or the topics which are included in its study. It may be explained in the following ways :

i) Study of man in Relation to the Society and State: Aristotle stated that “Man is a Social Animal”. Man can satisfy his basic needs like food, clothing, shelter and protection in the society. Political Science explains the relationship between man and society. It examines how man should adjust himself with the society.

Political Science is concerned with the perennial and central issue of establishing proper relationship between the state and the individuals. It deals with many topics of state activity, such as limitations of Political Authority and sphere of Individual Freedoms.

ii) Study of State : Aristotle also stated that man is a Political Animal. State is a human and political institution. It came into existence for the sake of man and continue in existence for providing happy and prosperous life for man. Individuals became members of the state since its inception. We can’t imagine the life of individuals outside of the state. Political Science studies the intimate Relationship between the state and the citizens. It also studies the Nature, Functions and Various theories of state authority.
Thus, Political Science deals with the Present, Past and Future aspects of the state.

iii) Study of the Government : Government is an important essential element of Modern State. It is an instrument which fulfills aims and goals of the state. There can be no state without a government. Government consists of three organs namely Legislature, Executive and Judiciary. Legislature makes the laws, Executive implements the laws and Judiciary interpretes the laws. Political Science studies the meaning, forms, structure, nature and functions of the government. It also discusses the relationship among the various organs of the government.

iv) Study of Associations and Institutions : Associations and Institutions help the Individuals for their moral, religious, cultural, scientific and technological progress. These carry on their activities at local, regional, national and international levels. Individuals join as members in these associations out of their interests or purposes. There prevails a great linkage between these voluntary Associations and Institutions. Political Science explains the nature, structure and functions of the various Associations and Institutions.

v) Study of Rights and Responsibilities : Scope of Political Science includes the study of Rights and Responsibilities of citizens. Citizens in democratic states enjoy certain rights such as right to life, right to liberty, right to property etc. Political Science enumerates the definition, classification and different theories of Rights. Similarly, citizens will have some Responsibilities towards the state. These include paying taxes, obeying the laws etc. It explains the significance of Rights and Responsibilities of the citizens. Hence, Political Science examines the Realtionship between Rights and Responsibilities.

vi) Study of National and International Issues : The scope of Political Science covers various issues of Modern state in relation with other states in matters of safeguarding Territorial integrity and Sovereignty. It studies the topics like Cold war. Balance of power. Disarmament, Detente etc. Political Science discusses not only the domestic policies of the state but also the issues of international dimensions. It covers a wide range of topics such as diplomacy, international politics, international law, international organisations etc.

vii) Study of Power : The behaviouralists of 20th century regarded Political Science as a study of sharing and shaping of power.
They pointed out that Political Science discusses how power is grabbed, manipulated and perpetuated to have a control over the society. Morgenthau defined the power as “Man’s control over the Minds and Actions of other Men”.

viii) Study of Public Policy: Modern Political Scientists like David Easton and Gabriel Almond argued that Political Science is a “Policy Science”. They considered Political Science as the study of formulation, execution and evaluation of Public Policy.
Conclusion : The above contents show the wide range of sub-jects that come under the purview of Political Science.

AP Inter 1st Year Civics Question Paper March 2016

Question 2.
Define Nationality. Explain the essential elements of Nationality.
Meaning : The Word “Nation” is derived from a latin word “NATIO” which means “BORN” (BIRTH) or “Common Descent”.

Definitions :

  1. R.G. Gettle : “Nationality is a population having the common bonds of Race, Language, Religion, Traditions and History.
  2. J.H. Rose : “Nationality is a union of Hearts once made and never unmade”.
  3. J.W. Garner : “Nationality is a group or portion of population which is united by Racial and other bonds”.

Essential Elements of Nationality :
1) Purity of Race: Racial purity helps in the formation and strengthening of the idea of Nationality. Race is a physical phenomenon. It depends on certain distinctions of skull, stature, hair, complexion etc. These distinctions serve as a cementing bond among the members of a group.

But we should remember that common race is not an indispensable factor in the growth of Nationality. Modern races are so mixed that none of them can claim to be pure. Pure races have disappeared because of wars and migrations. Racial purity is now a myth only.

Ex : Canada and United states have transformed into single nations inspite of their racial diversities in their respective populations. Similarly, Australia and Britain are two distinct Nations although they belong to one racial stock.

2) Common Language : Language plays a key role in the promotion of nationality. The philosophers and scientists said that common language is essential for the development of nationality. Language is a medium to express all their feelings. It helps to express one’s ownselves to have cordial relations and to share the miseries and happiness in a group languages also promotes common feelings and traditions. Common language promotes the feeling of oneness and keeps the entire race on single track.

3) Common Religion : Religion is one important factor to strengthen nationality. There are many instances when people of different nationalities with common religion remain citizens in the same state. For instance, the main reason for the partition of Indian subcontinent into India and Pakistan in 1947 lies in the religion.

4) Geographical Unity : Geographical unity is necessary for the emergence of nationality. Nationality sentiments prevail and develop among the people living in a single geographical area. The people residing in such an area love, worship their country and make sacrifices for the sake of their motherland. People, who belong to one religion, converse the same language, same race living in a geographical area inculcate and improve their nationality sentiments. The formation of Israel in 1946 was purely due to the feelings of the hitherto wandering Jewish people to live in a single geographical area. Hence their desire of live in a territory made them united. This ultimately transformed them as patriotic persons.

5) Common History : Common History is considered as an important element of Nationality. It invokes an inspiration among the people and binds them together. Some historical incidents may give a chance to the people to develop national sentiments.
Ex : Indians have learnt the lessons of Nationalism from the British legacy.

