AP Inter 1st Year Civics Model Paper Set 4 with Solutions

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AP Inter 1st Year Civics Model Paper Set 4 with Solutions

Time: 3 Hours
Maximum Marks: 100

Section – A (3 × 10 = 30)

Note :

  • Answer any three of the following questions is not exceeding 40 lines each.
  • Each question carries 10 marks.

Question 1.
Discuss the relation between, nation and nationalism.
Introduction : The concepts of nation and nationalism have become important components in the domain of International Relations and political science respectively. Both inspired the people of several countries with patriotic feelings prior to the two world wars.

Meaning : The word “Nation” and “Nationalism” are used as complementary to each other.

The word Nation is derived from a latin word “NATIO” which means “BORN” (BIRTH) or “Common descent”.

Nation : “Nation is a Nationality which has organised itself into a political body, either independent or desiring to be independent”.

Nationalism : “Nationalism is a state of mind in which the su-preme loyalty of the individual is felt to be due to the nation state.”

Relationship between “Nation” and “Nationalism”:

  1. Nationalism is a psychological feeling prevailing in the minds of the people.
  2. People through the feeling of nationalism sacrifice all their interests for the sake of their nation.
  3. The strong desire of the people of a nationality to emerge as a nation state is nationalism.
  4. The seeds of nationalism originated in the cultural renaissance of Europe in 16th century.
  5. In French Revolution (1789) pushed the nationalism further in Europe and took to the great heights.
  6. The Vienna congress (1815) further supported the cause of nationalism in Europe.
  7. The Italian and German unifications boosted the cause of nationalism.
  8. The American war of Independence (1774) was a great leap forward in spreading nationalism among the people.
  9. The much publicized theory of Nation’s self-determination of .Woodrow Wilson in 1917 was further generated hope among the people of the world to form Nation States.
  10. The two world wars completed to redraft the European map with the formation of Nation-states.
  11. The Freedom struggles and national aspiration of the people of the Asia, Africa and Latin America are fulfilled with the formation of Nation states immediately after the end of ll-World war.
  12. The Indian national movement from 1885 to 1947 had fulfilled with the formation of India and Pakistan as an Independent States.

In this regard, we can understand that the feeling of nationalism when it acquires unity and independence. It becomes a Sovereign Nation.
There were some writers who treated the two terms as synonymous.

AP Inter 1st Year Civics Model Paper Set 4 with Solutions

Question 2.
Define law. Describe the relation between law and liberty.
Definition :

  1. “Law is the command of the sovereign”. – John Austin
  2. “Law is a general rule of external action enforced by the sovereign political authority” – T.E.Holland

Relation between Law and Liberty : Law and Liberty are the two fundamental concepts in political science. These two concepts are interdependent. There is no unanimity of opinion among political philosophers in regard to the relation between Law and Liberty.

There are two different schools which gave contradictory opinions. One school of thought believed that Law and Liberty are antithetical to each other. The other school of thought believed that Law and Liberty are inter-related to each other. Let us explain the two versions.

i) Law and Liberty are Antithetical: Individualists like J.S. Mill, Herbert Spencer, David Ricardo, Adam Smith believed that law always restricts the activities of human beings. The State is the principal agency which destroys individual’s liberties. It will not allow the citizens to take active part in the affairs of State and Government. Similarly, it becomes a hurdle in performing the economic activities of the Nation. The recent liberalised economic policies in many countries changed the pace of their economies. These policies enabled the people to freely participate in economic activities. Therefore, individualists believed that state is a necessary evil institution. They stated that the Government is the best which governs the least. Therefore Law and Liberty are antithetical to each other.

ii) Law and Liberty are complementary : The socialists and communists believed that Law and Liberty are complementary to each other. They regarded the State as a welfare agency. Law imposes restrictions essential for the social welfare. It is a fact that the capitalist class exploited the working class. The State shall eradicate the evils of exploitation by making necessary laws.

The idealists believed that State is a Moral Agency. The State represents the general will of the community. Individuals will be free when they obey the laws of the State. Moussolini gave a slogan “Nothing against the State”. Law always protects the interests of the people. Therefore both the concepts of Law and Liberty are complementary to each other.

Question 3.
Define liberty and describe various types of liberty.
Introduction : The concept of liberty is of great significance in the study of political science. Liberty is an essential condition without which man cannot develop his personality. It became a source of inspiration to the millions of the people living all over the world.

Meaning: The term liberty is derived from the Latin word “LIBER” which means free from restrictions.

