AP Inter 1st Year Civics Model Paper Set 5 with Solutions

A diverse collection of AP Inter 1st Year Civics Model Papers Set 5 caters to various learning preferences and styles.

AP Inter 1st Year Civics Model Paper Set 5 with Solutions

Time: 3 Hours
Maximum Marks: 100

Section – A (3 × 10 = 30)

Note :

  • Answer any three of the following questions is not exceeding 40 lines each.
  • Each question carries 10 marks.

Question 1.
What do you mean by Equality ? What are its types ?
Meaning and explanation of Equality : The concept of Equality is of great significance in the study of political science. The term ‘Equality1 became an important slogan and inspired the people of France, America, Russia and India during their struggle for freedom and independence.

The term “Equality” implies absolute equality of treatment.
In Political science, the term ‘Equality’ refers to a state which grants its citizens equality before the law and equal opportunities to develop their personality.

Definitions :

  1. “Equality means first of all the absence of special privilege. In the second place “It means that adequate opportunities are laid open to all”. – H.J. Laski
  2. “Equality implies equal rights for all the people and abolition of special rights and privileges”. – Barker

Types of Equality: There are many types of equality. They may be analysed in the following.
1) Natural equality : This kind of equality existed in the “State of Nature”. It is based on the principle that nature has created everyone as equal. But natural equality exists no where in the world. Nature has not created all people with the same qualities. So by natural equality we generally mean the provision of equal opportunities to all. It implies the abolition of man-made and artificial inequalities.

2) Social equality : Social equality stands for equality of status and absence of class distinctions and discrimination. It exists when no individual is made to suffer on account of his caste, class, colour, creed, race etc. For instance, the constitution of India does not recognize caste or class distinctions. In fact it has opposed the practice of un- touchability.

The following elements help in achieving and maintaining social equality.

  1. Special privileges should not be allowed by the state to any citizen.
  2. The government shall adopt and implement a uniform policy in the fields of education, employment, administration and legislation.
  3. People must have a broad outlook with the qualities of tolerance, sacrifice, honesty etc., in social and religious affairs.
  4. Citizens of a state should maintain harmonious relations with their fellow citizens.
  5. People should not use their name of the caste, sect or religion at the time of forwarding petitions.
  6. Inter caste marriages should be encouraged.

3) Economic equality : It means the elimination of inequalities in wealth, income and property. The basic needs like food, shelter and clothing must be available to all. In the opinion of Laski, “Economic equality means the abolition of unfettered and irresponsible will in the industrial world”. In Barker’s view, “Economic equality is partly a matter of status and partly a matter of property and income”.

4) Political equality : Political equality is an important kind of equality. It means that all citizens will have equal access to the avenues of authority. All of them possess the same political rights, an equal voice in government and equal right to hold public offices. Political equality prevails and flourishes when all citizens were provided with political rights like Right to vote, Right to contest elections, Right to make petitions and Right to criticism. That means political equality flourishes only in democratic countries.

5) International equality : International equality means that all the states are treated equally irrespective of their geographical, economic or military composition. According to this element all nations of the world are equal whether they are large or small. For instance, the United Nations have extended equal dignity and status to all the nations in its Charter. International Equality reflects the traits of humanism. It emphasizes the peaceful settlement of disputes between the nations.

AP Inter 1st Year Civics Model Paper Set 5 with Solutions

Question 2.
“Rights and Responsibilities are inter-related”. Analyse.
There is a close relationship between rights and responsibilities. The two are considered as the two sides of a same coin. Rights are incomplete in the absence of responsibilities. Rights imply responsibilities are entitled to rights. The two are inseparable. They are compared to the life and breath of living beings.

Essential conditions of social life : Many political writers described that rights and responsibilities are the two essential conditions of social life. They are like the shield and soul of the people in the state. Every right will have a corresponding responsibility. Similarly, every responsibility has a corresponding right. The two propositions when put together will help to a great extent the individuals to lead a happy, honourable, harmonious and prosperous life in society.

For instance, the right to religion allows every individual to embrace a religion of his choice. It also enables him to preach, profess and propagate his religious beliefs in society. At the same time that person has a corresponding responsibility in religious matters. He has to avail this right to religion in consonance with the religious beliefs of his fellow citizens. He has the responsibility of not interfering in the religious matters of others under any circumstances.

Social Progress : It is imperative that everyone should enjoy his rights in such a way that his activities contribute to social progress. He should be aware of his rights and perform his responsibilities in a judicious manner. His actions should always be carried on with the ultimate aim of promoting social progress.

