TS Inter 2nd Year Political Science Model Paper March 2019

Varied difficulty levels in TS Inter 2nd Year Political Science Model Papers and TS Inter 2nd Year Political Science Model Paper March 2019 cater to students with diverse academic strengths and challenges.

TS Inter 2nd Year Political Science Model Paper March 2019

Time: 3 Hours
Max. Marks:100

Section – A
3 x 10 = 30


  • Answer any three of the following questions in 40 lines each.
  • Each question carries 10 marks.

Question 1.
Explain any eight salient features of Indian Constitution.
Introduction: The Indian Constitution was prepared and Adopted by the Constituent Assembly, which was set up in 1946. the Constituent Assembly took nearly three years From 9th December, 1946 to 25th November 1949 (2 years, 11 months and 18 days) to complete the framing of the Constitution. The Constituent Assembly approved the Indian Constitution on 26th November, 1949. The Indian Constitution came into force on 26th January, 1950, which we have been celebrating as ‘The Republic Day’.

The following are the salient or basic features of the indian Constitution.
1. Written and Detailed Constitution: The Constitution of India is a written document. It consists of 12 Schedules, 22 Parts and 444 Articles. Many factors have contributed for the bulkiness of the Constitution. All most all matters relating to the composition and organization of union, states as well as Union Territories, provisions regarding protection of interests of Schedules castes, Scheduled Tribes and other Backward classes, provisions regarding Special Constitutional bodies like the Election Commissions, the UPSC and State Public Service Commissions are made in a very comprehensive manner. Similarly several matters relating to Fundamental Rights, Fundamental Duties, Directive principles of state policy; Union – State Relations, Official Language and Regional Languages were clearly mentioned in the Constitution.

2. India is a Sovereign, Socialist, Secular, Democratic, Republic: The constitution deliberately designed India to be a Sovereign, Socialist, Secular, Democratic, Republic. Each of these concepts has wideranging dimensions.

Sovereign State: India is a Sovereign State. It is clear that India is internally Supreme and externally independent of any foreign control. India is not a sub-ordinate State.

Socialist State: According to the preamble India is committed to Socialism assuring the establishment of a socialist State. It strives to provide social and economic Justice to all its people and end all forms of exploitation. We follow mixed economy. The State is free to bring the key industries and the private enterprises Under the state ownership and management.

Secular State: Secularism means that the State profects all religions equally and does not itself subscribe to any other religion as official.

Democratic State: Democracy is the formidable foundation of Indian political system. It states that the people of India are the chief source of the Political Authority they can make and unmake the government. The people are both the Rulers and the ruled. India adopted Indirect or Representative Democracy.

Republican State: India is a Republic with an elected Head of the State i.e., the President of India. No public office in the
country is hereditary. Any Indian citizen can contest to any office of the government subject to certain limitations.

3. Noble Aims and Objectives: Indian constitution has noble aims and objectives. The Indian constitution secures to all its citizens, Justice – Social, Economic and Political matters. It also provides all its citizens, liberty of thought, expression, belief, faith and worship. Further the Consititution of India promotes among all people the equality of status and opportunity Like wise it strives for fraternity by assuring the dignity of the individual and the unity and integnity of the Nation.

4. Combination of Rigidity and flexibility: The Constitution of India can be amended with Rigid and Flexible methods. Article 368 provides the details of the amendment procedure. It can be amended by three methods.

Firstly: The Union Parliament can amend some parts of the constitution by a simple majority. Ex: The formation of new States (Ex: Telangana), changing the boundaries of states, provisions relating to citizenship etc. It is said to be Flexible.

Secondly: Some provisions can be. amended by a special majority i.e., not less than two-thirds (2/3) of the members of the House present and voting. Ex: Fundamental Rights, Directive principles of state policy etc. It is said to be half rigid and half flexible.

Thirdly: Some provisions can be amended by Two-thirds (2/3) majority of the parliament and with the concurrence of half of the states. Ex: Election of the president, Executive powers of the union and the states, Distribution of Legislative powers between the union and the states it is said to be Rigid. Hence the Constitution has a combination of Rigid and Flexible methods to amend the Constitution.

5. Unitary and Federal Features: India is a union of states according to the constitution. Our constitution contains both the features of unitary and Federal Governments. It prescribed an Ilitary System in emergencies and federal system on ðidinaiy occussions.

Provisions of unitary státè such as Single Citizenship, Single Integrated Judiciary, Single election Commission, Roll of All India Services personnel etc., are found in our constitution. At the same time certain federal features like written, Rigid constitution, Dual Government, Bicameralism etc., are profoundly seen in our constitution. Thus it is a quasi federal policy like Canada.

6. Parliamentary government: The makers of our constitution adopted the Irish precedent of an elected president instead of a hereditary Monarch. They retained all other essential features of Parliamentary sysem like two types of executive heads, Prime Ministers leadership, collectjve responsibility, nominal position of the President, Parliament’s control over the Union Executive etc. They prescribed the same type of political system for the states.

7. Independent Judiciary: The constitution of India granted independent and integrated judiciary- for Indians. Hence the
Supreme Court and High Courts in India act independently without subject to the control of the executive and legislative organs.

Judiciary enjoys independence in the matters of appointment of judges, their tenure, salaries and allowances, service conditions, promotion etc. Our consititution clearly states that the executive and legislative authorities should refrain from inteifering in the functioning of the judiciary.

It conferred the power of judicial review on the judges of the Supreme Court and High Courts. It is due to the tndependeñt position that the Supreme Court and High Court judges will decide the proriety and constitutional validity of the acts and policies of the legislative and executive authorities in the country.

8. Directive Principles of State Policy: Our constitution hinted out certain directive principles as the policy of the state in
Part IV from Articles 36 to 51. The makers of our constitution derived these principles from Irish constitution. They pointed out that these principles would transform India into a welfare, gandhian and liberal oriented state. These principles must be implemented by all the parties which hold authority without political considerations. These principles enable the state to provide a new social order based on economic, political and social justice.

These principles include certain programmes like provision of employment opportunities, fair distribution of wealth, equal pay for equal work, educational and child care for those children below fourteen years etc. Similarly unemployment relief, old age pension, protection against ill health, provision of leisure for workers, conservation of wild life etc are included in these principle.