Definitions : Liberty is defined in many ways by different political thinkers. Some of them are cited below :

  1. “Liberty means the absence of restraints”. – J.R. Seeley
  2. “Liberty is the freedom of an individual to express without any external hindrance to his personality”. – G.D.H. Cole
  3. “Liberty means the positive power of doing or enjoying something worth doing or enjoying”. – TH. Green
  4. “Liberty is the eager maintenance of that atmosphere in which-men have the opportunity to be at their best selves”. – H.J. Laski

Types of liberty : Liberty is, of different types. Some of them may be described in the following :
1. Natural liberty
2. Civil liberty
3. Economic liberty
4. Political liberty
5. National liberty.

1) Natural liberty: Natural liberty is understood as uncontrolled freedom or absolute freedom. It is believed that natural liberty existed in the pre-social and pre-state human life. According to this concept there were no rules and regulations except the laws of nature in the past. All persons were free to do anything according to their will and capacity. But this type of liberty is not possible in civilised society. Liberty is not a licence. Natural liberty is equal to anarchy. The weak cannot enjoy liberty without law.

2) Civil liberty : Civil liberty is also known as personal liberty. It relates to the individual’s freedom in his life as a member of the social organisation. It is enjoyed by the individuals in the society. Civil liberty is the essential pre-requisite to the existence and survival of human beings. It enables them to lead happy, honourable and civilised life in the state. So it is a must to every one. Civil liberty is manifested in several rights. These include
A) Right to Life
B) Right to Work
C) Right to Property
D) Right to Religion
E) Right to Speech, Expression, Assembly, Movement and Residence etc.

3) Economic liberty : Economic liberty means the right of everyone to earn his livelihood. Laski described economic liberty as the security and opportunity to find reasonable significance in earning one’s daily bread. Economic liberty ensures everyone freedom from want and fear, hunger and starvation, unemployment and insufficiency. Economic liberty denotes freedom from want or insecurity of economic nature. Without economic liberty democracy is meaningless. It will also be secured by adopting the following measures.

  1. Provision of minimum wages.
  2. Guarantee of the right to work.
  3. Protecting the workers from unemployment, sickness and . other types of insecurity.
  4. Providing adequate leisure.
  5. Giving representation to the workers in the management of the industries.

4) Political liberty : Political liberty facilitates the citizens to take part in the political affairs of the state. Laski regarded political liberty as the power to be active in the affairs of the state. Gilchrist considered that political liberty & synonymous with democracy. Leacock described political liberty is constitutional liberty or liberty to choose one’s own government. Political liberty is confined to the citizens alone. It is positive in nature. Political liberty provides several rights in political matters.
These include

  1. right to vote,
  2. right to contest as candidates in elections,
  3. right to hold public office,
  4. right to criticism etc. Political liberty will be realized only in a democratic system.

5) National liberty : National liberty implies the freedom and independence of the state. It also denotes the sovereignty of the state. Every state enjoys this liberty and remains free from the political domination of other states. This liberty is essential for the progress of nation in all spheres. It was manifested in several countries since ancient period. Many countries made efforts for securing this type of liberty. The Greeks fought a war of independence against the Turks. Similarly the Indian masses under the leadership of Mahatma Gandhi waged a non-violent struggle to secure national freedom from the British rule.

AP Inter 1st Year Civics Model Paper Set 4 with Solutions

Question 4.
Define rights. Describe the civil and political rights.
Introduction : Rights are the essential conditions for the development of the personality of individuals. They are upheld by the laws of the state. They are regarded as a power or privilege which the law invests in a person. They are treated as the sum total of the opportunities meant for enhancing one’s personality. Individuals can not achieve progress in the absence of the rights.

Definitions of rights : Political scientists have defined the term ‘Right’ in several ways. Some of their definitions are explained below :

  1. T.H. Green: “Rights are those powers claimed and recognized as contributory to the common good.”
  2. H.J. Laski: “Rights are those conditions of social life without which no man can seek in general to be himself at his best.”

Civil rights : Civil rights aim at providing basic conditions for individuals to lead a happy and dignified social life. These rights are considered vital for a civilized society. Social life becomes impossible in their absence.

Individuals in a civilized society enjoy the following Civil rights. These are :
1) Right to life : This is the most important civil right. T.H. Green considered it as the most fundamental civil right. This right provides security to the individual’s life, individuals can not lead their lives in the absence of this right. This right is based on the premise that the life of an individual is valuable not only to himself, but also to the society and the state as a whole. Hence it prescribes at large the state to extend protection to the life of individuals.

2) Right to liberty : This right enables individuals to have freedom in various walks of life. It makes their lives worth living. It enables them to develop their personality in various spheres. It includes various freedoms such as freedom of movement, speech, expression, thought, residence etc.