Another postulate regarding the affinity between rights and responsibilities relates to the order in the State. One should utilize his rights in such a way that his actions should in no way disrupt the peaceful atmosphere in the society. Similarly, he should abide by the rules and regulations imposed and implemented by the government authorities from time to time. He should always carry as his activities in various spheres of life without affecting the rights of others in society. It implies that he must obligue and respect others in the enjoyment of their rights. He should not interfere in other affairs under any circumstances. This reveals the relationship between rights and responsibilities.

Rights and Responsibilities do not have separate or distinct ends. They are always present together like shadow and man.

One’s right automatically becomes other’s responsibility and vice versa. The two rights and responsibilities – together make a person as a good citizen.

Responsibilities lack meaning in the absence of rights. The reason is that there will be no responsibilities without rights. Similarly, there will be no rights without responsibilities. Hence, rights and responsibilities go hand in hand. Together the two concepts enable the peace, progress and harmony in human society.

Question 3.
Define Justice and describe various types of Justice.
Introduction : Justice is a dynamic concept in the contemporary society. It has received the attention of several political philosophers, social reformers, economic thinkers and psychological experts. They have considered the basic instinct of individuals belonging to the various sections residing in several parts of the world. Besides, almost all states, irrespective of their political and economic doctrines, have been striving to achieve justice and to establish a society based on justice.

Meaning : The word “Justice” is derived from a Latin word “Jus” which means “to bind”

Definitions: We may advance some of the definitions of Justice in the following lines.

  1. Plato: “Justice is giving to everyman his due. It is a combination of reason, courage, appetite and will in terms of the state”.
  2. Aristotle: “Justice is no other than each and every individual in society discharging his moral duties.”
  3. Caphalous : “Justice means speaking the truth and paying one’s debts.”
  4. Polymarchus : “Justice means to help friends and harm enemies.”
  5. Barker : “Justice means a combination arid coordination of political values.”

Types of Justice : There are different types of Justice. They relate to Natural, Social, Political and Legal spheres. Let us analyse these types of Justice.

1) Natural Justice : Natural Justice is based on the notion that every person in the world possesses some rights for availing the natural resources. Natural resources provide support to the life of each and every creature on earth. As the human beings are the only rational creatures, it is their responsibility to see that natural resources have to be judiciously exploited. Human beings must keep in mind the requirements of future generations in this regard.

2) Social Justice : Social Justice envisages a balance between rights of individuals and social control. It facilitates the fulfillment of the legitimate expectations of the individuals under the existing laws It ensures several benefits and extends protection to the individuals against the interference or encroachment from others in society. It is consistent with the unity and the integrity of the nation. It fulfills the needs of the society.

Social Justice, enforces the principle of equality before taw. It also ensures, eradication of social evils like poverty, unemployment, starvation, disease etc. It also extends protection to the downtrodden and weaker sections of society. Ultimately it provides those conditions essential for the all round development of individuals.

3) Political Justice: Political Justice symbolises political equality. It implies provision of political rights to all the adult citizens in a state. It facilitates free and fair participation of the citizens in the governance of the country. It is manifested to the full extent in times of elections. It allows the citizens for their active participation in day- to-day administration. It is based on the premise that everyone is counted as one and none for more than one. It may be noted that political justice prevails in the State when the following conditions are prevalent

  1. Rule of law
  2. Independent Judiciary
  3. Popular elections to the representative bodies
  4. Political parties
  5. Freedom of press and assembly
  6. Democratic rule etc.

4) Economic Justice : Economic Justice refers to the absence of economic discrimination between individuals on irrational and unnatural grounds. It stands for the equal treatment of individuals irrespective of differences in the income, money, wealth, property etc. In its positive aspect, it implies payment of adequate emoluments to the workers strongly abhorring disparities in the distribution of wealth and incomes.

It does not allow exploitation of the weaker sections. It sees that nobody is deprived of the basic necessities of life. It hints out that everyone must be provided with adequate food, clothing, shelter and other minimum needs. It conceives just economic order in the society. It supports the principle “from each according to his ability, to each according to his needs.”

5) Legal Justice : Legal Justice is manifested in the laws of the state. It is supplemented by customs of the society. It is embodied in the Constitution and legislative enactments in a state. It determines the legal contours of Justice. Legal Justice basically has two implications. Firstly, it implies that there is just application of the laws in society on the basis of rule of law. There will be no discrimination between individuals in the applications of law Secondly, laws are made in consonance with the principles of natural justice.

AP Inter 1st Year Civics Model Paper Set 5 with Solutions

Question 4.
Define Citizenship. Describe the methods of acquiring citizenship.
Introduction : Citizenship is a privilege of individual residing in democratic states. People fed that citizenship enables them to lead a happy, honourable and harmonious life in the state. Citizenship instills the feelings of patriotism, sacrifice, broad outlook etc., among the people.

