AP Inter 1st Year Civics Model Paper Set 2 with Solutions

A diverse collection of AP Inter 1st Year Civics Model Papers Set 2 caters to various learning preferences and styles.

AP Inter 1st Year Civics Model Paper Set 2 with Solutions

Time: 3 Hours
Maximum Marks: 100

Section – A (3 × 10 = 30)

Note :

  • Answer any three of the following questions is not exceeding 40 lines each.
  • Each question carries 10 marks.

Question 1.
Discuss the significance of the study of Political Science.
The study of Political Science is very useful and valuable. It’s knowledge is indispensible to the rulers as well as the ruled. Its significance or importance is analysed as follows.

i) Information about the State : The primary aim of studying Political Science is to inculcate knowledge of the state. It’s origin, nature, structure and functions. Knowledge of the state is of great significance to every one.

ii) Knowledge of Government and Administration : The Administrators, political leaders and diplomats who manipulate the affairs of the state require a sound knowledge of political science in order to perform their functions with efficiency. Political Science creates awareness about the organisation, control and coordination of Administrative machinery. It also covers the study of local self-governments like Gram Panchayats, Mandal Parishads, Zilla Parishads, Municipalities, Corporations etc.

iii) Provides information about Democratic values : Political Science provides a good knowledge and awareness about the Democratic values like Liberty, Equality, Fraternity, Justice and Rights.

iv) Makes Democracy Successful: At present Democracy is in vogue in several countries of the world. It is the best form of government. People in democracy elect their representatives and are ruled by them. Political Science explains the significance of Franchise. It educates the common men on the conditions essential for the successful functioning of democratic government.

v) Awareness about rights and responsibilities : The study of Political Science makes people conscious of their rights and responsibilities. It also enables the citizens to be familiar with their rights and responsibilities and the interrelationship between the two.

vi) Teaches the Qualities of Good Citizenship : Political Science impacts the best civic knowledge by explaining the qualities of good citizenship like cooperation, sacrifice, patriotism, obedience to the state and to the laws, social service etc.

vii) Knowledge about World Affairs : The study of Political Science enriches individual’s knowledge on World Affairs. Political Science is useful for observing ancTynderstanding the contemporary world affairs. It’s study is useful for proper analysis and solution of various National and International Issues.

viii) Provides knowledge about International Organizations : The study of Political Science promotes the spirit of internationalism. It provides a good knowledge about International Organizations like United Nations Organisation, SAARC, ASEAN, NAM, OPEC etc.

ix) Develops Political Awareness : The study of Political Science is of great importance in the sense that it imports best political knowledge. It explains about the structure and functioning of different political institutions like State Government, Political parties, Occupational Associations.

x) Explains the need for Co-Operation and Toleration : National Integration has become a crucial factor in several states. Many obstacles like communalism, iinguism, sub-national regional and sub-regional feelings etc., have been threatening the national integration in these states. In this context, the study of Political Science teaches about the need for adjustment, cooperation and toleration.

xi) Knowledge of Political Science is Indispensable : The study of Political Science helps everyone to understand the mechanism and constitutional system of modern governments. It creates awareness about the contemporary issues in national and international spheres. If creates awareness about Rights and Responsibilities. It’s study is essentially indispensable for the people in developing nations like India. As the majority people in these states are poor, ignorant, illiterate and sentimental in their out look.

AP Inter 1st Year Civics Model Paper Set 2 with Solutions

Question 2.
Explain MacIver’s classification of Laws.
Meaning : The English word ‘Law’ originates from the ancient Teutonic word ‘Lag’ which means “something that lies fixed or uniform”.

Definitions :

  1. “Law is the command of the sovereign”.- John Austin
  2. “Law is a general rule of external action enforced by the sovereign political authority”. – T.E. Holland

Classification of Law : Many political philosophers gave their classifications on laws in different ways of them the classification given by Maclver is mention worthy.

1) Natural Law : Natural Law is also known as divine law. It is abstract. It is not created by any human agency. It is considered as the gift of nature based on metaphysical power. It refers to the use of reason to analyse human nature. It is written in the heart of human beings by the finger of God.

2) Positive Law : Positive Law is created by the human Agency. It is also known as political law. It is framed on the basis of the existing social and political conditions. It is sanctioned by the Sovereign Political Authority. Violation of positive law leads to punishment.

Positive Law is further classified into two categories.
A) National Law and
B) International Law.

A) National Law : National Law is also known as law of the state. It confines to the territorial limits of the state. It is enforced by the sovereign, is applicable to all the people in a state. It is enforced by the sovereign, is applicable to all the people in a state.