3) Right to equality : This right implies that individuals are equal before law. It forbids discrimination on the basis of one’s caste, colour, creed, education, region, race, religion, wealth etc. It enables equal treatment to all persons. It provides scope for uniform application of laws. It enables equal opportunities to all persons in social, economic and political fields.

4) Right to property : This right enables every individual to acquire, enjoy, donate or inherit the property. It is essential to the individual for securing higher standards of living. This right is crucial for the growth of individual’s personality.

5) Right to family : Family is a fundamental social institution. This right enables individuals to maintain family relations in society. Consequently, individuals will have freedom to marry persons of their choice. They will have choice to procreate children and rear their offspring.

6) Right to religion : This right allows the individuals to have freedom to practice, propagate and profess any religion of their choice. Every.individual is at liberty to preach or practice the religious doctrines as they like. The secular states provide religious freedoms to their citizens.

7) Right to contract : This right provides freedom to every individual to enter into contract or legal arrangements with others regarding his life, property and work. It regulates the two parties in carrying their contracts in letter and spirit.

8) Right to education: In the modern era education is regarded as vital to every individual. Uneducated and innocent individuals cannot play an active role in public affairs. Similarly, illiterate persons cannot fully make use of their abilities. Education and literacy enable the people to understand the problems of the society and policies of the government. This right guarantees a minimum level of education to every citizen in democratic states.

9) Right to form associations and unions : This right enables individuals to form associations and unions for realising some specific objectives. Individuals may join, continue or keep away from the membership of associations according to their will and pleasure.

10) Right to constitutional remedies : Civil rights are meaningless in the absence of this right. This right is essential to every individual for safeguarding his rights. This right empowers a person (who was deprived of his liberty due to the intervention or manhandling by others including the government) to seek justice and relief from the concerned judicial organizations. The affected individuals are authorised to approach an appropriate court for correcting such imbalance. In this regard the higher judicial organizations issue several writs and effectively check such tendencies. These writs are in the form of Habeas Corpus, Mandamus, Prohibition, Quo-warranto and Certiorari etc.

Political rights : Political rights are those rights which enable the individuals to participate in the political affairs of the state.

The following are the important political rights :
1) Right to vote : Right to vote is the most important political right enjoyed by the citizens in modern democratic states, it serves as a powerful weapon for adult citizens in choosing their representatives to various legislative bodies. It makes them as real sovereign. All the citizens are entitled to this right without any discrimination based on creed, colour, language, race, region, religion, sex etc. However, persons such as aliens and minors are deprived of this right.

2) Right to contest in elections : This right empowers the citizens to contest as candidates to various legislative bodies in the state. Especially this right enables those, who have political sagacity, enthusiasm and dynamic nature, to actively participate in the political dynamics of the state. As a result, it increases political enthusiasm among the citizens. Such an element is considered as a base of democratic polity.

3) Right to hold public offices : This right provides opportunities to the citizens to hold various public offices for a definite period. It gives no scope for exclusion of citizens or conferring special privileges to some at the cost of others. This helps the citizens to exercise authority in a dignified manner.

4) Right to petition : This right enables the citizens to forward petitions denoting their requirements or grievances. It is considered as a vital political right in the modern state. The citizens could be able to find solutions to their immediate or long pending issues by bringing them to the notice of the government through this right. It also helps the public authorities to know the grievances of the people and attend to them properly and promptly.

5) Right to criticism : This right gives opportunity to the citizens to criticize the various public policies and programmes. It also enables them to highlight the omissions and commissions of the leaders, and administrative personnel at various levels. It also gives scope for the citizens to render positive and constructive criticism about the on goings in the government from time to time. Ultimately it keeps the administrative authorities and policy makers to be vigilant in discharging their obligations.

AP Inter 1st Year Civics Model Paper Set 4 with Solutions

Question 5.
Explain the merits and de-merits of democracy.
Introduction : Democracy is an important and most significant form of government. In Democracy the people rule themselves either directly or indirectly through their periodically elected representatives.

Meaning : The term Democracy is derived from two greek words namely, “Demos” and “Kratos”. Demos means people and Kratos mean rule (or) authority.

Definitions :

  1. Abraham Lincoln : “Democracy is a government of the people, by the people and for the people”.
  2. Lord Bryce: “Democracy is that form of government in which the ruling power of the state is vested not in a particular claims but in the members of the community as a whole”.
  3. J.R. Seely : “Democracy is a government in which every one has a share”.