Definitions :
Prof. Laski : “Citizenship is one’s contribution of instructed judgement to the public good”.

T.H. Marshall: “Citizenship is a status bestowed on those who are full members of a community. All who possess this status are equal with respect to the rights and duties with which the state is endowed”.

Methods of acquiring citizenship : There are two methods of acquiring citizenship.
They are :
i) Natural
ii) Naturalization. The two methods may be studied as follows.

i) Natural Citizenship : Natural Citizenship is one which is acquired by the persons without specific application or request to the authorities. It comprises three elements.
They are :
i) Blood relationship (Jus Sanguinis)
ii) Soil (Jus Soil) and
iii) Mixed principle.

i) Jus Sanguinis – (Kinship or Blood Relationship): This type of Citizenship denotes acquiring citizenship by kinship or blood’ relationship. Under this method birth within the territory of a state entitles a person to have citizenship. Every person is treated as a citizen of the state where he is born. According to Jus Sanguinis, a child acquires the citizenship of the parents irrespective of its place of birth. Here blood relationship alone determines the Citizenship. Ex : A child born to the Indian parents will be treated as Indian citizen irrespective of its place of birth.

ii) Jus Soil (Land or Place of Birth): Jus Soil means acquisition1 of citizenship by the principle of place of birth. According to this method, citizenship is determinedly the place of birth and not by parentage. It is the place of birth which determines citizenship. However this method is not more popular in modern times. It was popular in the Middle Ages when citizenship was associated with land. At present, however, this practice is observed exclusively in Argentina.

iii) Mixed Principle : Under this method citizenship is granted by following either of the two principles of Jus Sanguinis and Jus Soli. Many states adopted both these principles. Ex : In Britain, France and United States, the above two principles are employed simul- taneously. In this context there may arise duplication of citizenship. Ex : A child born to British parents in the United States becomes an american citizen according to the practice of Jus Soli. The same child becomes a citizen of Britain according to the principle of Jus Sanguinis. In such a case, the child is given option to choose one of its citizenship, after becoming a major.

ii) Naturalised Citizenship : Citizenship may also be acquired through naturalization. According to this method, an alien will become a citizen after fulfilling certain conditions. These conditions vary from state to state. Some of them may be summed up as follows.

1) Residence : An alien who resides in a state for a prescribed period automatically become its citizen. Residence in any part of the state is a must for an alien. The period of residence varies from state to state. For instance it is 5 years in Britain and United States and 10 years in France respectively.

2) Choice: The children of alien parents could receive citizenship of the state according to their option and choice.

3) Application : An alien in a state may apply for the citizenship of that state. Then the government of that state considers his application on its merits. It grants citizenship to him with or without some conditions. These prescribed conditions refer to a minimum period of residence, good moral character, financial capability and knowledge of one of the national languages. Besides, an alien must take an oath of allegiance before he assumes the citizenship of another state.

4) Fixed Assets : An alien who buys some portion of land or acquires some fixed property can acquire citizenship in a state.

5) Service (Public or Private) : An alien who serves in the government of a state or in a private recognised enterprise could become the citizen of that state. He is entitled for such citizenship if he serves in the public or private authorised departments. He may also be given Citizenship if the renders meritorious service in another state.

6) Marriage : An alien woman acquires citizenship of a state when she marries the citizen of that state. In some countries when a person marries an alien, Citizenship of either of the husband or wife is acquired. For instance, a British lady will acquire Indian citizenship if she marries an Indian citizen. Japanese women do not lose their citizenship even if they marry persons of alien states. The alien person on the other hand, acquires the citizenship of Japan if he marries a Japanese lady.

In this context it may be noted that an alien who receives the citizenship of the new state, he will have to forego his native citizenship. In other words no one is allowed to have dual citizenships simultaneously.

Question 5.
Define Democracy and analyse the merits and demerits of democracy in contemporary politics.
Introduction : Democracy is an important and most significant form of government. In Democracy the people rule themselves either directly or indirectly through their periodically elected representatives.

Meaning : The term Democracy is derived from two greek words namely, “Demos” and “Kratos”. Demos means people and Kratos mean rule (or) authority.

Definitions :

  1. Abraham Lincoln : “Democracy is a government of the people, by the people and for the people”.
  2. Lord Bryce: “Democracy is that form of government in which the ruling power of the state is vested not in a particular class but in the members of the community as a whole”.
  3. J.R. Seely : “Democracy is a government in which every one has a share”.