6) Common Culture : Culture in its broad sense means a way of life. It is reflected through certain common elements like dress, customs, conventions, food habits, religious beliefs, ethical values etc. They easily develop into a single Nation. These elements bind the people together and hold together.

7) Common Political aspirations : Nationality sentiments prevail and develop among the people having common political aspirations. The political ideas, conventions and institutions which were formed due to the single political rule will have a considerable impact and influence over the people. For instance, the Swiss people love very much their direct democratic devices in political matters. Similarly the Americans express the feeling of worship towards their constitution. The British people also feel proud of their political and judicial institutions like rule of law, parliamentary democracy and judicial review etc.

8) Common Economic ties : This element of nationality has been stressed by ‘Karl Marx’. Since then onwards the importance of this element has been increasing. The Russians have great regard for their economic system, eventhough there exist diversities. Their unflinching love for socialism inspired nationalism among them. They successfully repulsed the attacks of Germany’during the Second World War. Thus the common economic ties made them united and integrated them into a nation.

AP Inter 1st Year Civics Question Paper March 2016

Question 3.
Define rights and describe various kinds of Civil Rights.
Introduction : Rights are the essential conditions for the development of the personality of individuals. They are upheld by the laws of the state. They are regarded as a power or privilege which the law invests in a person. They are treated as the sum total of the opportunities meant for enhancing one’s personality. Individuals can not achieve progress in the absence of the rights.

Definitions of rights : Political scientists have defined the term ‘Right’ in several ways. Some of their definitions are explained below :

  1. T.H. Green: “Rights are those powers claimed and recognized as contributory to the common good.”
  2. H.J. Laski: “Rights are those conditions of social life without which no man can seek in general to be himself at his best.”

Civil rights : Civil rights aim at providing basic conditions for individuals to lead a happy and dignified social life. These rights are considered vital for a civilized society. Social life becomes impossible in their absence.

Individuals in a civilized society enjoy the following Civil rights. These are :
1) Right to life : This is the most important civil right. T.H. Green considered it as the most fundamental civil right. This right provides security to the individual’s life, individuals can not lead their lives in the absence of this right. This right is based on the premise that the life of an individual is valuable not only to himself, but also to the society and the state as a whole. Hence it prescribes at large the state to extend protection to the life of individuals.

2) Right to liberty : This right enables individuals to have freedom in various walks of life. It makes their lives worth living. It enables them to develop their personality in various spheres. It includes various freedoms such as freedom of movement, speech, expression, thought, residence etc.

3) Right to equality : This right implies that individuals are equal before law. It forbids discrimination on the basis of one’s caste, colour, creed, education, region, race, religion, wealth etc. It enables equal treatment to all persons. It provides scope for uniform application of laws. It enables equal opportunities to all persons in social, economic and political fields.

4) Right to property : This right enables every individual to acquire, enjoy, donate or inherit the property. It is essential to the individual for securing higher standards of living. This right is crucial for the growth of individual’s personality.

5) Right to family : Family is a fundamental social institution. This right enables individuals to maintain family relations in society. Consequently, individuals will have freedom to marry persons of their choice. They will have choice to procreate children and rear their offspring.

6) Right to religion : This right allows the individuals to have freedom to practice, propagate and profess any religion of their choice. Every.individual is at liberty to preach or practice the religious doctrines as they like. The secular states provide religious freedoms to their citizens.

7) Right to contract : This right provides freedom to every individual to enter into contract or legal arrangements with others regarding his life, property and work. It regulates the two parties in carrying their contracts in letter and spirit.

8) Right to education: In the modern era education is regarded as vital to every individual. Uneducated and innocent individuals cannot play an active role in public affairs. Similarly, illiterate persons cannot fully make use of their abilities. Education and literacy enable the people to understand the problems of the society and policies of the government. This right guarantees a minimum level of education to every citizen in democratic states.

9) Right to form associations and unions : This right enables individuals to form associations and unions for realising some specific objectives. Individuals may join, continue or keep away from the membership of associations according to their will and pleasure.

10) Right to constitutional remedies : Civil rights are meaningless in the absence of this right. This right is essential to every individual for safeguarding his rights. This right empowers a person (who was deprived of his liberty due to the intervention or manhandling by others including the government) to seek justice and relief from the concerned judicial organizations. The affected individuals are authorised to approach an appropriate court for correcting such imbalance. In this regard the higher judicial organizations issue several writs and effectively check such tendencies. These writs are in the form of Habeas Corpus, Mandamus, Prohibition, Quo-warranto and Certiorari etc.

Political rights : Political rights are those rights which enable the individuals to participate in the political affairs of the state.

The following are the important political rights :
1) Right to vote : Right to vote is the most important political right enjoyed by the citizens in modern democratic states, it serves as a powerful weapon for adult citizens in choosing their representatives to various legislative bodies. It makes them as real sovereign. All the citizens are entitled to this right without any discrimination based on creed, colour, language, race, region, religion, sex etc. However, persons such as aliens and minors are deprived of this right.

2) Right to contest in elections : This right empowers the citizens to contest as candidates to various legislative bodies in the state. Especially this right enables those, who have political sagacity, enthusiasm and dynamic nature, to actively participate in the political dynamics of the state. As a result, it increases political enthusiasm among the citizens. Such an element is considered as a base of democratic polity.

3) Right to hold public offices : This right provides opportunities to the citizens to hold various public offices for a definite period. It gives no scope for exclusion of citizens or conferring special privileges to some at the cost of others. This helps the citizens to exercise authority in a dignified manner.

4) Right to petition : This right enables the citizens to forward petitions denoting their requirements or grievances. It is considered as a vital political right in the modern state. The citizens could be able to find solutions to their immediate or long pending issues by bringing them to the notice of the government through this right. It also helps the public authorities to know the grievances of the people and attend to them properly and promptly.