9. Fundamental Rights: Our constitution mentioned fundamental rights on American model for the complete realization of the personality of Indian citizens. They are incorporated under Part III from Articles 12 to 35 of our constitution. Indian citizens can utilize these rights subject to certain rational restraints. Nobody including the government is allowed to interfere in these rights.

The higher judicial organizations in the country help the citizens in safeguarding these rights. At first there were seven fundamental rights in the Constitution. But at present there are only six fundamental rights.

They are

  1. Right to Equality
  2. Right to Freedom
  3. Right against Exploitation
  4. Right to Religion
  5. Cultural and Educational Rights and
  6. Right to Constitutional Remedies.

10. Fundamental Duties: Our constitution incorporated fundamental duties in Article 51 A under Part 4A. At first there were 10 fundamental duties inserted through the Constitution (Forty-second) Amendment Act, 1976. Later one more duty was added through the Constitution (Eightysixth) Amendment Act, 2002. Altogether there are Eleven Fundamental Duties in our consititution. Respecting the consititution, National Flag, National Anthem, Safe guardmg public property etc are some of the Fundamental duties.

11. Single Citizenship: Our Cónstitution provides for single citizenship for all persons who are born in India and who resided in India for a specific period. It enables the citizens to possess and enjoy identical right and privileges. It also promotes unity; integrity and fraternity among the people.

12. Universal Adult Franchise: The makers of the Indian Constitution provided for the Universal Adult Franchise for all
citizens without any discrimination based on caste, colour, creed, community language, religion, region, sex, property etc. At the beginning, Adult Franchise was given to all the citizens who attained the age of 21 years. Later voting age was reduced to 18 years through the 61st Constitution Amendment Act in 1988.

13. Bicameralism: The Constitution of India introduced Bi cameralism at the National level. Accordingly, the Indian Parliament consists of two houses namely the Rajya Sabha (upper house) and the Lok Sabha (Lower house). While the Rajya Sabha represents the states, the Lok Sabha represents the people.

14. Panchayati Raj and Nagar Palika Acts: The Panchayati Raj ai Nagar PalikasMts are recent features of our constitution.
The 73rd and 74th constitutional recognition the rural and urban local governments which came into force in 1993 and 1994 respectively had become operative all over the territory of India.

The ideas of democratic decentralisation or the grassroof democracy are realised by these acts. These Acts provides for adequate representation for Womem, Scheduled Castes, Scheduled tribes and other Weaker Sections in the policy making bodies of the Local governments.

15. Special Provisions Relating to Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Thbes: Indian Constitution hinted out certain specific
directives for the development of scheduled castes and scheduled tribes in India. It enabled the union and state governments to review the steps taken for the improvement of backward classes through setting up of independent commissions. In this regard the union government was authorised to act as a coordinator between various state governments.

TS Inter 2nd Year Political Science Model Paper March 2019

Question 2.
Explain the Directive Principles of State Policy.
Directive Principles of State Policy are enumerated in Articles from 36 to 51 in Part – 1V of the Indian Constitution. They
are borrowed from the Irish Constitution. They help in realizing the objectives mentioned in the preamble.

Types of Directive Principles of State Policy: Directive principles can be classified into three broad categories namely, Socialistic, Liberal-intellectual and Gandhian principles. Article 36 defines the term “State”. Article 37 declares that the Directive principles shall not be enforceable by any court.

1. Socialist Principles: Articles 38, 39, 41, 42, 43 and 47 explains about the socialistic ideology of the Directive Principles of State Policy.

  • Article 38 prescribes that the state shall strive to provide Justice and promote welfare of the people by veeating a proper economic, social and political atmosphere.
  • Article 39 directs the state to secure its citizens.

i) Adequate means of livelihood for all citizens.
ii) Equitable distribution of wealth for subserving the common good.
iii) Equal pay for equal work for all.
iv) Protection of adult and child lábõur.
v) Decentralization of nation’s wealth.
vi) Preserving the health and strength of workers, men and women.
vii) Protecting clild hood and youth against exploitation.

3. To secure right to work and education for all people, relief in the case of unemployment; old age, sickness and disable
ment and in other cases of underserved want(Article 42);

4. To make provision for just and human conditions of work and maternity relief (Article 42);

5. To secure living wage and decent standard of life so as to ensure to the workers sufficient leisure and enjoyment of
social and cultural opportunities(Article 43).

6. Raising the level of nutrition and standard of living of the people and the improvement of public health(Article 47).

2. Liberal-intellectual principles: The principles represent the ideology of liberalism and certain objectives like provision of basic education, uniform civil code, indepndent judiciary and international peace. They are incorporated in Articles 44,45,50 and 51 of the Constitution.

1. The State shall secire for the citizens uniform civil code throughout the country (Article 44).

2. The State shall provide free and compulsory education for all the children below 14 years of age. The Constitution (EightySixth Amendment) Act 2002 substituted the following words in Article 45. “The State shall endeavor to provide early childhood care and education for all children until they complete the age fic lines (Article 48).

4. The State protect monuments which are declared to be of national importance. (Article 49).

5. The State protect and improve the environment and to safeguard forests and wildlife (Article 48A).

6. The State shall take steps to separate judiciary from executive in public services of the State (Article 50).

7. The State shall

  • Promote international peace, justice and security.
  • Maintain just and honorable relations with other nations.
  • Protection of monuments and place of historical and cultural interest.
  • Respect for international laws and treaty obligations; and
  • Encourage settlement of international dispute by arbitration (Article 51).

3. Gandhian Principles: These Principles are based on gandhian ideology. They represent the programme of reconstruction enunciated by Mahatma Gandhi during the national movement. These principles provide ideal rule in India. They are reflected in Articles 40,43,46 and 47. They may be enumerated as under.

1. The State shall organize village Panchayats and endow them with adequate powers and authority so as to enable them to function as the units of self-government (Article 40).

2. The State shall strive for the promotion of cottage industries on individual or cooperative basis in rural areas (Article 43).

3. The State shall promote the educational and economic interests of the SCs, STs and BCs of society with special care
(Article 46).