B) International Law : International Law is one which regulates the cordial relations among various states. National Law is further divided into two categories
i) Constitutional Law and
ii) Ordinary Law.

i) Constitutional Law : It is a basic law of any state. It defines the political system. All the basic principles of administration are included in this type. All other laws in the state are subservient to constitutional law. It is framed by the constituent assembly.

ii) Ordinary Law : It determines the relation between the state, administration and people. These laws are framed by a group of officials authorised by law. Ordinary law is further divided into
A) Public law and
B) Private law.

A) Public Law : It regulates the relation between people and state. These laws are formulated by state for society.
B) Private Law : It regulates the relation between citizens. It protects the rights of citizens. It is also called civil law.
Public Law is further divided into
i) Administrative Law and
ii) General Law.

C) Administrative Law : It regulates the administrative relations between the authorities and people. Administrative law brings discipline among the personnel in the government. Now it is implementing in France and India.

D) General Law : It deals with the private affairs of individual in relation to the state. It covers the laws relating to marriage, divorce, contract etc. General Law is further classified into
i) Statutory law
ii) Common law.

i) Statutory Law : Statutory law is the greater part of modern law. It is enacted by the Legislature of a state for the day to day administration. Ex : The Parliament in India, the Congress in United States and Parliament in Britain formulate this type of law.

ii) Common Law : Common law is a customary law. It is a product of customs and traditions which are popular among the people. The courts accept common law as a part of the legal system.

AP Inter 1st Year Civics Model Paper Set 2 with Solutions

Question 3.
What do you mean by Liberty ? What are the safeguards of Liberty ?
Introduction : The concept of Liberty is of great significance in the study of political science. Liberty is an essential condition without which man cannot develop his personality. It became a source of inspiration to the millions of the people living all over the world.

Meaning : The term liberty is derived from the Latin word ” LIBER” which means free from restrictions.

Definition :

  1. “Liberty means the absence of restraints”. – J.R. Seeley
  2. “Liberty means the positive power of doing or enjoying something worth doing or enjoying”. – T.H. Green

Safeguards of liberty : Liberty is the most cherished ideal of human beings. Hence, it must be safeguarded in the larger interest of the society and state. In this context, the following safeguards of liberty are worth mentioning.

1. Democratic rule: Democratic rule is considered as a heaven to liberty. Liberty flourishes only in a democratic state. The reason is that democratic state extends protection to individual’s liberties through various laws. It creates a conducive atmosphere for the individuals to enjoy their liberties freely and impartially.

2. Written and rigid constitution : A written and rigid constitution is considered the most important safeguard of individual liberty. Such a constitution incorporates the various freedoms of individuals in several provisions. It acts as a custodian of people’s rights and liberties’.

3. Independent judiciary : An independent and impartial judiciary is another safeguard of individual liberty. The judiciary will uphold the constitution and keeps the government accountable to the people. It prescribes various safeguards for protecting the fundamental rights of citizens.

4. Rule of law : Rule of law is another safeguard of liberty. It is prevalent in many states like Britan, India, United States etc. Rule of law safeguards individual liberties in three ways. Firstly, it treats all individuals as equal. Secondly, it makes arrangement for the application and enforcement of uniform laws throughout the state. Thirdly, it exercises restraints on the executive against the use of arbitrary powers.

5. Fundamental rights : Provision of fundamental rights will safeguard rights to a great extent. Citizens enjoy their liberties, without restraints when these rights are enshrined in the constitution. Fundamental rights enable the citizens to develop their talents and realise their personality in various walks of life.

6. Economic equality : Economic equality too acts as an important safeguard of individual liberties. It implies provision of adequate conditions for the people to come out of the evil effects of hunger, poverty, and unemployment etc. Liberty becomes real when there exists economic equality.

7. Decentralization of powers: Liberty will be better safeguard through decentralisation of powers. When the powers of the government are allocated among the union, state, and local governments, there arises no scope for despotism and infringement of individual liberties.

8. Freedom of press : Some regarded freedom of press as a safeguard of individual liberty. Individuals could enjoy their liberties when the various agencies of press and other media have autonomy in their functioning. It, through its impartial editorials and honest presentation of news and views, will be able to safeguard individual liberties.

9. Strong opposition : A strong opposition is a necessary condition for promoting individual liberty. The opposition will act as a watchdog,‘of individual liberty. Whenever the party in power or persons at higher levels of government try to subvert or circumscribe the freedoms of individuals by their oppressive and despotic acts and activities through legislation and execution, the opposition will strongly resist such attempts.

10. Eternal vigilance : The best safeguard to liberty is the spirit of the people. It is rightly said, “Eternal vigilance is the price of liberty”. People must be ready to fight “for their liberty. They should have the courage even to rebel against the government whenever their liberty is curbed by it.