5) Right to criticism : This right gives opportunity to the citizens to criticize the various public policies and programmes. It also enables them to highlight the omissions and commissions of the leaders, and administrative personnel at various levels. It also gives scope for the citizens to render positive and constructive criticism about the on goings in the government from time to time. Ultimately it keeps the administrative authorities and policy makers to be vigilant in dis¬charging their obligations.

AP Inter 1st Year Civics Question Paper March 2016

Question 4.
Briefly explain about direct democratic devices.
Devices Direct Democracy :
There are four devices prescribed in direct democracies to enable the people to participate directly in the administrative activities of the State.

Those are
1. Referendum
2. Initiative
3. Recall and
4. Plebiscite

These methods may be explained as follows.
1. Referendum : It is one of the direct democratic devices. Literally it means, “must be referred to the people”. It is a device where by the electorate may veto a proposed legislation or a bill which the legislature has already passed. In other words, bills passed by the legislature are the voters for their approval or disapproval. If majority of the voters approve them, they become acts. But if they vote against them, they will be given up. Hence, referendum is known as “Popular Veto”. It is of two types – 1) Compulsory referendum : All the con¬stitutional bills must be sent to the people. 2) Optional Referendum : An ordinary bill passed by the legislative may be or may not be sent to the people. However, even that ordinary bill must be sent to the people, if a definite number of people demand it.

Ex : In Switzerland 30,000 people or eight cantons (States) can demand referendum on an ordinary bill.

2. Initiative : It is another device of direct democracy. It is a method by means of which the people propose legislation i.e.; they can ask the legislature to pass a particular law. For instance, in Switzerland, if 50,000 voters request the legislature to pass a law, then the proposal is submitted to the consideration of the people. If majority of the people (30,000) approve it, then it becomes an act. Unlike referendum, initiative provides a chance to the people to start the making of law. It is of two types : (1) Formulative Initiative: People present a bill to the legislature (2) Unformulative Initivative : People present a demand to the legislature as king it to pass a bill.

3. Re Call : It is another devices, of Direct Democracy. It means “Calling Back”. According to this method a specific number of voters may call back or dismiss an elected officer or a member of the legislature before the expiry of his term, if he is irresponsible. By means of this, the people can remove a representative or an officer from office when he fails to discharge his duties properly.

4. Plebiscite : The term ‘Plebiscite” is derived from a French word “Plebiscitum”, which means “decree of the people”. It is used to obtain the opinion of the people on an important political issue or when there is a dispute regarding some territory. The question of accession or secession or territory is generally solved by means of plebiscite.

Question 5.
Explain about the merits and demerits of Presidential Government.
Definition : Prof. Gamer defined presidential government as “one in which the executive is constitutionally independent of legislature in respect of its duration of tenure and political policies”.

Merits of presidential government: The following merits are claimed for the presidential system over the parliamentary system.

1) Ensures stable government : This system ensures stability because the president is elected for a fixed term. His tenure is not dependent on the support of the legislature. Hence he can continue in his office till end of his term. This ensures the stability of the government.

2) Efficiency in administration : Under this system, the president rules with the help of the secretaries and advisers who are experienced and efficient. They are appointed on the basis of their ability and efficiency but not on political considerations. They do not belong to any political party. They do not bother about the problems of their constituencies. They devote their time to administration. This promotes efficiency in administration.

3) Suitable for emergencies : This system is more suitable for emergencies. Since all powers are in the hands of the president, he can take any action and face any situation. He need not seek the approval of the legislature and the advice of his secretaries. He administers the country keeping in view the welfare of the people.

4) Suitable for diverse interests : This system is best suited for countries which are inhabited by different communities with diverse interests. The president can meet the needs of diverse group of people by taking suitable decisions.

5) Consistent policies: The president enjoys fixed term of office. He cannot be removed before the end of his term very easily. This enables him to follow continuous and consistent domestic and foreign policies.

Demerits of presidential government : The above merits are counter balanced by the following defects :
1) Scope for disputes : This system is based on the theory of separation of powers. Both the legislative and the executive organs are kept apart. This leads to frequent deadlocks and disputes between the two organs.

2) No flexibility : This system is very rigid. It is difficult to replace the President before the expiry of his term, eventhough he is weak, corrupt and inefficient.

3) Irresponsible and Autocratic : This system provides scope for the president to rule irresponsibly and autocratically. It is so because he is independent of the control of the legislature and not accountable to it for his actions. He ignores the criticism of the opposition. This makes him to misuse and abuse his powers.

4) Division of responsibility : This system leads to division of responsibility which affects the smooth working of government. When the relations between the legislature and the executive are not cordial, each may try to shift the responsibility on the other. This leads to inefficiency And division of responsibility in administration.

5) Public opinion is not reflected: This system does not promote political consciousness because There is no significance for the legislature. The president and his secretaries are not the members of the legislature. So, they do not participate in its debates and discussions. As a result, the discussions in the legislature become formal and dry. They do not have much significance and reflect public opinion.

AP Inter 1st Year Civics Question Paper March 2016

Section – B (8 × 5 = 40)

Note :

  • Answer any eight of the following questions is not exceeding 20 lines each.
  • Each question carries five marks.

Question 6.
Define state and explain its essential features.
Introduction: State is an important political organisation. The study of political science begins and ends with the state. The term state for the first time, was used by an Italian political thinker, Machiavlly in his famous book “The Prince” in 16th century.

Meaning : The word state is derived from a Tuetonic word “status” which means political organisation.

Definitions :

  1. “State is a people organised for law within a definite Territory” – Woodrow Wilson.
  2. “State is a politically organised people of a definite Territory” – Bluntschlli.
  3. “State is a territorial society divided into government and subjects claiming within its allotted physical area, a supremacy over all other institutions. – Harold. J. Laski.