Merits : Democracy has the following merits,
a) Efficient government : Prof. Gamer described democracy as an efficient and effective government. The government in democracy carries all its activities efficiently and effectively both in normal times and emergencies.

b) Upholds individual liberties : Democracy is the only government that upholds individual liberties. It guarantees certain civil rights to the people thereby providing an opportunity for them to become ideal and responsible citizens.

c) Assures equality : Democracy assures equality of individuals in political and economic spheres. The people living in democratic nation enjoy all the political. Civil and economic rights and privileges equally without any discrimination.

d) Educates the masses: Democracy is described as a laboratory for a large scale experiments in public education. The masses in democracy are educated and enlightened through public meetings, election campaigns, distribution of pamphlets, etc.

e) Promotes patriotism : The people in a democracy think that the country is their own property. When the country is in difficulties, they come forward to protect the interests of the nation. Therefore democracy develops patriotic spirit in the people.

f) Develops sense of responsibility : J.S. Mill says that “democracy promotes a better and higher form of national character than any other policy whatever”. Since it is a rule by themselves, the people behave with a great sense of responsibility.

g) Training school for citizenship : De Tocqueville, a French writer said that democracy serves as a training school for citizenship. Democracy promotes intellectual and moral qualities among the people.

Demerits of democracy in contemporary politics :
1. Rule by ignorants : In democracy, many of the legislators elected by the people and ministers nominated by the executive head may tend to be incompetent, inexperienced and amateur.

2. Favours the rich : Most of the modern democracies are capitalist oriented. Elections in this system will become a farce. Industrialists, retired senior administrative personnel and disgruntled politicians use all the malpractices to capture the power to meet their selfish ends.

3. Majority rule – a myth : Now-a-days, things have changed swiftly because of the drastic changes which include globalisation, education, enlightenment, press, radio, news channels, face book, twitter and other social media. Consequently, coalition governments became the order of the present day. Ex : United Front (UF), National Democratic Alliance (NDA), United Progressive Alliance (UPA) etc., in India.

4. Lacks ethical values : Political parties in the contemporary era in almost all the countries create a bad environment by encouraging corrupt, dishonest and unethical notions and practices. Money power will have a profound influence in democracy on voters, legislators, administrative authorities and even on judges.

5. Expensive one: In democracy, expenditure on electioneering and propaganda require huge funds. As a result only wealthy and affluent persons would contest and come out successful in elections. The poor,worthy and service oriented persons cannot bear the expenditure to contest in the elections. Hence the democratic government cannot accomodate these sections and the people have to lose the valuable services of such great service oriented, honest and efficient intellectuals.

AP Inter 1st Year Civics Model Paper Set 5 with Solutions

Section – B (8 × 5 = 40)

Note :

  • Answer any eight of the following questions is not exceeding 20 lines each.
  • Each question carries 5 marks.

Question 6.
What are the various Modem definitions of political science ?
Modern definitions of Political Science can be classified into two sub-categories. They are discussed as follows.
i) Political Science – A study of power :

  1. Lasswell and Kaplan : “Political Science as an empirical discipline, is the study of shaping and sharing of power”.
  2. William A.Robson : “Political Science is primarily concerned with the power in society”.

ii) Political Science – A study of Allocation of values :

  1. David Easton : “Political Science is concerned with the authoritative allocation of values for a society”.
  2. Hill Man : “Politics is the Science of who gets what, when and why”.

Question 7.
Point out the differences between state and society.
Introduction : State and society are two important human organizations. MacIver described that blood relationship (kinship) created society and society in turn led to the state.

State : State is a people organized for law within a definite territory.

Society : Society is a group of men brought together by a system of common ideas, interests and aspirations.

Differences between State and Society : Inspite of close relationship, state and society differ from one another.
This may be informed through the following table.

State Society
1. State is a political organization. 1. Society is a social organization.
2. State regulates only the external relation of men in society. 2. Society controls both internal and external activities of men in society.
3. State has definite territory. 3. Society has no definite territory.
4. State has sovereignty. 4. Society has no sovereignty.
5. Membership of the state is compulsory. 5. Membership of the society is voluntary.
6. State is permanent. 6. Society is not permanent.
7. Laws of the state are uniform. 7. Rules of society are not uniform.
8. State came into existence after the origin of society. 8. Society is much older institution than the state.

Question 8.
Briefly explain the essential elements of Nationality.