4. The State shall endeavour to bring about prohibition of intoxicating drinks and of drugs which are injurious to health
(Article 47).

Other Principles: The Constitution (Forty Second and Forty Fourth Amendment) Acts of 1976 and 1978 added a few more subjects to the list of Directive Principles. While the Constitution (Forty Second Amendment) Act inserted Articles 39A,43A, and 48A, the Constitution (Forty Fourth Amendment) Act included Article 39 Clause (2).

They comprise the following provisions:

  1. Providing opportunities for healthy development of children.
  2. Promotion of equal justice and legal aid to the pool-.
  3. Securing participation of workers in the management of industries.
  4. Protecting the environment, forests and wild animals.

Question 3.
Describe the ordinary and emergency powers of President of India.
The President of India is the Constitutional Head of the State.
He preserves the Nations identity and upholds the Constitution and its values. He is the caretaker of the Nation as a whole and even a citizen in particular Qualifications To become eligible for the office of the President of India a person must possess the following qualifications.

  • He shall be a citizen of India.
  • He shall have completed 35 years of age.
  • He shall be qualified for election as a member of the House of the people i.e. Lok Sabha.
  • He shall not hold any office of profit under union, State and local governments.

Election: The President of India is elected by an Electoral college which consists of elected members of

  • Both Houses of Parliament.
  • State Legislative Assemblies.
  • The Elected members of Legislative Assemblies of Delhi and Pondicheri.

The Election is ‘conducted in the system of proportional representation by Single Transferable Vote.
Term of office: The President holds the office for a term of Five years from the date of assumption of office. He is eligible for Re election to the office.

Salary and Allowances: The President receives ₹ 1,50,000 as monthly salary He gets ₹ 9,00,000 per annum as pension after retirement. He is provided accommodation at Rashfrapathi Bhavan at Delhi. He has two other accommodations i.e., Rashtrapathi Nilayam at Secunderabad and at Simia.

Removal or Impeachment: The President may be removed from the office for violation of the constitution by a process of impeachment adopted by the Parliament.

Powers and Functions: The powers and functions of the President are studied under two heads – Ordinary powers and Emergency powers.

Ordinary Powers:
1. Legislative powers: The President is an integral part of the Indian Parliament. In that capacity, he performs the following legislative functions.

  • He summons and prorogues the meetings of the Parliament.
  • He dissolves the Lok Sabha.
  • He inaugurates the first session and annual session of the Parliament.
  • He nominates two (2) Anglo-Indian members to the Lok Sabha and twelve (12) members to the Rajya Sabha.
  • He convenes of joint sitting of the two houses in case of a disagreement on a bill.
  • He proclaims ordinances during the interval of Parliament.

2. Executive powers: The President enjoys all executive powers of the Union Government. He appoints.

  • The Prime Minister.
  • Members of the Union Council of Ministers on the advice of the Prime Minister.
  • State governors, Lieutenant governors and Administrators of Union Territories
  • Chief Election Commissioner and other Election Commissioners.
  • Chairman and Members of Union Public Service Commission etc. The President can also remove them.

3. Financial powers: The President ensures that the budget of the union Government is laid before the Parliament. He accords permission to the members for introducing money bills in Parliament. He appoints Chairman and Members of Finance Commission for every five years. He appomts the comptroller and Auditor General of India. He receives the reports from finance commission and comptroller and auditor general. He operates the contingency fund of India.

4. Judicial powers:

  • The President appoints the Attorney General of India.
  • He appoints the Chief Justice and other Judges of the Supreme Court and High Courts.
  • He is empowered to grant pardon, reprieves, respites or remission of punishments.
  • The President can seek Judicial Advice on National Importance according to article 143.

5. Military powers: The President is the Supreme Commander of the armed forces in India. He apprints the chief of the staff and other officers of armed forces. He can declare war and conclude peace.

6. Diplomatic powers: The President appoints the Ambassadors and other diplomatic personnel abroad He receives the credentials of Ambassadors of other countries appointed in India. He represents the Nation in International Forums. He concludes traties and agreements with the nations of the world.

Emergency Powers: The Constitution of India empowers the President to proclaim three kinds of emergencies.

  1. National Emergency; Article 352
  2. Constitutional Emergency, Artide 356
  3. Financial Emergency; Article 360

1. National Emergency: If the President is satisfied that a grave emergency exists in the country or any part of its territory and threatened by war or external aggressions or armed rebellion, he may impose National Emergency on the written advice of the Union Council of Ministers. Such proclamation has to be approved by the Parliament with a majority of not less than 2/3rd members present and voting in each House within a month. Then the Proclamation shall be in force for six months. It can be extended with approval of Parliament for another six months. During this emergency Union Government can issue any direction to the states and the Parliament can make Legislation on any matters included in state list. Except Article 20, 21 all or any of the fundamental rights can be suspended. This type of emergency was imposed in 1962, 1965, 1971 and 1975.

2. Constitutional Emergency (President Rule): On the receipt of a report from the Governor of a State that a situation has
arrived in which the Government of that State cannot function according to the Constitutional provisions, the President may proclaim emergency in that State. It is also called as President Rule or Constitutional emergency. The effects of such a proclamation may be as follows.

  • The President may assume to himself all or any of the function of the State Government.
  • The powers of State Legislature may be exercised by the Parliament.

This emergency proclamation shall be approved by the Parliament within two months. It will be in force for a period of six months. It can be extended for another six months by the approval of the Parliament. so far, President’s Rule has been imposed more than 100 times in different states in India.

3. Financial Emergency: Article 360, deals with Financial emergency. The President can proclaim a such emergency if he is satisfied that a situation has arisen whereby the financial stability or credit of India is threateneded.

The effects of this emergency are:

  • The President can reduce the salaries and allowances of all.
  • All money bills passed by any State Legislature can be reserved for the consideration of the President. So far this kind of emergency has not been proclaimed in our country.

TS Inter 2nd Year Political Science Model Paper March 2019

Question 4.
Explain the various factors which led to the agitation for a separate Telangana state.
Separate Telangana Agitation (1969): The agitation for a separate Telangana State was started at the end of 1958 and
continued in 1969. It was first started by the students and employees as a protest against the injustice done to the Telangana area. Later, various political parties took advantage of the situation and led the agitation.