Essential elements of state : State is the predominant and superior politico – social institution existing in the society. It consists of 4 essential elements. These elements of state may be explained in a detailed way in the following paragraphs.

1) Population : Population is the fundamental and essential element of state. There can be no state without population. Plato, Aristotle, Rousseau and others considered this feature as an important one.

The famous poet Sri. Gurajadg Apparao also states that it is the people, rather than the land, that comprise the state. Political writers differ in their opinions regarding the exact size of population possessed by the state. While Plato fixed 5,040, Rousseau fixed 10,000 to be an ideal population for a state. But today we can find the countries like China and India which have more than 100 crores of population on one hand and the countries like Andora, San Marino are having small number of people on the other hand is the modern world.

2) Territory : Territory is another essential element of the state. It is necessary for the origin and existence of the state. There can be no state without territory. Every state must have more or less territory of its own. There is no unanimous opinion among the political writers regarding the size of territory of the state. Some preferred vast territory, where as others preferred small territory. But today we can find the countries like America and Canada having large territory on one hand, and the countries like Vatican, Monaco having very less territory on the other hand in the modem world.

3) Government : Government is the third essential element of the state. There can be no state without government. State enforces its authority through the government. Govern-ment consists of 3 organs namely
Legislature – which makes laws
Executive – which implements laws and
Judiciary – which interpretes laws.

Government are of different kinds namely. Unitary, Federal, Parliamentary and Presidential governments. Governments are at dif-ferent levels like Local, State level and National level.

4) Sovereignty : Sovereignty is the most essential element of the state. It is spirit and soul of the state. There can be no state with-out sovereignty. It distinguishes the state from other associations and institutions. Sovereignty is the supreme political power of the state over citizens dnd subjects.

Question 7.
Distinguish between state and government.
Introduction : We often use the terms “State” and “Government” indiscriminately one for the other”. State means government in practice” said by H.J. Laski. “State means almost government machinery”.

Relationship between state and government : The relationship between state and government can be discussed as follows.

1) Both are established by individuals : State and government are two important organizations established by Individuals. The two came into existence for protecting the people and for regulating the conditions between them.

2) Complementary : State is the government for all practical purposes. Government carries on its activities in the name of the state whatever government does. It does in the name of the state. The Stuart king in England and Louis XIV in France viewed the state and government as complementary.

3) The will of the state expressed by the government : Government is an important element of state. The collective will of the state is expressed and implemented through government. Govern-ment is described as the “Brain of state”. Laws which reflect the will of the state are formulated and given effect only by the government.
Differences between State and Government : The following are the differences between state and government.

State Government
1. State has four elements namely population, territory, government and sovereignty. 1. Government is one of the essential elements of the state.
2. State is a permanent organisation. 2. Government is a temporary organisation.
3. State consists of the whole body of people – The rulers and the ruled. 3. Government consists of only the rulers.
4. State has the sovereignty. 4. Government does not have sovereignty.
5. State is the master. 5. Government is the servant.
6. Membership of the state is compulsory. 6. Membership in government is not compulsory to that of state is narrow.
7. All states are alike in the sense they possess the same four features (or) elements like Population, Territory, Government and Sovereignty. 7. Governments are different types, viz. Parliamentary – Presidential – Unitary – Federal, Democratic – Dictatorial etc.
8. Peoples are not entitled to revolt against the state. 8. People have the right to oppose and criticize the policies and programmes of the government.
9. The scope of state when compared to that of government is wider. 9. The scope of government when compared to that of state is narrow.

AP Inter 1st Year Civics Question Paper March 2016

Question 8.
Is India a National State ? Explain.
It is interesting to know whether India is a Nation-State. Some say that India is a uni-national state. As against this some state that it is a Multi-National State. It is argued that India is a Uni-National State rather than a Multi-National State due to the following reasons.

  • It consists of people who posses* the features of uni-national state like common history, common culture and traditions.
  • The Indians showed their spirit of National integration on many occassions after independence.
  • They stood as one and extended support to their government when our country was faced with wars from Pakistan and China in 1962 and 1965 respectively.
  • They stood united under the leadership of Mahatma Gandhi throughout the freedom struggle against the British rule in India.
  • From the begining, our country won name and fame for its unity in diversity. Even- though the people of India belong to different regions, they are Indians first and Indians in the last resort i.e., they owe indebtedness to their respective religions and languages.
  • Some common elements concerning national anthem, national heritage, culture, constitution, national flag and the government inspire the nationalist feelings and inculcate the national integration among the people.
  • People celebrate all the national festivals with great enthusiasm and spirit.
    Hence we may say that India is a nation state with the characteristic features of unity in diversity.

Question 9.
Define Law and explain its sources.
Definitions: The English word ‘Law’ originates from the ancient Teutonic word ‘Lag’ which means “something that lies fixed or uniform”. Political thinkers defined law in different ways which are listed below :

  1. “Law is the command of the sovereign”. – John Austin
  2. “Law is the system of rights and obligations which the State enforces”. – T.H. Green

Sources of Law :
1) Customs, Practices and Traditions : These are one of the important sources of law. In primitive societies, there were no laws in written form. All disputes were settled in accordance with social customs and traditions. Customs regulated the social life in the early societies. Customs and traditions cannot be laws in political sense. But, when the State recognises certain traditions, they in turn become laws. Ex : The laws relating to marriage, divorce etc., found in our Country are based on traditions, the common law of England.

2) Religion : In ancient times customary laws and religious laws were intermixed. The religious teachers enjoyed unlimited powers in those times. Their decisions were treated on par with laws. The primitive men believed that the judgements of the religious teachers had divine sanction. The ancient Roman laws were merely the religious laws. The Hindu and Muslim laws derived inspiration mainly from religion.