Merits : Democracy has the following merits.
a) Efficient government : Prof. Garner described democracy as an efficient and effective government. The government in democracy carries all its activities efficiently and effectively both in normal times and emergencies.

b) Upholds individual liberties : Democracy is the only government that upholds individual liberties. It guarantees certain civil rights to the people thereby providing an opportunity for them to become ideal and responsible citizens.

c) Assures equality: Democracy assures equality of individuals in political and economic spheres. The people living in democratic nation enjoy all the political. Civil and economic rights and privileges equally without any discrimination.

d) Educates the masses : Democracy is described as a laboratory for a large scale experiments in public education. The masses in democracy are educated and enlightened through public meetings, election campaigns, distribution of pamphelts, etc.

e) Promotes patriotism : The people in a democracy think that the country is their own property. When the country is in difficulties, they come forward to protect the interests of the nation. Therefore democracy develops patriotic spirit in the people.

f) Develops sense of responsibility : J.S. Mill says that “democracy promotes a better and higher form of national character than any other policy whatever”. Since it is a rule by themselves, the people behave with a great sense of responsibility.

g) Training school for citizenship : De Tocqueville, a French writer said that democracy serves as a training school for citizenship. Democracy promotes intellectual and moral qualities among the people.

h) A rational government : Democracy is based on the principle that no man is infallible. It adopts a process of discussion and criticism which serves as necessary correctives to the abuse of power. Besides, they safeguard the rational nature of the political system.

Demerits : Democracy has the following demerits.
a) Rule of Ignorance : Plato criticised democracy as a rule of ignorance. Aristotle called it a perverted form of government. Anybody can become a ruler in this system and no special qualifications are prescribed for voters or rulers.

b) Favourable to rich : The ruling political party in democracy depends on the rich people for their financial support at the time of elections. Therefore it becomes an obligation to the party in power to make laws which are favourable to the rich.

c) Quality is ignored : The votes in democracy are counted not weighted. Everything is decided according to majority opinion. The quality of majority cannot always be correct. Thus quantity is given greater importance than quality.

d) Methods of representation is not correct : The present method of representation in democracy is known as territorial representation. It is not suitable to the requirements of the modern society.

e) Principle of equality abused : In the name of equality, everybody is treated as an equal to the other irrespective of his vvorth. Ex : Right to vote is given to all without knowing their political ability.

f) No moral values : In democracy, there is great scope for bribery and corruption. Red tapism, party defections and the role of money in elections are the best examples of its corrupt nature.

g) Expensive one : Democracy is an expensive government. In the name of elections, political parties and government spend chuge amounts of public money. Even in developing countries like India, crores and crores of rupees are wasted for elections.

Section – B (8 × 5 = 40)

Note :

  • Answer any eight of the following questions is not exceeding 20 lines each.
  • Each question carries 5 marks.

Question 6.
Write about the traditional definitions of political science.
Traditional definitions of Political Science may be classified under three sub categories. They are mentioned as follows.

i) Political science – A study of the state : Political philosophers like J.W.Garner, R.G.Gettle, Appadovai and others defined Political Science as a study of the state.

  1. J.W.Garner : “Political Science begins and ends with the state”.
  2. R.G.Gettle : “Political Science is a historical investigation of what the state has been, an analytical study of what the state is and a politico-ettical discussion of what the state should be”.
  3. Appadorai : “Political Science is concerned with the con-ditions.essential for the existence and development of the state”.

ii) Political Science – A study of the Government : Some political philosophers like Stephen Leacock, J.R.Seely and others defined Political Science as a study of the government.

  1. Stephen Leacock : “Political Science deals with the Government”.
  2. J.R.Seely : “Political Science investigates the phenomenon of the Government”.

iii) Political science – A study of the State and the Government : Political philosophers like Paul Janet, Gilchrist, Catlin and others defined political science as a study of the state and the government.

  1. Paul Janet : “Political science is that part of social science which treats the foundations of state and the principles of the government”.
  2. R.N.Gilchrist: “Political science is a study of foundations of the state and the government”.
  3. Catlin : “Political science is a study of the political activities of individuals and various organs of government”.

AP Inter 1st Year Civics Model Paper Set 4 with Solutions

Question 7.
Describe the relationship between state and society.
introduction : State and society are two important human organizations. Maclver described that blood relationship (kinship) created society’,and society in turn led to the state.

State : State is a people organized for law within a definite territory.

Society : Society is a group of men brought together by a system of common ideas, interests and aspirations.

Relationship between State and Society : The relationship between state and society can be discussed as follows.