AP Inter 1st Year Civics Model Paper Set 2 with Solutions

Question 4.
Write an essay on Human Rights.
Introduction : Human rights are the amenities required for the basic existence of human beings. They are available to all persons irrespective of caste, creed, community, religion, region, language etc. The constitutional and ordinary laws in democratic states recognize these rights. The various governments in democratic states will take appropriate steps for providing human rights to their people.

Definitions :

  1. “Human Rights are freedom to all irrespective of place, sex, religion language etc.” – United Nations Organization (U.N.O)
  2. “The Rights which serve as the protective shield to the individuals whenever the state attempts to interfere with the civil liberties of individuals.” – Ronald Darwin
  3. “Human Rights are the new standards of civilization.” – John Dowski

Origin and Growth of Human Rights :
1) The credit for showing interest on human rights and their application to human goes to Greek rulers. They recognised the need and importance of health and strength in the development of human personality.

2) Magna Carta sanctioned by King John of England in 1613 ’ gave life to the Freedoms and independence of the people.

3) The cultural renaissance which shook the various countries in Europe gave strength and succor to the Civil rights movements.

4) John Locke of England popularised the doctrine of natural rights as a part of his proposal for the spread of human rights.

5) Rousseu of Switzerland mentioned several times about the importance of human rights in his concept of social contract. He declared that “Man has born with free but every where he is in chains.”

6) John Stuart Mill, a prominent British political philosopher, propounded individualism. He stated that every individual is sovereign over himself, his body and mind and all organizations including the state shall not interfere in the affairs of Individuals.

7) The writings of above philosophers profoundly influenced the people across the globe. Several freedom movements such as bloodless revolution in England (1688), American declaration of Independence (1776), French Revolution (1789), Russian Revolution (1917). The Indian declaration of Independence (1947) etc, led to the creation of favourable atmosphere for the enjoyment of human rights.

8) After the establishment of United Nations Organization in 1945, the charter of U.N.O assigned priority and significance to the rights of human beings. The universal declaration of human rights came into force on December 10, 1948. Since then, that day is celebrated as the universal human rights day.

As a result, several covenants like international economic, social and cultural rights, International civil and political rights (1966) came into being. The above covenants made obligatory for the international community to provide favourable conditions for enjoying the various human rights by the people of the world. All the member states of the United Nations gave assurance to have full faith in the human rights. They assured their cooperation for observing and promoting human rights.

Violation of Human Rights : Today in almost all the countries of the World, everywhere the violation of human rights is happening Poverty, Refugees, Separatist movements etc., are the main causes for violation of human rights.

Protection of Human Rights : Every nation has the responsibility to protect the human rights. Governments as well as voluntary organizations pl$y a key role in protection of human rights. Amnesty International and Asia watch are playing a prominent role in protecting the human rights.

AP Inter 1st Year Civics Model Paper Set 2 with Solutions

Question 5.
Discuss the functions of the executive.
Of the three organs of government, the Executive occupies the most important place. Very often it is referred to as the Government. It refers to that branch of government which executes or enforces the laws of the State.

Functions of the Executive : The executive undertakes a number of Functions which can be studied under the following heads.

1) Administrative functions : The entire administration is carried on in the name of the executive. Its functions in this context include: appointment of highest officials, giving directions to different administrative departments, changing the rules and regulations from time to time, enforcing laws, maintaining order and peace etc.

2) Diplomatic functions : These include functions like conducting foreign affairs, appointing diplomatic personnel to foreign countries and receiving them from other States, concluding treaties and agreements, sending peace missions for promoting friendly ties with other countries, arranging ceremonial welcome and tour programmes to the Heads of the foreign countries etc.

3) Military functions : These include protecting the territorial integrity of the Country against external invasion, maintaining armed forces, declaring war or concluding treaty of peace with other countries and acting as the Supreme Commander of the Armed Forces.

4) Legislative functions : Executive enjoys certain legislative powers also. In Parliamentary Government the executive guides the work of legislature. It summons, prorogues and dissolves the legislature, issues ordinances when the legislature is not session; gives approval to the bills passed by the legislature, vetoes any bill or sends it back to the legislature cannot directly participate in legislation. ‘Even then, it influences legislation by exercising veto power, sending messages to it.

5) Financial functions : The executive prepares the Budget, raises the revenue and spends it on different items. Maintaining financial stability of the State is the responsibility of the executive. Levy or abolition of taxes, provisions of capital funds, reduction of prices etc., come under the purview of executive functions.

6) Judicial functions: The executive in all countries under takes some judicial functions like appointing the judges to the highest courts of law, removing them on grounds of proved misbehaviour, granting pardons, reprieves and remissions of punishments, implementing the Judgement of the Courts of law etc.

7) Other functions : Apart from the above, the executive also undertakes functions like framing plans for the development of the country; declaring emergency during war; granting titles and awards, implementing welfare programmes etc.