3) Judicial Decisions / Adjudication / Judgement of the Courts : The judgements of the judges also serve as a source of law. Generally, judges interpret laws, apply them to particular cases and deliver judgements. Their judgements become precedents and are usually followed by other judges in similar cases. In course of time such judgements acquire the status of law. In this way judges add to the law of the country. There are many instances that new laws have evolved by way of interpretation. Many of the laws in Britain, America and India have originated from the judgements of the Judges of the respective countries.

Question 10.
Define liberty and describe three types of liberty.
Introduction : The concept of Liberty is of great significance in the study of political science. Liberty is an essential condition without which man cannot develop his personality.

Meaning : The term liberty is derived from the Latin word “LIBER” which means free from restrictions.

Definitions: Liberty is defined in many ways by different political thinkers.
Some of them are cited below :

  1. “Liberty means the absence of restraints”. – J.R. Seeley
  2. “Liberty is the freedom of an individual to express without any external hindrance to his personality”.
    – G.D.H. Cole
  3. “Liberty means the positive power of doing or enjoying something worth doing or enjoying”. – TH. Green

1. Natural liberty : Natural liberty is understood as uncontrolled freedom or absolute freedom. It is believed that natural liberty existed in the pre-social and pre-state human life. According to this concept there were no rules and regulations except the laws of nature in the past. All persons were free to do anything according to their will and capacity. But this type of liberty is not possible in civilised society. This kind of liberty existed before the origin of state.

2. Civil liberty : Civil liberty is also known as personal liberty. It relates to the individual’s freedom in his life as a member of the social organisation. It is enjoyed by the individuals in the society. Civil liberty is the essential pre-requisite to the existence and survival of human beings. It enables them to lead happy, honourable and civilised life in the state. So it is a must to every one. The state recognises the various freedoms of individuals. Civil liberty is manifested in several rights.

These include A) Right to Life B) Right to Work C) Right to Property D) Right to Religion E) Right to Speech, Expression, Assembly, Movement and Residence etc.

3. Economic liberty : Economic liberty means the right of everyone to earn his livelihood. Laski described economic liberty as the security and opportunity to find reasonable significance in earning one’s daily bread. Economic liberty ensures everyone freedom from want and fear, hunger and starvation, unemployment and insufficiency. It will also be secured by adopting the following measures.

  1. Provision of minimum wages.
  2. Guarantee of the right to work.
  3. Protecting the workers from unemployment, sickness and other types of insecurity.
  4. Providing adequate leisure.
  5. Giving representation to the workers in the management of the industries.

AP Inter 1st Year Civics Question Paper March 2016

Question 11.
What are the features of the rights ?
Rights are the essential conditions for the development of the personality of individuals. They are upheld by the laws of the state. Individuals cannot achieve progress in the absence of rights.

Definition : “Rights are those conditions of social life without which no man can seek in general to be himself at his best.”

Features of Rights : Rights comprise the following features.
1) Rights are possible only in society : Rights originate in society. They denote human social behaviour. They do not exist outside of the society.

2) Rights are social in nature : Rights are the claims of individuals. These claims can be established only when the society or the state recognises and maintains them. So they are social in nature.

3) Rights are inherent in nature : Rights are inherent in the social nature of men. The social contractualists stated that rights are inherent in nature. Their views are accepted to some extent in modern times.

4) Rights are enforced and protected by the state : Rights are enforced and protected by the state. The various judicial organisations act as the custodians of the rights of individuals. In other words, rights are protected by the courts of law. Individuals enjoy several rights fully only in a democratic state.

5) Rights are not absolute : Rights are not absolute. Society and state impose some restrictions on the enjoyment of rights by the individuals. These restrictions are meant for maintaining peace and other in the society. Further, rights are meant for contributing social welfare and security.

6) Every right has a corresponding responsibility : Rights and responsibilities are interdependent. Every right has a corresponding responsibility. It is the responsibility of every individual to see that his neighbours also enjoy the same rights. Rights without responsibilities or responsibilities without rights cannot exist. Both are essential for leading a peaceful social life.

7) Rights are universal : Rights are universal in nature. They are applicable to all. They are given to all without any discrimination.

8) Rights vary : Rights vary from time to time according to the needs of the people. They also grow with the changes in time and conditions. Some rights which were not found in the past may exist now. The socio economic, political and cultural conditions will have an influence over the rights.

9) Rights precede the state: Rights are the products of history. Rights originated in course of time. They were prevalent even before the origin of the state. However, they were guaranteed only after the origin of the state.

10) Rights are meant for common good : Rights always exist and flourish as long as they are meant for common good. Only those rights which promote common good of the people are recognised by the society and the state. They are essential for leading a prosperous life by the individuals.

Question 12.
Describe any three types of Justice.
Meaning : The world Justice is derived from a latin word “Jus” which Means “To bind”.
Definition : “Justice means speaking the truth and paying one’s debts”. – Caphalous

1. Natural Justice : Natural Justice is based on the notion that every person in the world possesses some rights for availing the natural resources. Natural resources provide support to the life of each and every creature on earth. As the human beings are the only rational creatures, it is their responsibility to see that natural resources have to be judiciously exploited. Human beings must keep in mind the requirements of future generations in this regard.

2. Social Justice : Social Justice envisages a balance between rights of individuals and social control. It facilitates the fulfillment of the legitimate expectations of the individuals under the existing laws. It ensure’s several benefits and extends protection to the individuals against the interference or encroachment from others in society. It is consistent with the unity and the integrity of the nation. It fulfills the needs of the society.

Social Justice enforces the principle of equality before law. It also extends protection to the downtrodden and weaker section of society.