  1. Non-implementation of rights and safeguards given to the Telangana region at the time of formation of Andhra Pradesh.
  2. Since the formation of Andhra Pradesh in 1956 no Telangana person was elected as the Chief Minister of the State.
  3. As stated in the Gentlemen’s Agreement the Deputy Chief Minister post was not given to the Telangana persons by the Andhra Chief Ministers with the exception of D.Sanjeevaiah.
  4. Dissatisfaction among some Telangana leaders who had not position.
  5. A rumour was spread that the Abkari surplus funds of Telangana region were spend in Andhra area. In those days, there was prohibition in Andhra area and no prohibition in Telangana area.
  6. Telangana People were in the idea that many Andhra were in jobs in Telangana with false Mulki Certificates.
  7. Telangana people were also in the opinion that the Andhra were dominating in all the administrative departments.
  8. Unrest among students.
  9. Support give by the people of other states who settled in Hyderabad and the other Telangana towns for their selfish ends.

The separate Telangana agitation was prolonged in the year 1970 also. In December, 1970 Mrs.Gandhi recommended for the Lok Sabha and for a mid-term pole to the Lok Sabha. The Telangana Praja Samithi contested all the 14 seats from the Telangana region and secured 10 Lok Sabha seats. In September,1971 there were discussions between the Prime Minister Mrs.Gandhi and T.P.S leaders. As a result T.P.S. was emerged in the Rulling congress. The discussions also led to the proclamation of sixpoint formula.

It includes,

  1. Continuation of Mulki Rules.
  2. Separate accounts and budget for Telangana.
  3. A Separate Congress Committee for Telangana.
  4. Resignation of Kasu Brahmananda Reddy in favour of a Chief Minister from Telangana region.
  5. To review the situation after 10 years.
  6. To provide legal status to the Telangana Regional Committee.

The Separate Telangana agitation failed to achieves it essential goal of separate Telangana State. But it sècured assurances and protections for the Telangana for the first time, a Chief Minister was chose from the Telangana region was the Education Minister P.V.Narasimha Rao.

Telangana Movement 2001-2014:2001-2009: The movement for Telangana State took critical turn in 2001. K. Chandrasekhar Rao, who resigned from Chandrababu Naidu Government, left Telugu Desam party. He launched Telangana Rastra Samithi on April 27th,2001 with an exclusive ‘One Point Agenda’ of creating a separate Telangana State with Flydarabad as its capital. It is pertinent to mention that in 2001 the Congress Working Committee sent a resolution to the NDA, Government to constitute a second S.R.C. (State Reorganization. Commission) to look into the Telangana State demand.

During 2004 Assembly and Parliament elections L.K.Advani the then Home Minister, observed that sunless there is consensus among all political parties in the state and unless that consensus is reflected in resolution of the State Assembly, we don’t propose to include Telangana in the NDA agenda’. It is significant to mention that the Congress party and TRS forged an electoral aUianœ in the Telangana region to consider the demand of a separate Telangana State. The Congress Party came to Power in Andhra Pradesh in 2004 and TRS joined as a coalition partner as part of Common Minimum Programme. ¡t included the consideration of separate Telangana State after due consultation and consensus.

The UPA government led by Dr.Manmohan Singh as Prime Minister has constituted a Subcommittee to look into the issue of Separate Telangana statehood issue. This Subcommittee was led by Pranab Mukherjee with two others as members. This committee was constituted during November 2004 and sought responses from all recognised national and regional political parties in the process of evolving consensus on the issue. Professor K. Jayashankar and K. Chandrasekhar Rae (FRS) have approached all the political parties and mobilized the letters of consent in fovour of separate Telangana.

However, not much initiative was forthcoming from the U.P.A. government inspite of its positive assurançes in 2004
elections. It is singnificant to mention that the Congress led by Dr.Y.S.Rajasekhar Reddy was personally not inclined to the bifurcation of the state. He was found to be a decisive factor in the victory of the Congress in Andhra Pradesh and defeat of TDP The Congress High Command did not wish to act contrary to the opinion of Dr.Y.S.Rajasekhar Reddy. K.Chandrasekhar Rao along with A.Narendra had resigned as a Union Cabinet Minister from the U.P.A. Government and protested against the postponement of the separate Telangana state. Accordingly, the TRS ministers also resigned in Andhra Pradesh.

2009 Elections: During the 2009 elections the Congress Party assured and reiterated its stand that only the U.P.A. Government can declare the Telangana State. Accordingly, the people of Telangana voted in favour of Congress Party. The Congress Party was in a position to form The Government both at the central and state levels. In this election, the TRS won 10 Assembly seats and 2 M.P. seats.

Earlier in 2009, the Supreme Court declared Hyderabad as a “Free Zon&in contrast with the Girgiani Committees decision which treated Hyderabadas Zone VI. This judgement aggravated the fears and apprehensions of the people of Telangana. It triggered a lot of unrest among the Telangana Employees Associations They feared that the Non-Locals would grab their jobs meant for Telanganites in Hyderabad. This has given a great impetus to the Telangana movement. A large number of intellectuals, journalists, lawyers, engineers, doctors, students, women and N.R.I.s came out openly against the declaration of Hyderabad as a ‘Free Zone’.

In September 2009, Dr.Y.S.Rajasekhar Reddy died in a helicopter crash. This death witnessed serious implications both to the leadership of Congress party and the cause of Telangana movement.

At this juncture,”TRS Party President K. Chandra Sekhar Rao came, out with new assertions and increased voice for a separate state. On 29th November; 2009, K. Chandra Sekhar Rao undertook his fast-unto-death against the ‘Free Zone’ and for achieving the Telangana statehood. The students played a prominent role during this period, the students of Osmania, Kakatiya, Palamur and Telangana Universities intensified the movement through their active participation. Aganist this background, K.Rosaiah, the then Chief Minister of Andhra Pradesh called for an all-party meeting on 7th December 2009. This meeting discussed the ongoing fast-unto-death by K. Chandrasekhar Rao and views of political parties were ascertained. It is believed that all political parties including the Congress, BJP, TDP, PRP and CPI declared that they would support and vote for the Telangana state if a Bill to this effect is introduced. The minutes of the meeting were also faxed to the Congress High command. On 8th December, 2009 the SW came forward openly in its support to the Bill for Telangana State in the event of its introduction in the Parliament.