Section – B (8 × 5 = 40)

Note :

  • Answer any eight of the following questions is not exceeding 20 lines each.
  • Each question carries 5 marks.

Question 6.
What are the other elements of state ?
Introduction : State is an important political organization. It was established for regulating and improving the relations between individuals.
Definition : “State is a people organised for law within a defi-nite territory”. – Woodrow Wilson
Besides essential elements namely, population, territory, government and sovereignty, state will also have the other elements.

Other elements of the state :
1) International recognition : It implies recognition of the sovereign status of a state by other states. This feature has gained currency due to the immerse technologlical and scientific advancements. The man of today is not only a member in his state but also a member of the entire world at large. Today majority of the countries of the world are joining in one or the other international associations to obtain certain benefits. The United Nations Organisation is the best example for such associations. It’s membership is considered to be necessary for attaining perfect and complete statehood. Whenever a new state comes into existence, it’s recognition by other states and by UN is considered as very essential.

2) Permanence : State is a permanent institution. If the state surrenders to the other states during war or Aggression. It loses its significance but not the feature of permanence. Sometimes through the process of integration or disintegration, the states will change the form of their existence for instance. In 1990’s Soviet Union (Former USSR) got disintegrated and new 15 independent states came into being.

3) General obedience : General obedience implies the supreme power of the state overall the individuals and institutions within its territorial limits. No person or association can deny the power or authority of the state. People can criticise the policies and programmes of the government but not the state. The obedience to the state is mandatory on the part of the people.

4) Popular will : Willoughby stated that the will of the people is an important element of the state. State continues to exist as long as it is supported by the majority of the people. The strong desire for protecting the state against invasions and internal revolutions is compulsory for the continuation of the state.

AP Inter 1st Year Civics Model Paper Set 2 with Solutions

Question 7.
Describe the various phases of Nationalism.
Introduction : Nationalism is an effective force in modern politics. Nationalism is a psychological feeling prevailing in the minds of the people. People through this feeling sacrifice all their interests for the sake of their nation.

Meaning : Nationalism is a state of mind in which the supreme loyalty of the Individual is felt to be due to the Nation State.

Broadly speaking the term “Nationalism” is generally used to describe two phenomenon. They are mentioned as follows :

  1. The attitude of the members of a Nation towards their national identity.
  2. The action of the members of a Nation towards the goal of achieving self-determination.

Different (or) various phases of Nationalism : According to Snyder there are four phases of nationalism namely.

  • Integrative Nationalism (1815 – 71) : During this period nationalism was a unifying force and found solid expression in the unification of Italy and Germany.
  • Disruptive Nationalism (1871 – 90) : During this period, subject nationalities of Austria – Hungary and other multinational states clamoured for independence.
  • Aggressive Nationalism (1890 – 1945): During this period, Nationalism became virtually identical with aggressive imperialism. This led to,the clash of opposing national interests in the form of two world wars.
  • Contemporary Nationalise : During the early years of the contemporary period, political nationajjsm manifested in the form of revolts against European Masters. Nationalism indeed has become a slogan, A school of thought, a movement and a fight for certain political or sovereign objective in Afro-Asian and Latin American countries.

Question 8.
Define Law and Mention the Features of law.
Law is an important concept in the study of political science. It is an important feature of Modern State. Law regulates the external behaviour of individuals.

Meaning : The term “Law” is derived from the Teutonic word “Lag” which means something fixed.

Features of Law : The following are some important features of law.

Definitions :

  1. “Law is the command of the sovereign”. – John Austi
  2. “Law is the system of rights and obligations which the state enforces”. -T.H. Green.

Features of Law : The following are some important features of law.

  1. Law comprises some rules and regulations which are approved by the Sovereign.
  2. It is enforced by the State. It is valid because it is sanctioned by the State.
  3. It is definite, precise and universal.
  4. It reflects the will of the people.
  5. Any violation of law leads to punishment.
  6. Laws are compulsory and cohesive in nature.
  7. Law aims at securing and promoting the individual and general welfare.
  8. Law is dynamic as it goes on changing according to the needs of the people.

Question 9.
What is Equality ? Explain any three types.
Meaning and explanation of Equality: The concept of Equality is of great significance in the study of political science. The term ‘Equality1 became animportant slogan and inspired the people of France, America, Russia and India during their struggle for freedom and independence.
The term “Equality” implies absolute equality of treatment.

Definitions :

  1. “Equality means first of all the absence of special privilege. In the second place “It means that adequate opportunities are laid open to all”. – H.J. Laski
  2. “Equality implies equal rights for all the people and abolition of special rights and privileges”. – Barker

Types of equality : There are many types of equality. They may be analysed in the following.