3. Political Justice: Political Justice symbolises political equality. It implies provision of political rights to all the adult citizens in a state. It facilitates free and fair participation of the citizens in the governance of the country. It is manifested to the full extent in times of elections. It allows the citizens for their active participation in day- to-day administration. It may be noted that political justice prevails in the State when the following conditions are prevalent

  1. Rule of law
  2. Independent Judiciary
  3. Popular elections to the representative bodies
  4. Political parties
  5. Freedom of press and assembly
  6. Democratic rule etc.

AP Inter 1st Year Civics Question Paper March 2016

Question 13.
Define citizenship. Describe the methods of acquiring citizenship.
Introduction : Citizenship is a privilege of individual residing in democratic states. People fed that citizenship enables them to lead a happy, honourable and harmonious life in the state. Citizenship instills the feelings of patriotism, sacrifice, broad outlook etc., among the people.

Definitions :
Prof. Laski : “Citizenship is one’s contribution of instructed judgement to the public good”.
T.H. Marshall : “Citizenship is a status bestowed on those who are full members of a community. All who possess this status are equal with respect to the rights and duties with which the state is endowed”.

Methods of acquiring citizenship : There are two methods of acquiring citizenship.
They are :
i) Natural
ii) Naturalization.

The two methods may be studied as follows.
i) Natural Citizenship : Natural Citizenship is one which is acquired by the persons without specific application or request to the authorities. It comprises three elements.
They are :
i) Blood relationship (Jus Sanguinis)
ii) Soil (Jus Soil) and
iii) Mixed principle.

i) Jus Sanguinis – (Kinship or Blood Relationship) : This type of Citizenship denotes acquiring citizenship by kinship or blood relationship. Under this method birth within the territory of a state entitles a person to have citizenship. Every person is treated as a citizen of the state where he is born. According to Jus Sanguinis, a child acquires the citizenship of the parents irrespective of its place of birth. Here blood relationship alone determines the Citizenship. Ex : A child born to the Indian parents will be treated as Indian citizen irrespective of its place of birth.

ii) Jus Soil (Land or Place of Birth): Jus Soil means acquisition of citizenship by the principle of place of birth. According to this method, citizenship is determined by the place of birth and not by parentage. It is the place of birth which determines citizenship. However this method is not more popular in modern times. It was popular in the Middle Ages when citizenship was associated with land. At present, however, this practice is observed exclusively in Argentina.

iii) Mixed Principle : Under this method citizenship is granted by following either of the two principles of Jus Sanguinis and Jus Soli. Many states adopted both these principles. Ex : In Britain, France and United States, the above two principles are employed simul- taneously. In this-context there may arise duplication of citizenship. Ex : A child born to British parents in the United States becomes an american citizen according to the practice of Jus Soli. The same child becomes a citizen of Britain according to the principle of Jus Sanguinis. In such a case, the child is given option to choose one of its citizenship, after becoming a major.

ii) Naturalised Citizenship : Citizenship may also be acquired through naturalization. According to this method, an alien will become a citizen after fulfilling certain conditions. These conditions vary from state to state. Some of them may be summed up as follows.

1) Residence : An alien who resides in a state for a prescribed period automatically become its citizen. Residence in any part of the state is a must for an alien. The period of residence varies from state to state. For instance it is 5 years in Britain and United States and 10 years in France respectively.

2) Choice: The children of alien parents could receive citizenship of the state according to their option and choice.

3) Application : An alien in a state may apply for the citizenship of that state. Then the government of that state considers his application on its merits. It grants citizenship to him with or without some conditions. These prescribed conditions refer to a minimum period of residence, good moral character, financial capability and knowledge of one of the national languages. Besides, an alien must take an oath of allegiance before he assumes the citizenship of another state.

4) Fixed Assets : An alien who buys some portion of land or acquires some fixed property can acquire citizenship in a state.

5) Service (Public or Private) : An alien who serves in the government of a state or in a private recognised enterprise could become the citizen of that state. Fie is entitled for such citizenship if he serves in the public or private authorised departments. Fie may also be given Citizenship if the renders meritorious service in another state.

6) Marriage : An alien woman acquires citizenship of a state when she marries the citizen of that state. In some countries when a person marries an alien. Citizenship of either of the husband or wife is acquired. For instance, a British lady will acquire Indian citizenship if she marries an Indian citizen. Japanese women do not lose their citizenship even if they marry persons of alien states.Jhe alien person on the other hand, acquires the citizenship of Japan if he marries a Japanese lady.

In this context it may be noted that an alien who receives the citizenship of the new state, he will have to forego his native citizenship. In other words no one is allowed to have dual citizenships simultaneously.

AP Inter 1st Year Civics Question Paper March 2016

Question 14.
Explain any five merits and demerits of democracy.
Merits : Democracy has the following merits.
a) Efficient government : Prof. Garner described democracy as an efficient and effective government. The government in democracy carries all its activities efficiently and effectively both in normal times and emergencies.

b) Upholds individual liberties : Democracy is the only government that upholds individual liberties. It guarantees certain civil rights to the people thereby providing an opportunity for them to become ideal and responsible citizens.

c) Assures equality : Democracy assures equality of individuals in political and economic spheres. The people living in democratic nation enjoy all the political. Civil and economic rights and privileges equally without any discrimination.

Demerits : Democracy has the following demerits.
a) Rule of Ignorance : Plato criticised democracy as a rule of ignorance. Aristotle called it a perverted form of government. Anybody can become a ruler in this system and no special qualifications are prescribed for voters or rulers.

b) Favourable to rich : The ruling political party in democracy v depends on the rich people for their financial support at the time of elections. Therefore it becomes an obligation to the . party in power to make laws which are favourable to the rich.

c) Quality is ignored : The votes in democracy are counted not weighted. Everything is decided according to majority opinion. The quality of majority cannot always be correct. Thus quantity is given greater importance than quality.