On December 9th, 2009 an announcement was made by the Home Minister P. Chidambaram. He announced the process of Telangana State formation will be initiated. Almost all political parties including Congress, TDP and P.R.P. opposed the bifurcation of the state. In contrast, the political parties in Telangana Region whóleheartedly welcomed the announcement in favour of a separate statehood for Telangana.

As Samaikhya Andhra Agitation became intense with widespread protests in Seem Andhra region, the UP.A, convened a meeting of its allies. It included NCP, Trinamul Congress and the DMK. The DMK said that the government should have taken them into confidence before announcing the creation of Telangana State. It was also stressed that similar demands for separate state would come forward in thier home states. On December 2009 the Home Minister P. Chidanibaram again announced a contrary statement. He announced that “a large number of political parties were divided on the issue.

A wide-ranging consultations could be held with all political parties and groups in the state. The centre will take steps to involve all concerned in the process”. As a result of the revised and reversed announcements, all the political parties
including TRS, BJP, Congress members of Telangana region, former PRP members and CPI formed a joint Action Committee (JAC). The JAC is supported by N.R.I.Associations, Women. Organizations and all Telangana Associations.

The JAC (also known as TJAC) included political and non-political groups which fearfully demanded the formation of
Telangana State. Prof. Kodanda Ram Reddy emerged as a convener of JAC.

Appointment of Sri Krishna Committee 2010: The Government of India appointed a five-member Committee headed by
Justice Sri Krishna on 3rd February, 2010 to look into the issue of Telangana. The Committee toured all the regions of the State extensively and took the opinion of all sections of people on the statehood. The Committee submitted its report on 16th December 2010. It had given six solutions to the problem.

The six solution stated that Bifurcation of the State into Telangana and Seemandhra as a per the existing boundaries with Hyderabad as the capital of Telangana and Seemandhra to have a new capital.

The Central Government did not take speedy action on the reports of Justice Sri Krishna Committee. Hence, the critiques commented that constituting the Sri Krishna Committee was only adelaying tactics”. Thus, the movement for separate Telangana took its momentum through various activities which may be summed up as follows:

Million March and Non-Cooperation Movement:

  • The Non-Cooperation Movement was started on 17th February 2011 which lasted for 16 days. In this movement, three lakh government employees participated.
  • The Million March movement was organized by Telangana JAC in Hyderabad on 10th March,2011.

Mass Resignations: This movement witnessed various forms of protests from the people of Telangana and resulted in mass resignations of the M.L.A.’ s and M.P.’s and Ministers of Telangana region.

Sakala Janula Samme: The Sakala Janula Samme (All People’s Strike) is a great highlight in Telangana agitation. This
movement led to the strike of all sections of people supporting ‘Telangana Statehood”. The government employees stayed out from the work. Lawyers boycotted the Courts and many other Government employees like members of the teaching community, electricity board etc., participated. This movement led to ‘Rail Roko’ and ‘Road Blockade’.

Other protests: The people of Telangana followed various Gandhian methods for the achievement of separate Telangana
State. They organised “Telangana March in Hyderabad on the lines of the “Dandi March”. The popular and cherished slogan of the people of Telangana namely “JAI TELANGANA” echoed at every nook and cornor of Telangana Region and inspired the people to carry their Justifiable demand for a Separate State.

The Students of Osmania University organised many protests on the University Campus. It was reported that around 1000 students seemed to have lost their lives. The Telangana movement atlast attracted the attention of the U.P.A government. The U.P.A. government has taken various steps in regard to the creation of separate Telangana State by the Union government. A New Telangana state with 10 districts has emerged as the 29 State of the Indian Union on 2nd June,2014.

Question 5.
Elucidate the role of JACs in the Telangana Movement.
There are hundreds of political formations in the form of Joint Action Committees (JACs) that have exhibited the aspirations and spirit of the people of Telangana. These JACs have the potential to nurture various ways to articulate the demand for the formation of Telangana State. Both the formation and operation of these JACs is unprecedented in the history of Indian Politics in general and Telangana in particular.

There are various factors that contribute for the formation of hundreds of Joint Action Committees (JACs). The injustices
meted out to Telangana in matters of river waters, employment and education, discrimination with regard to revenue sharing, land grabbing and encroachment in large scale, monopoly over the industrial sector, cultural invasion, disrespecting and belittling the Telangana dialect and so on compounded into major social, economic and political problems in the Telangana region. This has motivated the people to undertake collective action with a determined goal of achieving Telangana state and formed as Joint Action Committees.

These JACs have formed as common platform for fighting the common cause, though the basis of their formation differs with caste, religion, profession, etc. These Joint Action Committees (JACs) have manifested their collective interest with common desire and aspiration of Telangana common modes of articulation. Mention may be made about some of JACs who have played a prominent role in spreading the Telangana Movement.

These include, the political JAC, students JAC, advocates JAC, Kula Sangala JAC, Employees JAC and soon. While some of the JACs have independently taken up the cause and spread the movement, others undertook activities as per the directions of political JAC.

Political Joint Action Committee: The Political Joint Action Committee was formed on 24th December 2009. Major political parties such as Telangana Rashtra Samithi (‘rRS), Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP), Communist Party of India (CPi), Congress Party; Telugu Desam Party; CPI (ML) New Democracy; Employees associations and others associated with political JAC. The political JAC formed as the UPA Government had shown signs of deviation from the December 9, 2009 declaration of initiating the process of Telangana formation. The political JAC is led by a political science professor from Osmania University M. Kondandarama Reddy popularly known as Kondandaram. He, extensively undertook various protest programmes for fighting the cause of Telangana. These programmes include, the Non-cooperation, Million March, Maanava Haaram, Sakaia Janula Samme, Sagara Haram, Jail Bharo, Rail Roko, Vanta Varpu etc.

TS Inter 2nd Year Political Science Model Paper March 2019

Section – B
8 x 5 = 40


  • Answer any eight of the following questions in 20 lines each.
  • Each question carries 5 marks.