  • Purity of Race : Racial purity helps in the formation and strengthening of the idea of Nationality.
  • Common Language: People having common language can easily form into a single nation. Common language promotes common literature, which brings about persons like-mindedness nearer.
  • Common Religion : Religion is a bond of national unity. In the past, religion played an important role in the consolidation of the nation.
  • Geographical Unity : Geographical unity is considered to be very essential for the formation oftiationalities and nations.
  • Common History : Common history is considered as an important element of Nationality. It invokes an inspiration among the people and binds them together.
  • Common Culture : Culture is its broad sense means a way of life. It is reflected through certain common elements like dress, customs, conventions, food habits, religious beliefs, ethical values etc. They easily develop into a single nation.
  • Common Political Aspirations : People living together in a territory will be imbibed with common political aspirations. These in turn play a dominant role in the emergence of a nation.

Question 9.
In what way are law and morality related to each other ?
Law and morality are considered as the basic pillars of social institutions. The two elements play a vital role in the maintenance of peace, security and prosperity in society. They have different versions with common objective. They are inter-related and interdependent. Some political philosophers believed that law and morality are one and the same. In this context R. G. Gettle stated thus “Law and Morality were both identical. Both arise as a result of habits and experience in primitive social life when moral and social lives were not separate. Inspite of certain differences, Law and Morality are meant for common welfare. Both deal with individual as a moral agent of society. Ex : In ancient India the term “Dharma” denotes both law and morality. The Greek political philosophers identified the two as same.

Question 10.
Describe the different aspects of liberty.
Meaning : The term Liberty is derived from the Latin word “LIBER” which means free from restraints.
Definition : “Liberty means the absence of restraints”. – J.R. Seeley

Aspects of Liberty : Liberty has two aspects – Negative and Positive.
1) Negative aspect : Liberty, in its negative aspect, implies absence of restrictions. Individuals enjoy freed.om only when there are no restraints on their freedoms. However, some considered this aspect as not realistic. They asserted that unrestrained liberty was possible in a pre-social state. It is neither feasible nor practicable for enjoying freedoms by the individuals in modern times.

2) Positive aspect : Liberty in its positive aspects denotes a situation in which individual is free to do according to his wishes and allowing others the same in his case. To say in other words liberty is the power which should not cause harm to others. T.H. Green, an idealist philosopher, propounded this aspect of liberty. He stated thus “Liberty is the power of doing or enjoying something that is worth doing or worth enjoying in common with others”.

Question 11.
Write the objectives and classification of Human Rights.
Definition of human rights : “Human Rights are Freedom to all irrespective of place, sex, religion, language etc. 7 U.N.O.

Objectives of human rights : The following are the various objectives of human rights.

  1. Provision of independence to the people against discrimination.
  2. Freedom from poverty.
  3. Freedom for availing the latent abilities of individuals.
  4. Freedom from fear.
  5. Freedom of protection.
  6. Freedom from injustice.
  7. Freedom of speech and expression.
  8. Freedom of protection.
  9. Freedom of association.
  10. Freedom for carrying one’s activities on dignified lines.
  11. Freedom against exploitation.

Classification of human rights : Human rights are broadly classified into two categories (i) Civil and Political Rights (ii) Economic, social and cultural rights. In the first category, civil rights occupy a prominent position. Civil rights include several rights like right to life, liberty and security of individuals, freedom from slavery and torture, equality before law, protection against arbitrary custody etc. They also assure the individual for a right to fair trial, right to own property, right to marriage etc. Besides they comprise several freedoms like freedom of speech, expression, association, assembly, movement, residence etc. Political rights include right to vote, right to contest as candidates in elections to various offices, right to assume power, right to criticise’ right to petition etc.

The second category of human rights include several economic, social and cultural rights. Economic rights include right to work, right to equal payment of salaries to equal work, right to form and join in trade unions, right to adequate standard of living etc. Social rights include right to education, right to health, right to entertainment etc. Respecting the civilization, arts, culture etc., are included in the category of cultural rights.

AP Inter 1st Year Civics Model Paper Set 5 with Solutions

Question 12.
How is Social Justice pursued ?
Social justice remains a mirage in a society having glaring disparities between different sections. Justice can’t be understood in absolute terms. Justice along with equality is a strong desire of every one in modern society. A society dominated by unjust relations between different sections can not achieve progress. In such a society the disadvantaged and deprived sections develop frustration in their day to day life. This leads to mutual conflicts between the majority poor and a few affluent persons. Hence a just society which ensures basic minimum facilities to all to lead happy and secure life is a must. In such a society adequate opportunities will be provided to various sections for realizing their goals.

Though many agree with the veiw that the State should lend a helping hand to the disadvantaged sections of the society to attain some degree of parity with others, there remains a disagreement over the methods pursued for achieving the goal. Extensive debate has taken place in the contemporary society. Such a debate revolved on the topic of inviting open competition through Free State organisation or private enterprises. But the fact lies in between the two. Both state and private involvement are necessary for achieving social justice in a state.