  • Common features : State and society have some common features. The two sometimes include practically. The same persons most cases, a vast majority of the members of a society may be included in the same state.
  • Complementary : State and society go hand in hand. They help each other. Social progress depends upon the progress of the state. The working of the state is influenced by social customs and traditions.
  • Synonymous : State and society were considered as the same in the past. In the beginning the Greek Philosophers and later the Idealists viewed the city states and society as synonymous.
  • Inter related : State regulates the external conduct of individuals in society through laws. It provides a broad frame work of social order. Society nourishes the state with economic, cultural, religious and humanitarian activities. Thus state and society cannot be completely separated as different entities.

Question 8.
What are the differences between nation and nationality ?
The concepts of nation and nationality laid formidable foundations to several modern political systems.
Nation : “Nation is a nationality which has organised itself into a political body either independent or desiring to be independent”.

Nationality : “Nationality is a population having the common bonds of race, language, religion, traditions and history”.

Differences between Nation and Nationality :

Nation Nationality
1. Nation is a political concept. 1. Nationality is a psychological feeling.
2. Nation is always a politically organised state. 2. Nationality is always an unorganised and flexible feeling.
3. Nationality is not independent. 3. Nationality is not independent.
4. There can’t be a nation without nationality. 4. There can be nationality without a nation.
5. People who form into a nation should obey the laws of the state. 5. Untill the people of nationality form into a nation. There can’t be constitutional laws. But they oblige certain common rules in their best interests.

Question 9.
“Law and Liberty are Antithetical” analyse this statement.
Individualists likeJ.S.Mill, Herbert spencer, David Ricardo, Adam Smith believed that law always restricts the activities of human beings. The state is the principal agency which destroys individual liberties. It will not allow the citizens to take active part in the affairs of state and government. Similarly, it becomes a hurdle in performing the economic activities of the nation. The recent liberalised economic policies in many countries changed the pace of their economies. These policies enabled the people to freely participate in economic activities. Therefore, individualists believed that state is a necessary evil institution. They stated that the government is the best which governs the least. Therefore law and liberty are antithetical to each other.

Question 10.
Explain about any three safeguards of liberty.
Introduction : The concept of liberty is of great significance in the study of political science. Liberty is an essential condition without which man cannot develop his personality. It became a source of inspiration to the millions of the people living all over the world.

Meaning : The term liberty is derived from the Latin word ” LIBER” which means free from restrictions.

Definition :

  1. “Liberty means the absence of restraints”. – J.R. Seely
  2. “Liberty means the positive power of doing or enjoying something worth doing or enjoying”. – T.H. Green

Safeguards of liberty : Liberty is the most cherished ideal of human beings. Hence, it must be safeguarded in the larger interest of the society and state. In this context, the following safeguards of liberty are worth mentioning.

1) Democratic rule : Democratic rule is considered as a heaven to liberty. Liberty flourishes only in a democratic State. The reason is that democratic state extends protection to individual’s liberties through various laws. It creates a conducive atmosphere for the individuals to enjoy their liberties freely and impartially.

2) Written and rigid constitution : A written and rigid constitution is considered the most important safeguard of individual liberty. Such a constitution incorporates the various freedoms of individuals in several provisions. It acts as a custodian of people’s rights and liberties.

3) Independent judiciary : An independent and impartial judiciary is another safeguard of individual liberty. It prescribes various safeguards for protecting the fundamental rights of citizens. The judges in higher courts will deliver justice to the people on fair, free and impartial manner.

AP Inter 1st Year Civics Model Paper Set 4 with Solutions

Question 11.
What are the features of human rights ?
Human rights are the amenities required for the basic existence of human beings. They are available to all persons irrespective of caste, creed, community, religion, region, language etc. The constitu¬tional and ordinary laws in democratic states recognize these rights. The various governments in democratic states will take appropriate steps for providing human rights to their people.

Definition : “Human rights are freedom to all irrespective of place, sex, religion, language etc.” -U.N.O.

Features of human rights : There are some common features of human rights. They may be mentioned as follows :

  1. Human rights are enjoyed by all the people without discrimination.
  2. These rights are universal.
  3. They treat all people alike.
  4. They regard individuals basically as human beings.
  5. They encompass some fundamental principles of humanity.
  6. They have no geographical limitations.

Almost all members of the united nations organisation have affirmed to follow the human tights in theory.

Question 12.
Point out any three sources of Justice.
Meaning : The word “Justice is derived from a Latin word “JUS” which means “to bind”.