Question 6.
Explain any four causes for the birth of Indian National Movement.
Indian National Movement was organized during 1857- 147 in both Violent and Non-violent forms. The First war of Independence in 1857 known as a Great Revolt by Indian Soldiers sowed the seeds of Natioia1ism among Indians. With the formation of Indian National Congress in 1885, the movement for National Independence took a Non – Violent form. The National Movement united people of different groups to fight against the British Repression.

The Following are the causes for the birth of Indian National Movement:
1. British Colonial Rule: British colonial rule is said to be one of the important cause for the birth and growth of nationalism in India. The British rulers developed communication facilities such as road, rail, press, posts and telegraphs for preserving their administrative, political and economic interests in India.The leaders of Indian National Movement properly availed such facilities and informed the Indian masses about dynamic and exploitative policy of the British colonial rulers. The political unity rendered by the British rulers also brought the feelings of unity among the Indians.

2. Socio-Cultural Renaissance: Several Social and Cultural Movements were witnessed in India during the 19th century which brought social awakening and the ideas of Cultural Nationalism. The Brahma Samaj founded by Raja Rammohan Roy, pioneered these movements and gave a call for reform against social evils such as Sati, Child marriages, Widowhood, Idol Worship, Seclusion and others. This was followed by Arya ‘Samaj, The Ramakrishna mission, The Theosophical Society, Prartana Samaj, the Aligarh movement, Satyasodhak Samaj, and Wahabi Movement. These movements have infused the ideas of rationalism, socio-cultural identity and patriotism and indirectly motivated the people to have an urge for self-rule.

3. Great Revolt: 1857 Revolt was the first great challenge to the British rule in India. The Revolt inspired the struggle for Indian Independence: It gave courage to Indians against the British.

4. English Education: English was introduced in India as a medium of instruction and correspondence by the British rulers on the recommendations of ford Macaulay committee. A few educated elites among Indiàns travelled in England to gain proficiency in English. language. They were able to study and understand the views of eminent thinkers like Hobbes, Locke, Rousseau, J.S.Mill, and Karl Marx on several concepts like liberty, equality, fraternity, independence, democracy, etc. They communicated the value and importance of these idéas to Indians in various regional languages This inspired the Indian masses to participate in the freedom struggle.

5. Economic Exploitation: The British government transformed India into a safe citadel for British investments, markets, and export of Indian raw materials. It suppressed the growth of Indian cottage, village, and small-scale industries for safeguarding the British investments on permanent basis. The British Governor generals like Lord Lytton and Curzon implemented such policies suited to the British investors exploiting the national wealth of India.

This has caused bitter resentment among the Indian industrialists, cottage and small-scale artisans Hence, they were attracted towards the freedom movement in India.

6. Famines and Acute poverty: During 19th century several famines took place, but the British government had not done
anything for the people. Povertÿ is another cause. Number of people died because of starvation. This led to great dissatisfaction among the Indians and enabled them to fight against the British government.

7. Press: Many Journals and dailies were published and circulated in India during freedom movement. Ex: Amrit Bazar,
Kesari, Marata, Hindu, AndhraPatrika etc. They created, enhanced national feelings among themselves. They played a crucial role in spreading National feelings and conveyed the desires and demands of people to the Britishers.

8. Repressive Rule: The Arms Act and Vernacular Press Act passed by Lord Lytton and his Kabul invasion hurt the sentiments of Indians. The reform Bill Proposed by Lord Rippon and its withdrawal made the Indians understand the racial hatred of the British.

9. Racial Discrimination: Indians were treated as second-rate citizens and were excluded from higher posts. The British
policy of racial discrimination aroused and strengthened Nationalism in India.

10. Emergency of the Indian National Congress: 1885 was a landmark in the history of Indian National Movement. A.O. Hume, the British Civil Servant established the Indian National Congress on 28th December, 1885 at Mumbai in Gokul Tejpaul Sanskrit College and developed the nationalist feelings among the people. WC. Banerjee was the first President of the Congress.

Question 7.
Explain the powers and functions of Union Council of Ministers.
Article 74 (1) of the constitution provides for a Council of Ministers at the centre. Its main function is to aid and advice the President in the performance of his duties. It consists of Prime Minister and other minister. It is this body which runs the entire administration of our Country. It is the real executive authority of the country.

Formation of Council of Ministers: The formation of Council of Ministers starts with appointment of the Prime Minister. The President appoints the Prime Minister and on the advice of the Prime Minister, the other ministers and appointed by the President.

Composition of Council of Ministers: Our constitutions did not mention the exact size of the Union Council of Ministers. But there. are three kinds of ministers.

  1. Cabinet Ministers
  2. Ministers of State
  3. Deputy Ministers

1. The cabinet ministers are entrusted with the maintenance of some important ministries. They enjoy independence and decision-making powers.

2. The ministers of State act as the heads of some important sections in the ministry They are directly responsible to the Prime Minister for their activities.

3. The Deputy ministers have no independent and discretionary powers. They assist the cabinet ministers and perform the functions assigned to them.

Powers and Functions:
1. Executive powers: The union cabinet is deliberative and policy formulating body. It discusses and decides all National and International policies of the country. The policies decided by the cabinet are carried out by the ministers. It directs and leads the Parliament for action and gets its approval for all its policies.

2. Legislative powers: The cabinet plans the legislative programme of the Government at the beginnig of each session of
Parliament. It drafts bills on all important matters and introduces them in the Parliament. It also decides the time of summoning and propogation of Parliament.

3. Financial powers: It prepares the union budget. It decides what taxes are to be unposed and how must of expenditure
is to be incurred. Money bitis are always introduced in the Lok Sabha by the finance minister.

4. Foreign Relation: In the field of foreign relations also the cabinet palys an important role. It determinies and formulates the foreign policy of the country and decides the as relations with other countries.

5. Collective Responsibility: Article 75 (3) of Indian Constitution stated. That the union council ministers shall be collectively responsible to the Lok sabha, for all tlêir acts of commissions and commissions. They act as a team under the Leadership of the Prime Minister. They sail together, they swim together and they sink together.
Conclusion: It is thus clear than the council of ministers (or) cabinet enjoys far reaching powers both with regard to the
internal and external policies of the country. Internally it maintains law and order within the country and externally protects. The county from foreign aggression the progress of the country largely depends upon the ability of the cabinet.