1. Natural equality : This kind of equality existed in the “State of Nature”. It is based on the principle that nature has created everyone as equal. But natural equality exists no where in the world. Nature has not created all people with the same qualities. So by natural equality we generally mean the provision of equal opportunities to all. It implies the abolition of man-made and artificial inequalities.

2. Political equality : Political equality is an important kind of equality. It means that all citizens will have equal access to the avenues of authority. All of them possess the same political rights, an equal voice in government and equal right to hold public offices. It may be noted that political equality is enjoyed by the citizens only. It is not given to aliens. Political equality prevails and flourishes when all citizens were provided with political rights like Right to vote. Right to contest elections. Right to make petitions and Right to criticism. That means political equality flourishes only in democratic countries.

3. International equality : International equality means that all the states are treated equally irrespective of their geographical, economic or military composition. According to this element all nations of the world are equal whether they are large or small. For instance, the United Nations have extended equal dignity and status to all the nations in its Charter. International Equality reflects the traits of humanism. It emphasizes the peaceful settlement of disputes between the nations.

AP Inter 1st Year Civics Model Paper Set 2 with Solutions

Question 10.
Discuss the various types of Responsibilities.
Responsibility is an obligation of an individual towards other individuals residing in the society. It is regarded as an obligation or duty towards others. The term ‘Responsibility’ denotes what one is bound to do. Eyery individual must abide by certain rules of behaviour in society for his own good and for the good of others. These include some do’s and don’ts. They establish peace and order in society. Responsibilities always preceed rights.

Types of Responsibilities : Responsibilities are broadly of two types : Moral and Legal.
i) Moral Responsibilities : Moral responsibilities are those which bound the individuals together on moral grounds. They may not be upheld and supported by the laws of the state. They are based on the moral beliefs of the people. They are sanctioned by the community basing on some customs, traditions and usages. Any violation of moral responsibilities does not lead to punishment. Helping the needy and the sick is regarded as an example of moral responsibilities.

ii) Legal Responsibilities : Legal Responsibilities are implemented through the courts and with the support of the statutory laws. They carry statutory significance. They are very clear and precise. They are compulsory and coercive in nature. So those who violate these responsibilities will be punished. Obeying the laws of the state, paying taxes, assisting the administrators in the maintenance of law and order etc., are some of the important legal responsibilities of a citizen.

Legal Responsibilities are further classified into positive and negative.
1) Positive Responsibilities: When a citizen exercises his responsibilities to strengthen the social progress and welfare, they are known as positive responsibilities. Obedience to the laws of the state, defending the country, paying taxes etc., are some of the examples for positive aspects of legal responsibilities. These responsibilities aim at extending co-operation to the government in realizing the objectives of the state.

2) Negative Responsibilities : When a citizen abstains from doing an activity as prohibited by the laws, it is said to be an example of negative responsibility. Negative responsibilities keep the people from not doing certain activities. The government, on behalf of the state, makes several regulations in this regard.

Question 11.
Explain the Major concepts of Justice.
Meaning : The word “Justice” is derived from a Latin word “JUS” which means “to bind”.
Definition : “Justice means speaking the truth and paying one’s debts”. – Caphalous

Major Concepts of Justice : There are two major concepts of Justice. They are
i) Numerial concept ii) Geometrical concept. They may be explained as follows :

1. Numerical concept: Numerical concept of justice regards that everyone has equal share. The ancient Greek city states adopted this concept in public matters. The rulers of these city states filled up various offices with as many persons as maximum possible to demonstrate equality. They have not considered special knowledge, qualifications etc., for holding public offices. Jeremy Bentham, a famous British political philosopher, advocated this concept in modern times. He stated thus : “Everyone is to count for one, nobody for more than one.” Many modern liberal democratic states have been functioning on the basis of this concept.

2. Geometrical concept : Geometrical concept is based on the notion of proportionate equality. It advocates equal share to equals and unequal share to unequals. It means that the distribution of power and patronage in public offices should be allocated in proportion to the worth or contribution of the individuals. Plato and Aristotle favoured this concept. Aristotle stated this concept in the following words: “If flutes are to be distributed, they should be distributed only among those who have the capacity of flute playing.” Efforts were made for allocating of benefits and responsibilities on equal basis keeping in view the worth of the recipients.

Question 12.
Write about the two methods of acquiring Natural citizenship.
i) Jus Sanguinis – (Kinship or Blood Relationship): This type of Citizenship denotes acquiring citizenship by kinship or blood relationship. Under this method birth within the territory of a state entitles a person to have citizenship. Every person is treated as a citizen of the state where he is born. According to Jus Sanguinis, a child acquires the citizenship of the parents irrespective of its place of birth. Here blood relationship alone determines the Citizenship. Ex: A child born to the Indian parents will be treated as Indian citizen irrespective of its place of birth.

ii) Jus Soli (Land or Place of Birth) : Jus Soli means acquisition of citizenship by the principle of place of birth. According to this method, citizenship is determined By the place of birth and not by parentage. It is the place of birtft which determines citizenship. However this method is not more popular in modern times. It was popular in the Middle Ages when citizenship was associated with land. At present, however, this practice is observed exclusively in Argentina.