Definition : “Justice means speaking the truth and paying one’s debts’

Sources of Justice :
Earnest Barker gives four sources of Justice. They are mentioned as below.
1. Nature
2. Ethics
3. Religion
4. Economic elements

1) Nature : The Greek stoics perceived nature to be a source of Justice. Their perception of nature was a combination of moral philosophy and religious beliefs. For them nature, God and reason were inseparable entities. They pointed out that men who lived according to nature shared similar views of reason and God. They viewed that nature embodies three things. They are : 1. Man should be free, 2. Man should be treated equally, 3. Man should be associated with his fellow beings by the common element of reason. These three things in turn have remained as a basis for liberty, equality and fraternity in society in course of time.

2) Ethics : Idealist thinkers like Plato, Emanuel Kant, Thomas Hilly Green, Earnest Barker and other propounded that justice originated from ethical practices. They pointed out that values accepted by the society over a period of time have inturn become the impersonal source of positive Justice. The state enforced this positive justice in course of time.

3) Religion : Religion is regarded as another source of Justice. This source has been in force since medieval age. The church authorities held the notion that it was God who propounded the notions of justice, right and wrong. God, through church, initiated the concept of justice as the rule of the theory of might. Thomas Acqinas a philosopher turned saint believed that the church is the manifestation of religion. According to him, life based on laws is the best one. The king must lead the people in right directions. He must exercise his authority in compliance to the church authority.

Question 13.
How is naturalized citizenship acquired ?
Naturalised citizenship : Citizenship may also be acquired through naturalization. According to this method, an alien will become a citizen after fulfilling certain conditions. These conditions vary from state to state. Some of them may be summed up as follows.

1) Residence : An alien who resides in a state for a prescribed period automatically become its citiz&i. Residence in any part of the state is a must for an alien. The period Of residence varies from state to state. For instance it is 5 years in Britain and United States and 10 years in France respectively.

2) Choice: The children of alien parents could receive citizenship of the state according to their option and choice.

3) Application : An alien in a state may apply for the citizenship of that state. Then the government of that state considers his application on its merits. It grants citizenship to him with or without some conditions. These prescribed conditions refer to a minimum period of residence, good moral character, financial capability and knowledge of one of the national languages. Besides, an alien must take an oath of allegiance before he assumes the citizenship of another state.

4) Fixed assets : An alien who buys some portion of land or acquires some fixed property can acquire citizenship in a state.

5) Service (Public or Private) : An alien who serves in the government of a state or in a private recognised enterprise could become the citizen of that state. Fie is entitled for such citizenship if he serves in the public or private authorised departments. Fie may also be given Citizenship if the renders meritorious service in another state.

6) Marriage : An alien woman acquires citizenship of a state when she marries the citizen of that state. In some countries when a person marries an alien. Citizenship of either of the husband or wife is acquired. For instance, a British lady will acquire Indian citizenship if she marries an Indian citizen. Japanese women do not lose their citizenship even if they marry persons of alien states. The alien person on the’ other hand, acquires the citizenship of Japan if he marries a Japanese lady.

Question 14.
Describe the various types of democracy.
Democracy is mainly classified into two types, namely
1. Direct or Pure democracy
2. Indirect or Representative Democracy.

These two types are’explained as below :
Direct or Pure Democracy :
1) Direct democracy : Direct democracy is said to prevail when people themselves directly express their views and participate in the deliberative and administrative affairs of the government. People in direct democracy assume all powers of making laws. They formulate laws at a meeting attended by all the people. Direct democracy is prevalent in Switzerland. In Switzerland, the citizens living in some small cantons meet together on a Sunday in April or May to elect their representatives and to make laws.

2) Indirect or Representative democracy: Indirect democracy is also known as representative democracy. According to J.S. Mill “Representative democracy is one in which the whole people or some numerous portion of them exercise the governing power through deputies periodically elected by themselves”. This type of democracy for the first time, came into vogue in England. Later on, France, Germany, Italy and India adopted this system. At present representative democracy is prevalent in several countries like India, France, Japan, America, Canada, Holland, Sri Lanka etc.

Under this system, citizens who attained the age of maturity elect their representatives in times of elections. These representatives will assume the deliberative and legislative powers of the government on behalf of the people. They formulate different legislative policies in accordance with the wishes and aspirations of the electorate. They are responsible and responsive to the people for their acts. They continue in office only for a definite period of time. They can be removed by the citizens in times of elections when they fail to promote the welfare of the people. Hence in indirect democracy the people rule the country not themselves directly but indirectly through the periodically elected representatives.

AP Inter 1st Year Civics Model Paper Set 4 with Solutions

Question 15.
List out the factors that led to the spread of secularism.
It is believed that the following factors have led to the spread of secularism in general in many parts of the world.