Question 13.
How is Citizenship is lost ?
Citizens loose their citizenship under the following conditions :
1) Renunciation : A person is deprived of his citizenship, if he wishes to become the citizen of another state. One will lose the citizenship of one’s parent state and may become the citizen of a foreign state by naturalization. In India, the Constitution prescribes that a person who voluntarily acquires Citizenship of any other state will no longer be an Indian citizen.

2) Marriage : Generally a woman loses her citizenship when she marries an alien. However some states allow retention of citizenship. For instance in Britain, thlre is an option to retain British citizenship who marries an alien.

3) Accepting Foreign Service: A person may lose his citizenship when he enters into the service of another state. If a person accepts a permanent job in the government of a foreign state, he foregoes the citizenship of his native state.

4) Obliging Foreign Decorations or Titles : When a citizen obliges to receive foreign decorations or titles, it may lead to the forfeiture of his Citizenship.

5) Prolonged Absence : Prolonged absence irvthe native state beyond a certain period may lead to the loss of citizenship. In some states like France and Germany citizens who are absent themselves from their native country for more than ten years will lobse their citizenship.

6) Treason or Crime : Involvement of a citizen in a serious crime and subsequent proof of his action will also lead to the loss of citizenship. Especially those persons who directly or indirectly participate or extend assistance to anti-state, anti-social and anti-governmental activities, will loose their Citizenship by a special notification to that effect.

7) Desertion from Army : Desertion from army thereby jeopardizing the security of a state leads to the forfeiture of citizenship.

Question 14.
Write briefly about representative democracy.
Indirect democracy is also known as representative democracy. According to J.S. Mill “Representative democracy is one in which the whole people or some numerous portion of them exercise the governing power through deputies periodically elected by themselves”. This type of democracy for the first time, came into vogue in England. Later on, France, Germany, Italy and India adopted this system. At present representative democracy is prevalent in several countries like India, France, Japan, America, Canada, Holland, Sri Lanka etc. Under this system, citizens who attained the age of maturity elect their representatives in times of elections.

These representatives will assume the deliberative and legislative powers of the government on behalf of the people. They formulate different legislative policies in accordance with the wishes and aspirations of the electorate. They are responsible and responsive to the people for their acts. They continue in office only for a definite period of time. They can be removed by the citizens in times of elections when they fail to promote the welfare of the people. Hence in indirect democracy the people rule the country not themselves directly but indirectly through the periodically elected representatives.

Respond to public opinion. Indirect or representative democracy is again classified into two types namely. 1. Presidential 2. Parliamentary. In Presidential system all executive powers are exercised by a single executive head. Ex : In USA where there is Presidential system all executive powers are concentrated in the office of the President. On the other hand, in Parliamentary system executive powers are exercised by some ministers under Prime Minister’s leadership and in the name of the President. The ministers along with the Prime Minister are responsible for their acts to the Parliament. Ex : U.K., India, Australia etc.

Question 15.
Narrate any three conceptions of secularism.
Conceptions of Secularism : Secularism has many conceptions. Some of them may be explained as below :
1) Secularism a humanistic and atheistic philosophy : Secularism has several personal, cultural, political and social implications. It was humanistic in nature as it seeks the well being of human beings. It assigns importance to the saying that man is the measure of all things. It neither supports nor opposes religion. It allows individuals with the discretion of choosing and following their religion.

2) Political and social dimension : Secularism has certain political and social dimensions. It stands for the achievement of autonomous political and social order having naturalistic and materialistic perspectives. It allows religious freedom in the matters of family, association and society.

3) Liberty and democracy : Secularism serves as a beneficial element of liberty and democracy. It also acts as the basis of liberal democracy. It strongly opposes the existence, continuance and survival of authoritarian religious leaders and institutions. It advocated democracy and decentralisation of governmental powers.

Question 16.
Is India a secular state ? Justify this with some examples.
It is asserted that India is a Secular State. The addition of the word ‘Secular’ to our Constitution by 42nd Amendment in 1976 proves this fact. Even from the beginning of the Constitution, India is a Secular State. Several provisions of the Indian Constitution also prove this fact.

1) Article 15(1) holds that no discrimination shall be observed in the provision of employment opportunities in government. But certain sections of the people may be allowed some special privileges.

2) Article 17 states that practice of untouchability is a crime and illegal.

3) According to Article 25, every Indian citizen enjoys the freedom to profess and propagate the religion of his own choice. It also allows them to donate their properties for the religious purposes.