Question 13.
Explain about Direct Democratic Devices.
Devices Direct Democracy :
There are four devices prescribed in direct democracies to enable the people to participate directly in the administrative activities of the State.

Those are
1. Referendum
2. Initiative
3. Recall and
4. Plebiscite

These methods may be explained as follows.
1. Referendum : It is one of the direct democratic devices. Literally it means, “must be referred to the people”. It is a device where by the electorate may veto a proposed legislation or a bill which the legislature has already passed. In other words, bills passed by the legislature are the voters for their approval or disapproval. If majority of the voters approve them, they become acts. But if they vote against them, they will be given up. Hence, referendum is known as “Popular Veto”. It is of two types – 1) Compulsory referendum : All the con¬stitutional bills must be sent to the people. 2) Optional Referendum : An ordinary bill passed by the legislative may be or may not be sent to the people. However, even that ordinary bill must be sent to the people, if a definite number of people demand it.

Ex : In Switzerland 30,000 people or eight cantons (States) can demand referendum on an ordinary bill.

2. Initiative : It is another device of direct democracy. It is a method by means of which the people propose legislation i.e.; they can ask the legislature to pass a particular law. For instance, in Switzerland, if 50,000 voters request the legislature to pass a law, then the proposal is submitted to the consideration of the people. If majority of the people (30,000) approve it, then it becomes an act. Unlike referendum, initiative provides a chance to the people to start the making of law. It is of two types : (1) Formulative Initiative: People present a bill to the legislature (2) Unformulative Initivative : People present a demand to the legislature as king it to pass a bill.

3. Re Call : It is another devices, of Direct Democracy. It means “Calling Back”. According to this method a specific number of voters may call back or dismiss an elected officer or a member of the legislature before the expiry of his term, if he is irresponsible. By means of this, the people can remove a representative or an officer from office when he fails to discharge his duties properly.

4. Plebiscite : The term ‘Plebiscite” is derived from a French word “Plebiscitum”, which means “decree of the people”. It is used to obtain the opinion of the people on an important political issue or when there is a dispute regarding some territory. The question of accession or secession or territory is generally solved by means of plebiscite.

AP Inter 1st Year Civics Model Paper Set 2 with Solutions

Question 14.
What are the Features of secular state ?
Features of Secular State : Secular State comprises the following features.
1. No place for religion : Secular States does not assign significance to any particular religion. It will not make laws or implement them on religious grounds.

2. Equal status : Secular State accords equal status to its people. It makes no differentiation between individuals on the grounds of their caste, colour, community, religion, race, region, language etc. As a result, people will have satisfaction and extend co-operation to the government in the implementation of various policies and programmes. They live together with the fellow members of other religious denominations.

3. No state religion : Secular state does not recognize any particular religion as the state religion. It adopts neutral policy in religious matters. It implements various laws and social welfare measures without basing on the religious feelings of the people. It will not assign special role to any particular religion in public activities. All public places like educational institutions, government offices and judicial organizations will carry On their activities with out aligning to a particular religion.

Question 15.
Distinguish between written and unwritten constitution.
Written Constitution : A written constitution is formulated and adopted by a Constituent Assembly or a Convention. It comprises several principles and rules of the Government in a written form or document. The Constitution of India is an example of written constitution. The American Constitution is the first written constitution in the world.

Unwritten Constitution : Unwritten constitution is one whose provisions are not written in a single document. It includes several customs and traditions which are manifested in the form of the laws. The Constitution of Britain is the best example of unwritten constitution.

Differences between Written and Unwritten Constitutions

Written Constitution Unwritten Constitution
1. Written constitution implies a document or few documents in which the rules regulating the main institutions of Government are written down. 1. Unwritten constitution denotes a sum of customs, conventions and usages which have not been systematically documented.
2. All the basic principles of the State are clearly written. 2. All the basic principles of the State exist in the form of customs and traditions.
3. Written constitution is framed by a special assembly convened at a particular point of time. 3. Unwritten constitution contains some written elements also in the form of enactments of fundamental charters made from time to time.
4. It is suitable to the educated and literate people. 4. It is suitable to the uneducated and illiterate people.
5. Courts of law protect the liberties of the citizens. 5. Courts of law cannot provide much protection.
6. It is formulated at a particular time. 6. It is evolutionary in nature.
7. It provides political stability. 7. It could not ensure political stability.
8. It cannot be easily amended. 8. It can easily be amended.
9. It is useful to federal states. 9. It is advantageous to the unitary states.