  1. People negative attitude towards superstitions
  2. Spread of rational thinking
  3. Spread of democratic values and institutions
  4. Advancement in science and technology
  5. Awareness about the evils of religion
  6. Impact of social legislation
  7. Need for secular approach
  8. Social and economic betterment of individuals
  9. Influence of secular political leadership
  10. Importance to international peace and order .

The above factors have profoundly influenced secularism in modern period.

Question 16.
What do you mean by theocracy ?
Theocracy technically means rule by God. In practice, it implies rule by priests. It originated from the theory that all legitimate powers emanate from God. It found expression in the priestly order having the sole right to interpret laws as was the case in Ancient Judiasm and Hinduism. It is also exhibited in the present day Islam. The state having an official religion is called a Theocratic State. In such states all other religions or religious activities are either prohibited or discouraged or highly regulated or controlled by the State.

All the official and important offices of the State are either appointed or elected only those from the official religion. State officially participates in the religious affairs and rituals. State provides funds to the religious propagation and to the restoration or construction of the places of worship. Religious co-existence and religious tolerance are said to be minimal in these States. The religious teachers and the religious rituals play a pivotal role in State affairs. Religious personal law is predominant in the enactment of laws and in the way of life of the people. Even in food habits and dress, the importance of religions dictates the public life. States like Pakistan, Saudi Arabia and so many other Islamic states are the best examples of a theocratic state.

Question 17.
What are the merits of parliamentary government ?
Merits : The merits of the parliamentary government may be explained as follows :
1) Co-ordination between the legislature and executive organs: Executive is chosen from the legislature in this system. Hence, there is greater opportunity for good co-ordination and harmonious relationship between the legislature and executive organs.

2) No scope for despotism : All the powers of the state will be equally distributed between the Prime Minister and the Council of Ministers. The executive is responsible to the Parliament and it can be removed by ‘no confidence motion’. Hence, there is no scope for the executive to become despotic in this Government.

3) Scope for distribution of powers : Parliamentary government stands for the distribution of political power and administrative authority. The constitutional machinery of this system allocates governmental powers among several persons who have commitment, commonsense, public spirit etc.

4) Easy to form alternative government : Parliamentary government enables easy formation of government. Normally, that party or those parties which secure majority seats in the lower house of the legislature, during general election, will be able to form the government. Similarly, changes in governmental policies could be initiated on easy lines. Whenever the party in power resigns or is removed from power, the opposition parties will make efforts to form alternative government.

5) Adequate representation : Parliamentary government provides adequate representation to the various sections and regions. The executive and legislative branches in this system comprise members representing various walks of life. No one including the minorities is ignored in this system. As a result, it embodies national spirit and unity among the people.

Section – C (15 × 2 = 30)

Note :

  • Answer any fifteen of the following questions in not exceeding 5 lines each.
  • Each question carries 2 marks.

Question 18.
How does political science teach the qualities of good citizenship ?
Political science imparts the best civic knowledge by explaining the qualities of good citizenship like cooperation, sacrifice, patriotism, obedience to the state and to the laws, forsightedness, social service etc. It trains the people to become ideal citizens.

Question 19.
What do you understand by society ?
The term “Society” refers to the interaction of complex norms among the people. It can be defined as a group of men brought together by a system of common ideas, interests and aspirations. It is a voluntary association. It’s membership is optional. It originated much earlier than the state.

Question 20.
Define nation.
Nation is derived from two Latin words – “Nates” and “Natio” which means birth. Lord Bryce defined it as “A Nation is a nationality which has organised itself into a political body, either independent or desiring to be independent. “It means that the people of country are called as a national if they are united by characteristics of nationality and have a strong desire for political independence or if they are politically free.

AP Inter 1st Year Civics Model Paper Set 4 with Solutions

Question 21.
What do you mean by administrative law ?
Administrative law plays an important role in the smooth functioning of administration. It regulates the administrative relations between the authorities and people. It helps the government to bring reforms in the sphere of development and welfare programmes. Administrative law brings discipline among the personnel in the gzovernment. Now it is implementing in France and India.

Question 22.
What is the role of legislature in law making process ?
This is the most important and direct soruce of law. Most of the laws now-a-days are made by the legislatures. Hence, legislatures are regarded as “Law-making Factories”. They frame new laws, amend the existing laws and if necessary, abolish old laws. The other sources of law have been replaced by the legislature. This, however, does not mean that they have no role to play influencing laws. While framing laws, the legislators bear in mind the customs, religious practices, judicial decisions etc.