Question 8.
Write about Discretionary powers of the State Governor.
The Governor is the head of the State. The executive powers of a State are vested in the Governor. They are exercised by him either dierectly or through officers subordinate to him in accordance with the constitution. Like the President of India the Governor is only a constitutional head and the real powers are exercised by the Council of Ministers headed by the Chief Minister. He is also called ‘Rajpal’.

Qualifications: Article 157 of our constitution lays down the following qualifications for the appointment of a person as a Governor.

  • He shall be a citizen of India.
  • He should have completed the age of 35 years.
  • He Should not be a member of either House of Parliament or State Legislature.
  •  He should not hold any office of profit in Union or State or Local goverment.

Appointment: Article 155 lays down that Governor of a State shall be appointed by the President. The President appoints the Governor on the advice of the Prime Minister.

Salary and Allowances: The salary and allowances of Governor are determined by an Act of Parliament.At present the
Governor receives a monthly salary of Rs.1,10,000/-. He resides in the official building “Rajbhavan”. Beside she is entitled to many other allowances and privileges. His pay and allowances shall not be reduced during his tenure. His pay and allowances are charged on the Consolidated Fund of the State.

Tenure: The Governor continues In office for a period of five years. However, he holds office during the pleasure of the
President. The President can remove or transfer him to any time. Further, even after the expiry of five years, the Governor may remain in office till the assumption of office by the new incumbent.

Powers and Functions of the Governor: The Governor exercises important powers and functions.
They are mentioned as follows:

  1. Executive Powers and Functions.
  2. Legislative Powers and Functions.
  3. Financial Powers and Functions.
  4. Judicial Powers and Functions.
  5.  Miscellaneous Powers and Functions.

Discretionary Powers and Functions.
1. Executive Powers: The Governor is vested with the executive powers of the State Government as per Articlel 54 of our constitution. The Governor exercises these powers either directly or through officers subordinate to him.
1. The Governor appoints the Chief Minister.
2. He appoints the ministers on the advice of the Chief Minister.
3. He allocates portfolios among the ministers, reshuffles their portfolios.
4. He removes the ministers on the advice of the Chief Minister.
5. He also appoints the Vice-Chancellors of the universities in the state.

6. He appoints the Chairman and Members of the –

  • State Public Service Commission.
  • Official Language Commission.
  • Minorities Commission.
  • Commission for Women and.
  • State Government Undertakings.

7. He regulates the postings and transfer of the All India Services Personnel working in the state.
8. He formulates the rules and regulation for the smooth transaction of the business of the State Government. ,
9. He promulgates ordinances during the recess of the State
10. He appoints the Chief Secretary and Advocate General of the State Government.
11. The Governors of Bihar Madhya Pradesh, Odissa and Assam have a special responsibility of promoting the welfare of the tribal people.

2. Legislative Powers: The Governor is an integral part of the State Legislature.

  • The Governor convenes and prorogues the two Houses of the State Legislature. He dissolves the lower House of the State Legislature.
  • He addresses the State Legislative Assembly in person or through messages.
  • He nominates 1/6th of the members to the State Legislative Council.
  • He nominates and Anglo-Indian member to the State Legislative Assembly if no one is elected to that House.
  • He inaugurates the first session of the State Legislative Assembly every year or after the general elections are over.
  • He accords permission to the bills sent by the State Legislature or returns them suggesting alterations or modifications.
  • He appoints the Pro-term Speaker of the State Legislative Assembly.

3. Financial Powers: The Governor accords permission to the members for moving money bills in the State Legislature.
He causes the annual budget of the state government to be placed before the state legislature. He maintains the contingency Fund of the State. He sees that the various financial reports are laid before the State Legislative Assembly.

4. Judicial Powers: The Governor has some judicial powers and functions. He can influence the appointments, postings and promotions of the district judges and other judicial officials he can grant pardon reprieve or remission of punishment or suspend, remit or cancel the sentence of a person convicted of any offence against law. He makes suggestions to the President in the matters concerning the appointment of High Court Judges. He appoints the judicial personnel of the subordinate courts in the state on the recommendations of the High Court.

5. Miscellaneous Powers: The Governor receives the annual report of the State Public Service Commission and
passes it. on to the Council of Ministers for comments. Thereafter, he sends the report and comments to the Speaker
of the Legislative Assembly for placing it before State Legislature.

6. Discretionary Powers: The Governor exercises these powers without the aid and advice of the State Council of
Ministers headed by the Chief Minister.
The discretionary powers are listed as follows:

  • Selection of the Chief Minister.
  • Dismissal of the Ministry
  • Seeking information on the legislative and administrative matters from the Chief Minister.
  • Dissolution of the Legislative Assembly.
  • Asking the Chief Minister to place before him the matter on which a decision has been taken by a minister but which has not been considered by the State Council of Ministers.
  • Advising the President to impose President’s Rule in the State.
  • Refusing to give assent to a bill passed by the Legislative Assembly and sending it back for its reconsideration, and
  •  Seeking instructions from the President before promulgating Ordinances on some matters.

Question 9.
Explain the structure of the State Legislative Council.
Composition of Legislative Council (Vidhana Parishad): The Upper House of the State Legislature is known as Legislative
Council. The Constitution lays, down that a Legislative Council shall have not less than 40 members and not more than 1/3rd of the total membership of the State Assembly. The Legislative Council consists of bõth nominated and elected members.

The election is conducted through indirect method by means of proportional representation with a single transferable vote.

Distribution of Seats:

  1. 1/3rd are elected by the members of the State Assembly.
  2. 1/3rd are elected by the members of local bodies.
  3. 1/12th are elected by teachers.
  4. 1/12th are elected by graduates.
  5. The remaining 1/6th members are nominated by the Governor from among persons who have distinguished themselves in the fields of Literature, Science, Arts, Social Services, etc.

The members of the Council

  1. must be citizens of India,
  2. must have completed 30 years of age and
  3. must possess such other qualifications as may be prescribed by the Legislature.