4) Article 26 guarantees every person to

  1. Establish and maintain religious and charitable institutions.
  2. Manage his/her religious affairs.
  3. Own and acquire moveable and immovable properties and
  4. Maintain such properties in accordance with law.

5) Article 27 states that state shall not impose any tax upon the individual for the development of religions. It also implies that state shall not impose taxes on the basis of the religious principles of individuals.

6) Article 28 forbids the imparting of religious teachings in the educational institutions which are wholly or partly aided by the government. No religious prayers or discussions shall be conducted in educational institutions.

7) Articles 28 and 29 mention that no admissions shall be made on religious basis in educational institutions which are financed wholly or partly by the state. No individual on religions grounds shall be denied the right to admission into different academic courses in educational institutions.

8) The people belonging to minority communities shall be provided with right to protect and promote their language, culture and script by establishing and maintaining their own educational institutions. From the above points, we may say that India is a Secular State.

AP Inter 1st Year Civics Model Paper Set 5 with Solutions

Question 17.
Explain the merits and demerits of unwritten constitution.
Unwritten Constitution : Unwritten constitution is one whose provisions are not written in a single document. It includes several customs and traditions which are manifested in the form of the laws.
The Constitution of Britain is the best example of unwritten constitution.

Merits :

  1. An unwritten constitution paves the way for progressive legislation. It has development orientation.
  2. It always undergoes the process of evolution as it aims at ‘bettering the best’.
  3. It gives no scope for revolutions and such other agitations. It concedes to the popular demands.
  4. It can be amended according to the popular needs and aspirations.
  5. Its provisions are elastic in nature. So, changes in the constitution are easily made.

Demerits :

  1. An unwritten constitution may be changed frequently by the party in power for its political gains. This affects the political stability of the nation.
  2. It fails to protect the rights and freedoms of people.
  3. It is more informal in nature.
  4. It is also not suitable for federal states.
  5. An unwritten constitution is considered as a play tool of judges. This may lead to judicial manipulations.
  6. It is prone to frequent amendments.
  7. It is not suitable to democratic states.

Section – C (15 × 2 = 30)

Note :

  • Answer any fifteen of the following questions in not exceeding 5 lines each.
  • Each question carries 2 marks.

Question 18.
Justify the statement that political science is an Art.
Political Science is an ART : According to political writers like Barker, J.S. Mill, Laski and others Political Science is considered as an ART on the following grounds.

  1. Political Science has no absolute and universal laws like physical sciences.
  2. The phenomena studied inPolitical Science are interpreted in various ways depending upon the context and situation. So it lacks uniformity in the interpretation of various concepts.
  3. Political Science is not evolutionary in nature as its concepts are not developed in a steady, regular and continuous manner.
  4. Scientific methods of observation and experimentation are not applicable in political science.
  5. Complete objectivity and detachment are not found in the case of various phenomena in Political Science.
  6. Political Science gives no scope for accuracy.

Question 19.
What do you mean by Association ?
Association is a group of people united for a specific purpose or a limited number of purposes. Associations are of various types viz., social, economic, political, cultural, religious etc. It’s membership is optional. A person can be a member of a numer of associations.

Question 20.
Does a state require international recognition ?
It implies recognition of the sovereign status of a state by other states. This feature has gained currency due to the immerse technological and scientific advancements. The man of today is not only a member in his state but also a member of the entire world at large. Today majority of the countries of the world are joining in one or the other international associations to obtain certain benefits. The United Nations Organisation is the best example for such associations. It’s membership is considered to be necessary for attaining perfect and complete statehood. Whenever a new state comes into existence, it’s recognition by other states and by UN is considered as very essential.

Question 21.
Write any two differences between Nation and State.



1. Nation is an independent political community or an integral part of a MultiNational state. 1. State may consist of the people of the same Nation or many nations.
2. Nation is Historical and cultural in its evolution. 2. State is a political and Legal structure.

Question 22.
Write any three sources of Law.
Professor T.E. Holland mentioned six sources of law.
They are :

  1. Customs
  2. Religion
  3. Judicial decisions
  4. Scientific commentaries
  5. Equity and
  6. Legislature.

AP Inter 1st Year Civics Model Paper Set 5 with Solutions

Question 23.
What are scientific commentaries ?
These are the works of great Jurists. The views of the Jurists expressed in their works also act as an important source of law. The Jurists collect and compare the past customs and laws with those of the present. While doing so, they point out the defects in the existing laws and suggest ways for thier improvement. The views of the Jurists however, do not become laws. But, they become laws when they are recognised by the courts. Ex: The writings of Coke and Black Stone in the U.K. are held in high esteem. The same is the position of Story and Kent in America and the Vignaneswara and Apararka in India.