Question 23.
What do you know about positive aspect of liberty ?
Positive aspect : Liberty in its positive aspects denotes a situation in which individual is free to do according to his wishes and allowing others the same in his case. To say in other words liberty is the power which should not cause harm to others. T.H. Green, an idealist philosopher, propounded this aspect of liberty. He stated thus “Liberty is the power of doing or enjoying something that is worth doing or worth enjoying in common with others.

Question 24.
What is equality ?
According to H.J. Laski “Equality means first of all the absence of special privilege. In the second place “It means that adequate opportunities are laid open to all”.

Question 25.
Mention the measures adopted for achieving economic equality.
The following measures are adopted for achieving Economic Equality.

  1. Provision of adequate means of employment.
  2. Implementation of land reforms.
  3. Providing housing facilities to the poor.
  4. Provision of free education to the poor.
  5. Provision of minimum wages etc.

Question 26.
Classify rights.
Rights are broadly classified into three categories namely,
(i) Natural rights
(ii) Moral rights and
(iii) Legal rights.

Legal Rights inturn classified into
(i) Civil rights
(ii) Political rights and
(iii) Economic rights.

Question 27.
Give some examples of responsibilities.
The following are some examples of Responsibilities :

  1. Payment of Taxes
  2. Cooperation in law and order matters
  3. Honest exercise of Franchise etc.

AP Inter 1st Year Civics Model Paper Set 4 with Solutions

Question 28.
What is corrective justice ?
Corrective justice comprises restoring each person the lost rights due to the infringement of his rights by others. Aristotle viewed this justice as essentially negative which is concerned with voluntary commercial transactions like hire, sale and furnishing of property. In brief, corrective justice embodies moral excellence of individuals.

Question 29.
What does the term “JUSSOLI” mean ?
Jus Soli means acquisition of citizenship by the principle of place of birth. According to this method, a child acquires the citizenship of a State, where it borns. It is the place of birth which determines citizenship. This method is not more popular in modern times. At present, this method is observed exclusively in Argentina.

Question 30.
Write any four conditions that are essential for the success of democracy.

  1. Sound system of education
  2. Independent press
  3. Strong opposition
  4. Social equality

Question 31.
Write about origin of seculansm.
The term ‘Secular’ in Latin language means ‘of this world’. It implies the meaning ‘the opposite of religion’. In modern times, the term was used at first by G.J. Holyoake, a British writer in 1851.

Question 32.
What is the importance of secular state ?
The concept of secular state became more important in recent years. Factors like spread of democratic spirit, science and technology, development of transport and communication facilities, rational thinking, welfarism etc., led to the growing importance of secular state.

Question 33.
List out any four characteristics of liberty.
Characteristics of liberty : The following are the important characteristics of liberty.

  1. Liberty is a dynamic concept. Its interpretation varies according to time, place and wishes of the people.
  2. Liberty always opposes political subjugation, imprisonment and slavery.
  3. It always aims at realizing the aspirations of the individuals.
  4. Liberty always means absence of irrational restraints and presence of favourable conditions.
  5. It is the product of rights.

Question 34.
Rigid constitution
Rigid constitution is one whose provisions cannot be changed easily. In this system the constitutional amendment methods are different from those of ordinary laws. There will be a special procedure for amending the provisions of the rigid constitution. The rigid constitution will have firmness due to its special procedures of amendment. Ex : United States.

AP Inter 1st Year Civics Model Paper Set 4 with Solutions

Question 35.
Write any three merits and demerits of flexible constitution.
Merits of Flexible Constitution are :

  1. It is elastic and adaptable in nature. Its provisions can be easily amended from time to time.
  2. It is responsive and responsible to the popular wishes.
  3. It protects the people from the dangers of revolutions.

Demerits of the Flexible Constitution are :

  1. It is not suitable to the federal states, having rigid constitution.
  2. It is not suitable to democratic states.
  3. It is highly unstable.

Question 36.
Write the meaning of Aristocracy.
Aristocracy is a noble form of Government in which few persons by virtue of their birth, talent, status, wealth etc., will act as rulers. When these persons exercise their powers with selfish motivations, such a Government is known as oligarchy.

Question 37.
What do you understand by Parliamentary Government ?
Governments are classified into 1) Parliamentary and 2) Presidential on the basis of the relationship between the legislature and the executive. A parliamentary system of government is one in which the executive is a part of the legislature and held accountable to it. It is also called ‘Cabinet’ or ‘Responsible form of Government’. It originated first in Britain and later was adopted by many countries including India.

Definition : Prof. Garner defined parliamentary government as “a system in which the real executive the cabinet or ministry – is (i) Immediately and legally responsible to the legislature for its political policies and acts and (ii) Immediately or ultimately responsible to the electorate.”

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