Question 16.
What are the features of Unitary Government ?
Definition : A.V. Dicey “A Unitary Government is the habital exercise of supreme legislative authority by one central power”.

Features of Unitary Government:
The basic or essential features are as follows :

  • Single government : A Unitary government consists of a single Central Government for the entire country. It has all the powers. The concentration of all powers in the Central Government is meant for uniformity and efficiency in administration.
  • Provincial government : In a Unitary Government, the provisional governments are not created by constitution. They are created by the Central Government for the sake of administrative convenience. The Central Government has the power to destroy the provincial governments. The states are the agents of the Central Government.
  • Transfer of powers : For the sake of administrative convenience, the Central Government may transfer some of its powers to the provincial governments. These powers can also be taken back by the centre at any time.
  • Constitution : A Unitary Government may have an unwritten constitution.
    Ex : Britain has an unwritten constitution. However, all the unitary states do not follow the model of Britain. France, a unitary state has a written constitution.
  • Single citizenship : In a unitary state, all the citizens will have only one citizenship. No citizen will have the citizenship of the state in which he lives.
  • Unicameral legislature : A unitary state may also function with a unicameral legislature (one house only). It is possible because, in a unitary state, the states need not have representation in the upper chamber. However, all the unicameral states do not opt for it. Ex: Britain, France, China have bicameral legislatures.

Question 17.
Explain the theory of separation of powers.
Montesquieu is the main proponent of this theory. Montesquieu explained this theory in his book “The Spirit of Laws” (1748). He visited England and made a comparative study of the French despotism and the British Parliamentary democracy. He came to the conclusion that the Britishers enjoyed greater liBerty because of the separation of powers among the three branches of British Government.

Montesquieu stated that concentration of powers in one person or a body of persons would result in despotism and negate individual liberty. He suggested separation of powers among the three organs of government in a balanced manner. Every organ must check the misuse of powers of other organs. Then only individuals enjoy their liberties without fear from the governmental interference. His theory became the basis of American Constitution. It is aptly said that the American Constitution is an essay on the theory of separation of powers propounded by Montesquieu. The constitutions of many countries including India have incorporated the ideas of Montesquieu.

AP Inter 1st Year Civics Model Paper Set 2 with Solutions

Section – C (15 × 2 = 30)

Note :

  • Answer any fifteen of the following questions in not exceeding 5 lines each.
  • Each question carries 2 marks.

Question 18.
Write about Ancient city states.
Ancient Greece consisted of a large number of city states. They were small both in size and population. For example, Athens,Sparta, Corinth. Each city state had its own government. The greeks based their political philosophy on the concept of city-state. The population of the city-state was divided into three groups :

  1. Citizens
  2. Aliens and
  3. Slaves.

Question 19.
Mention any two difinitions of state.

  1. “State is a people organised for law within a definite Territory”. – Woodrow Wilson
  2. “State is a politically organised people of a definite Territory”. – Bluntschlli.

Question 20.
What do you mean by Government ?
Government is the third essential element of the state. There can be no state without government. It is an instrument which fulfills aims and goals of the state.

Question 21.
Explain the origin of the term Law.
The term “LAW” is derived from the Teutonic route (German) “Lag” which means “To Lay”, “To Set” or something fixed. The second dimension is that the word “Law” had its roots in the Latin Words “Jus and Jungere” which mean bond or tie.

Question 22.
Define the term Rule of Law.
Rule of Law is an important type of administration of justice. It originated in England, it implies :

  1. Legal Equality : All are equal before law.
  2. No Arbitrary Action : Punishment is given only when an existing law is violated.
  3. No Special Rights : No individual is above law and law does not recognise any special privileges.

Question 23.
What do you mean by civil Liberty ?
Civil liberty is also known as personal liberty. It is the essential pre requisite to the existence and survival of human beings. It enables them to lead happy, honourable and civilised life in the state. Civil liberty is manifested in several rights like
A) Right to Life
B) Right to Work
C) Right to Property
D) Right to Religion
E) Right to Speech, Expression, Assembly, Movement and Residence etc.

AP Inter 1st Year Civics Model Paper Set 2 with Solutions

Question 24.
What do you mean by Social Equality ?
Social Equality stands for equality of status and absence of class distinctions and discriminations. It exists when no individual is made to suffer on account of his caste, class, colour, creed, race etc. Infact it has opposed the practice of untouchability.