Question 15.
Define the secular state and elaborate the features and importance of secular state.
Features of Secular State : Secular State comprises the following features.
1. No place for religion : Secular States does not assign significance to any particular religion. It will not make laws or implement them on religious grounds.

2. Equal status : Secular State accords equal status to its people. It makes no differentiation between individuals on the grounds of their caste, colour, community, religion, race, region, language etc. As a result, people will have satisfaction and extend co-operation to the government in the implementation of various policies and programmes. They live together with the fellow members of other religious denominations.

3. No state religion : Secular state does not recognize any particular religion as the state religion. It adopts neutral policy in religious matters. It implements various laws and social welfare measures without basing on the religious feelings of the people. It will not assign special role to any particular religion in public activities. All public places like educational institutions, government offices and judicial organizations will carry On their activities with out aligning to a particular religion.

Question 16.
Define constitution and differentiate between rigid and flexible constitutions.
Definition : The age of Democracy led to political civilisation. Now-a-days every civilised state possess a Constitution. A constitution is a condition of modern state. The constitution is a living text of a political system. It represents the political character of the state and its constituents.

Differences between Flexible and Rigid Constitutions.

Flexible Constitution Rigid Constitution
1. Constitutional matters are not clearly mentioned. 1. Constitutional matters are clearly written.
2. Not appropriate to a federal state. 2. Appropriate for a federal state.
3. Highly unstable. 3. Highly stable.
4. Constitution can be easily amended. 4. Constitution cannot be easily amended.
5. Provides no scope for judicial review. 5. Provides scope for judicial review.
6. Only one type of law is found. 6. Two types of laws are found, constitutional and ordinary. Constitutional laws precede ordinary laws.
7. Rights, freedoms and liberties of people may not be safeguarded by the Judiciary. 7. Rights, freedoms and liberties of people will be better safeguarded by the Judiciary.
8. No scope for revolutions. 8. Scope for revolutions.
9. Possibility of unlimited legislative power. 9. Possibility of a limited legislative power.
10. More suitable to the politically advanced states. 10. More suitable to the developing nations.
11. It makes no differentiation between constitutional and ordinary laws. 11. It makes differentiation between constitutional and ordinary laws.
12. Appropriate to small states. 12. Appropriate to large states.

AP Inter 1st Year Civics Question Paper March 2016

Question 17.
Point out the functions of Judiciary.
The Judiciary is the third organ of the government. It refers to those officers of Government whose function is to apply the existing law to individual cases. It consists of the magistrates and judges charged with the duty of administering justice. In brief, it is that branch of the Government which settles disputes and administers justice.

Functions of the Judiciary :
1) Interpretation of Laws : The primary function of judiciary is interpretation of laws. Judiciary interprets laws and applies them to specific cases that come before it. It applies the elements of customs, statutes and constitutional provisions to specific cases.

Whenever the existing law is inadequate for delivering justice, it applies the principles of justice, equity and morality. As Gettle remarks, “Constitution and laws are always rigid. Flexibility must be given to them by judges”.

2) Custodian of the Constitution : Judiciary acts as guardian of the Constitution in federal system. It protects the spirit and sanctity of the constitution. Judiciary, in a federation, is empowered to declare a law as unconstitutional if it is inconsistent with the provisions of the Constitution.

3) Guardian of Civil Liberties : Judiciary acts as guardian of civil liberties of the people. It protects individual liberties by punishing those who encroach upon it. It also protects the people against the arbitrary actions of the government.

For instance, in the case of India, the Constitution under Articles 32 and 226 empowered the Supreme Court and High Courts to act as the guardians of fundamental rights of the citizens. These courts can issue injunctions to prevent the arbitrary acts of some individuals and organisations. Such injunctions include Habeas Corpus, Mandamus, Prohibition, Quo-warranto and Certiorari.

4) Federal equilibrium : Judiciary plays a key role in the federal system. It solves disputes between the Centre and the State Governments and also between States. It sees that neither the Central Government nor the State Government exceed the constitutional limitations.

5) Advisory Functions : Judiciary renders advice on the request of the executive or the legislature. For instance the President of India may seek the advice of the Supreme Court on any question of Constitutional Law. In England, the practice to request a court to give declaratory judgement is very common. The Crown sometimes asks the judicial committee of the Privy Council to give its advisory opinion upon questions of law.

6) Appellate Jurisdiction : The highest court of justice hears appeals over thejudgements of the lower courts. At times, it ratifies the judgements pronounced by the lower courts. Sometimes, it may reverse some pf their judgements.

7) Maintenance of records : Judiciary maintains all the records of the cases along with their judgements. These records will help the advocates and judges in the trial of similar cases that may occur in future.

8) Acting as Head of the State: In some countries, under certain conditions, the Chief Justice of the highest Court assumes the powers of the acting head of the State in the absence of President and VicePresident in office.

9) Administrative Functions : The Supreme Court and High Courts are entrusted with some administrative functions. They make suggestions to the executive head in appointing the judges of the lower courts. The higher courts supervise the functioning of the lower courts. For instance the high courts in India are given the obligation of supervising the activities of the subordinate courts in their jurisdiction.

AP Inter 1st Year Civics Question Paper March 2016

Section – C (15 × 2 = 30)

Note :

  • Answer any fifteen of the following questions in not exceeding 5 lines each.
  • Each question carries two marks.

Question 18.
Write about Ancient City States.
Ancient Greece consisted of a large number of city states. They were small both in size and population. For example, Athens,Sparta, Corinth. Each city state had its own government. The greeks based their political philosophy on the concept of city-state. The population of the city-state was divided into three groups :

  1. Citizens
  2. Aliens and
  3. Slaves.

Question 19.
Mention any two differences between State and Association.
Differences between State and Association.