Question 24.
Mention the names of four types of Liberty.
Liberty is of in the following types namely :

  1. Natural liberty
  2. Civil liberty
  3. Economic liberty
  4. Political liberty and
  5. National liberty.

Question 25.
Explain Natural Equality.
Natural equality : This kind of equality existed in the “State of Nature”. It is based on the principle that nature has created everyone as equal. But natural equality exists no where in the world. Nature has not created all people with the same qualities. So by natural equality we generally mean the provision of equal opportunities to all. It implies the abolition of man-made and artificial inequalities.

Question 26.
Natural Rights.
Natural rights are those rights which are enjoyed by men by birth. Men enjoyed these rights even before the origin of civilised society. The society and the state recognized and respected these rights. John Locke, who propounded the theory of natural rights, claimed that rights are pre-social and pre-political in nature. He cited the right to life, right to liberty and right to property as the basic natural rights’. The state cannot deprive men of these rights.

Question 27.
How are economic elements considered as a source of Justice ?
Economic elements are considered to be one of the important sources of Justice. These elements attained significance with the advent of industrial revolution which led to the vast economic disparities between different sections of the people.

Question 28.
Write about any two conditions for acquiring Natural Citizenship.
The two conditions for acquiring natural citizenship are :

  1. Jus Sanguinis (Right of blood) : According to Jus Sanguinis, A child acquires the citizenship of the parents irrespective of its place of birth.
  2. Jus Soli (Right of Soil) : According to this method, citizenship is determined by the place of birth and not by parentage.

AP Inter 1st Year Civics Model Paper Set 5 with Solutions

Question 29.
List out the devices of Direct Democracy.
The devices of Direct Democracy are :

  1. Referendum
  2. Initiative
  3. Plebiscite
  4. Recall

Question 30.
What is D.E.Smith’s definition of Secularism ?
D.E. Smith stated three connotations of secularism.
They are :
a) Liberty and freedom of religion
b) Citizenship and the right to equality, non-discrimination and neutrality
c) Separation of state from religion.

Question 31.
Mention any four factors that led to the spread of secularism.
a) People’s native attitude towards superstitions
b) Spreading rational thinking
c) Spreading democratic values and institutions
d) Advancement in science and technology.

Question 32.
Define Public Law.
Public law regulates the relations between state and individuals. It explains the basic structure and functions of the State. It covers the basic rights of the individuals against the interference of the State. It must be followed by the citizens. Its violation leads to punishment.

Question 33.
Is it possible to achieve complete Economic Liberty ?
It is possible to achieve complete economic liberty if the following measures are taken.

  1. Provision of minimum wages.
  2. Guarantee of the right to work.
  3. Protecting the workers from unemployment, sickness and other types of insecurity.
  4. Giving representation to the workers in the management of the industries.

Question 34.
Write about independent judiciary as a safeguard of Liberty.
Independent judiciary: An independent and impartial judiciary is another safeguard of individual liberty. The judiciary will uphold the constitution and keeps the government accountable to the people. It prescribes various safeguards for protecting the fundamental rights of citizens. The judges in higher courts will deliver justice to the people on fair, free and impartial manner. Prof. Laski, while recognizing this safeguard, stated that good governance depends upon the effective functioning of judiciary.

AP Inter 1st Year Civics Model Paper Set 5 with Solutions

Question 35.
Significance of Human Rights.
The United Nations reaffirmed that the people and governments of every state must strive for respecting individual freedoms and human rights. The concerned authorities and agencies of the United Nations held several international conferences and invited internationally acclaimed intellectuals, jurists and heads of states for eliciting their valuable opinions on extending human rights to every section of human communities throughout the world.

Question 36.
How does rule of law promotes secularism ?
Secularism accords recognition to the concept of Rule of Law. A state following secularism will enact laws and implements them keeping in view the interest of not a particular religious denomination, the people belonging to all religious denominations. It will not take into account the religious dogmas while making laws. Similarly, it makes no discrimination between the people on the grounds of religion in the matters of legislation enforcement and adjudication of laws.

Question 37.
Define Democracy.
Meaning : The term ‘Democracy’ is taken from two Greek words ‘Demos’ and ‘Kratos’. ‘Demos’ means people and ‘Kratos’ means rule of authority. Hence democracy means the rule of the people or the authority of the people. Democracy is defined by different political scientists in different ways.

Those are :

  1. Abraham Lincoln defines “Democracy is a government of the people, by the people and for the people”.
  2. Seeley defines “Democracy is a government in which everyone has a share”.

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