Question 25.
Right to enforce rights.
This right is also known as the right to constitutional remedies. This right will help citizens in the enforcement of other civil and political rights. The citizens can move the courts of law to implement the fundamental rights. The Indian Constitution granted to its citizens the Right to Constitutional Remedies. By means of this right the other fundamental rights are enforced when they are encroached upon by the state, central governments and citizens. The Supreme Court and High Courts act as the guardians of these rights by issuing various writs such as Habeas Corpus, Mandamus, Prohibition, Quowarranto, Certiorari etc.

Question 26.
What are political rights ?
Political rights are those rights which enable the individuals to participate in the political affairs of the state. They help the citizens to manage the political affairs including the organization of the government. They empower the citizens in the political affairs of the state. Citizens can freely participate in the administration of the country. A unique feature of these rights is that they are enjoyed by the citizens only. Aliens do not possess these rights.

Right to vote, right to contest as candidates in elections, right to hold public offices, right to petition, right to criticize the government etc., are some examples of the political rights.

Question 27.
What do you mean by Political Justice ?
Political Justice symbolises political equality. It implies provision of political rights to all the adult citizens in a state. It facilitates free and fair participation of the citizens in the governance of the country. It is manifested to the full extent in times of elections. It allows the citizens for their active participation in day-to-day administration. It is based on the premise that everyone is counted as one and none for more than one. It may be noted that political justice prevails in the State when the following conditions are prevalent

  1. Rule of law
  2. Independent Judiciary
  3. Popular elections to the representative bodies
  4. Political parties
  5. Freedom of press and assembly
  6. Democratic rule etc.

Question 28.
What are the implications of Legal Justice ?
Legal Justice has two implications,

  1. It implies that there is just application of the laws in the society on the basis of rule of law.
  2. Laws are made in accordance with the principle of Natural Justice.

Question 29.
What do you mean by Jus Sanguinis ?
Acquiring citizenship by kinship or blood relation is called Jus Sanguinis. According to Jus Sanguinis, a child acquires the citizenship of the parents irrespective of its place of birth. Blood relation alone determines the citizenship in Jus Sanguinis method.

AP Inter 1st Year Civics Model Paper Set 2 with Solutions

Question 30.
Write a short notes on Dual citizenship.
Dual Citizenship means possession of two citizenships in two States. Ex : Children born to American citizens in other States acquire citizenship in both the States – one in their parent State and the other in the.State, where there are born. Dual citizenship applies to the children until they attain adulthood. Later they have to choose citizenship of any one of the two states.

Question 31.
What is meant by Democracy? Write two definitions.
Democracy is form of govemcpent in which the people rule themselves directly or indirectly through their periodically elected representatives.

Definitions :

  1. Abraham Lincoln : “Democracy is a government of the people, by the people and for the people”.
  2. J.R. Seely : “Democracy is a government in which every one has a share”.

Question 32.
What is meant by Recall ?
Recall means to call back. The representatives will be called back by the people incase they are inefficient. Hence, this method helps the representatives in discharging their responsibilities properly for fear or being called back on the grounds of inefficiency.

Question 33.
Define Secularism.
Meaning : The term “Secular” in Latin language means “Of this World”. It denotes the meaning “the opposite of Religion”.

Definitions :

  1. E.S. Waterhouse : Secularism is an ideology which provides a theory of life and conduct as against one provided in Religion”.
  2. GJ. Holyoake : “Secularism is an idea of promoting a social order as separate from religion without actively dismissing or criticising religious beliefs”.

Question 34.
Write about any two features of secular state.
Features of Secular State : Secular State comprises the following features.
1. No place for religion : Secular States does not assign significance to any particular religion. It will not make laws or implement them on religious grounds.

2. Equal status : Secular state accords equal status to its people. It makes no differentiation between individuals on the grounds of their caste, colour, community, religion, race, region, language etc. As a result, people will have satisfaction and extend co-operation to the government in the implementation of various policies and programmes, They live together with the fellow members of other religious denominations.

AP Inter 1st Year Civics Model Paper Set 2 with Solutions

Question 35.
What do you mean by constitution ?
The term constitution implies a written document embodying the provisions relating to the powers and functions of the Government organs, the rights and duties of the citizens.

Question 36.
Write about Aristotles classification on Government.
Aristotle classified governments on the basis of two elements, namely, i) Number of rulers ii) Aims of the State. He again classified Governments into normal and perverted forms. He says monarchy, aristocracy and polity as the normal form of governments. Tyranny, oligarchy and democracy are the perverted form of Governments.

Question 37.
What do you mean by Federal Government ?
Governments are classified into Federal and Unitary on the basis of the distribution of powers between the Centre and the States. A federal system is one in which the powers of the government are distributed constitutionally between the Centre and the State Governments. Ex : America, Switzerland etc.

Meaning : The term “Federation” is derived from a Latin word “Foedus” which means “Treaty of Agreement”.

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