State Association
1. State is a political organization. 1. Association is a social organization.
2. State has sovereignty. 2. Association has no sovereignty.

Question 20.
Define Rule of Law.
The word law had its roots in the latin words “Jus and Jungere” which mean bond or tie.

Question 21.
Define Equity.
According to H.J. Laski “Equality means first of all the absence of special privilege. In the second place “It means that adequate opportunities are laid open to all”.

Question 22.
Economic Liberty.
Economic Liberty means the right of everyone to learn his livelihood. Economic liberty ensures everyone freedom from want and fear, hunger and starvation, unemployment and insufficiency. It will be secured by adopting the following measures.

  1. Provision of minimum wages.
  2. Guarantee of the right to work.
  3. Protecting the workers from unemployment, sickness and other types of insecurity.
  4. Providing adequate leisure etc.

Question 23.
Natural Equality.
Natural equality : This kind of equality existed in the “State of Nature”. It is based on the principle that nature has created everyone as equal. But natural equality exists no where in the world. Nature has not created all people with the same qualities. So by natural equality we generally mean the provision of equal opportunities to all. It implies the abolition of man-made and artificial inequalities.

AP Inter 1st Year Civics Question Paper March 2016

Question 24.
Write any four Political Rights.
Rights are broadly classified into three categories namely.

  1. Natural rights
  2. Moral rights and
  3. Legal rights.

Legal rights inturjn classified into
(a) Civil rights
(b) Political rights and
(c) Economic rights.

Question 25.
Give any two examples of responsibilities.
The following are some examples of Responsibilities :

  1. Payment of Taxes
  2. Cooperation in law and order matters
  3. Honest exercise of Franchise etc.

Question 26.
Define ‘Justice’.
“Justice is giving to every man his due. It is a combination of reason, courage, appetite and will in terms of the state” – Plato.

Question 27.
What is meant by Political Justice ?
Political Justice symbolises political equality. It implies provision of political rights to all the adult citizens in a state. It facilitates free and fair participation of the citizens in the governance of the country. It is manifested to the full extent in times of elections. It allows the citizens for their active participation in day-to-day administration. It is based on the premise that everyone is counted as one and none for more than one. It may be noted that political justice prevails in the State when the following conditions are prevalent

  1. Rule of law
  2. Independent Judiciary
  3. Popular elections to the representative bodies
  4. Political parties
  5. Freedom of press and assembly
  6. Democratic rule etc.

Question 28.
Who is an Alien ?
An Alien is a person living in a state but owing allegiance to another state. Aliens are entitled to such rights and obligations which are incorporated in the convenants of the Foreign State.
Ex : In America, Aliens must obey the laws and pay taxes just like the American citizens.

Question 29.
What do you mean by Jus soli ?
Jus soli means acquistion of citizenship by the principle of place of birth. According to this method, a child accquites the citizenship of a state, where it borns. It is the place of birth which determines citizenship. This method is not more popular in modern times. At present, this method is observed exclusively in Argentina.

AP Inter 1st Year Civics Question Paper March 2016

Question 30.
Write any two definitions of Democracy.
Democracy is form of government in which the people rule themselves directly or indirectly through their periodically elected representatives.

Definitions :

  1. Abraham Lincoln : “Democracy is a government of the people, by the people and for the people”.
  2. J.R. Seely : “Democracy is a government in which every one has a share”.

Question 31.
Write any two conditions for the success of Democracy.

  1. Sound system of education
  2. Independent press
  3. Strong opposition
  4. Social equality

Question 32.
Define secular state.
D.E. Smith defined secular state as “None while guaranteeing individual and corporate freedom of religion, which deals with the individual as a citizen irrespective of his religion”.

Question 33.
What do you mean by theocratical state ?
Theocracy technically means rule by God. In practice, it implies rule by priests. It originated from the theory that all legitimate powers emanate from God. It found expression in the priestly order having the sole right to interpret laws as was the case in Ancient Judiasm and Hinduism. It js also exhibited in the present day Islam. The state having an official religion is called a Theocratic State. In such states all other religions or religious activities are either prohibited or discouraged or highly regulated or controlled by the State.

All the official and important offices of the State are either appointed or elected only those from the official religion. State officially participates in the religious affairs and rituals. State provides funds to the religious propagation and to the restoration or construction of the places of worship. Religious co-existence and religious tolerance are said to be minimal in these States. The religious teachers and the religious rituals play a pivotal role in State affairs. Religious personal law is predominant in the enactment of laws and in the way of life of the people. Even in food habits and dress, the importance of religions dictates the public life. States like Pakistan, Saudi Arabia and so many other Islamic states are the best examples of a Theocratic State.

Question 34.
What do you mean by Constitution ?
The term constitution implies a written document embodying the provisions relating to the powers and functions of the Government organs, the rights and duties of the citizens.

Question 35.
What is an enacted Constitution ?
Enacted constitution is also known as Conventional constitution. It is consciously made. It is the outcome of the deliberations of the Constituent Assembly specially constituted for that purpose. It is promulgated by the Sovereign Authority i.e., king or queen or Parliament. Ex : The Constitutions of India and the U.S.A.

AP Inter 1st Year Civics Question Paper March 2016

Question 36.
What is a unitary type of government ?
Meaning : The word ‘Unitary’ consists of two words, namely, ‘Uni’ and Tary1, uni means one and tary means ‘rule’. Unitary Government is a single integrated government with all executive powers. The Constitution vests all powers in the Central Government.

Definition : A.V. Dicey “A Unitary government is the habital exercise of supreme legislative authority by one central power”.

Question 37.
How many organs of the government are there ? Name them.
There are three organs of government.
They are:

  1. Legislature
  2. Executive and
  3. Judiciary.

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