Term: The members are elected for a period of 6 years. But 1/3d of them retire for every 2 years. The Council is a permanent body. It cannot be dissolved by the Governor.

Chairman and Deputy Chairman: The Council has Chairman and a Deputy Chairman who are elected by the members
of the Council from among themselves. The Chairman presides over the meetings of the Council.

Question 10.
Discuss the powers and functions of District Collector.
The District Collector is the Head of the district administration. He occupies a prominent position in the district. He
belongs to the IAS cadre and plays an unparalled role in the administration of the district.

i) Powers and functions of District Collector:The District Collector enjoys vast powers and performs multifarious functions in the district. Some of them are:
a) Revenue Functions: The most important function of the District Collector is to look after the collection and recovery
of land revenue and other dues of the Government. He is responsible for the matters of survey and land records. He is assisted by Joint Collector, M.R.Os, Revenue Inspectors etc., to carry on these activities.

b) Magisterial Functions: The District Collector has magisterial functions. He is responsible for the maintenance of law and order in the district.

c) Electoral Functions: The District Collector acts as the Chief Electoral Officer of the district. He is responsible for
conducting the elections in fair and impartial manner.

d) Coordinating Functions: The District Collector is the Chief Coordinator of various departments in the district, such as
agriculture, irrigation, labour affairs etc. The Head of the departments in the district are answerable to him.

e) Functions of Census Operation; The District Collector takes steps for holding census operations in the district for every’ ten years on behalf of the Union and the State Governments.

f) Miscellaneous Functions: The District Collector has many more functions like attending the meetings of the Panchayat
Raj Institutions and Urban local body institutions, looking after the development activities of the district, mobilizing
the human, material and financial resources in the district and implementing the directives of the Union and the State

TS Inter 2nd Year Political Science Model Paper March 2019

Question 11.
Write an essay on Nirbhaya Act.
The Criminal Law (Amendment) Act 2013, popularly known as the Nirbhaya Act had increased the quantum of punishment for crimes against women. The Criminal Law (Amendment) Act, 2013 enacted by the Indian Parliament which came into existence on 3rd April 2013 provides for amendment of Indian Penal Code (IPC), Indian Evidence Act, and Criminal Procedure Code on laws related to sexual offences.

Background: A Female para-medical student Nirbhaya (Name Changed) of Delhi was beaten and gang raped Dethi on
16th December 2012 who died 13 days later although she received treatment in India and Singapore. The incident was covered by National and International media and was condemned by the international organizations such as
UNO and UNHRC. Public protests took place in Delhi and throughout India where thousands of protesters clashed with security forces.

Six days after the incident, central government appointed a judicial Committee headed by J.S. Verma, a former Chief Justice of India, to suggest Amendments to Criminal Law particularly to deal with sexual assault cases. The Committee included justice Leila Seth, a retired judge and Gopal Subramanyam a popular advocate. The Committee submitted its report on 23rd January 2013. The Committee considered the suggestions and petitions received from jurists, lawyers, NGO’s and women associations. The union government issued an Ordinance, for giving effect to the changes in law as suggested by the Verma Committee report.

The Ordinance was subsequently replaced by a Bill, which was passed by the Parliament and came into force on 3T1 April 2013. Offences/Punishments: The new Act explicitly recognised certain acts as offences which were dealt with under related laws. The offences like acid attack, sexual harassment, voyeurism, stalking, etc have been incorporated into the IPC, CrPC, and Indian Evidence Acts.

The Act provides severe punishments for the above offences which range as follows.
Acid Attack: Imprisonment not less than ten years but may extend to imprisonment for life and with a fine.
Attempt to Acid Attack: Imprisonment not less than five years, which may extend to seven years, and shall also be liable to fine.

Sexual harassment: Imprisonment up to three years and fine.

Voyeurism: In case of first conviction, imprisonment not less than one year, but which may extend to three years and shall also be liable to fine. In case of second conviction, imprisonment not less than three years which may extend to seven years.

Stalking: Imprisonment not less than one year; which may extended to three years. and shall also be liable to fine. Rape/Gang Rape: Severe imprisonment not less than 2 years and also fine.

The Criminal Law (Amendment) Act 2013 has been criticized by several human rights and women’s rights organizations for riots including certain suggestions recommended by the Verma Committee report like marital rape, reduction of age of consent, amending Armed Forces (Special Power) Act; so that no sanction is reeded for prosecuting Armed Force personnel accused of a crime against women. The Government of India replied that it has not rejected the report completely but made changes after proper discussion. Anyhow this Act is a good step towards the protection of Women against assaults/victimization.

Question 12.
‘write a note on Tribal Movement in Telangana.
The total Scheduled Tribe (ST) population in 10 districts of Telangana is 27,50,000 comprising 9% of the entire Telangana
population. The original’ Adivasi inhabitants of the forests- The Andh, Koyas, Nayakpodu, Konda Reddy, Kollam, Chenchu, Thoti, Mannevar and Pardhan have become a minority since 1977, when the Lambadas, who were historically a nomadic pastoral community were notified as a ST in A.R This led to a large influx of Lambadas, from Maharastra to Telangana Irea.

Ramji Gond RevoIt 1857 -186o: Ramji Gond was an autonomous ruler who ruled Asifabad area with Nirmal and Adilabad as its important areas. This area was popularly known as Jangoan. Since the princely state of Hyderabad viewed this as a strategically important area, the Nizam made sought to annex this area into his princely State.

Meanwhile, in 1853, a Treaty was concluded between the Nizam and East India çompany in which Nizam transferred Berar to British. As a result the British soldiers intruded into this area and forced the people into bonded labour. They have also assaulted Tribals who challenged it and violated a number of women. These developments angered Ramji Gond and made him to challenge their dominance. British suppressed the Ramji Gond rebellion which consisted of Rohilla, Maratha and Gond Soldiers.

Ramji Gond and his followers employed traditional weapons and courageously fought the British on one side and Nizam on the other side. However, the violent assault held on April 9th, 1857 by Nizam witnessed the killing of hundreds of Gonds. Ultimately, Ramji Gond was caught as a captive and was awarded with hanging punishment. Though he succumbed to heinous assaults of British, Marsukola Ramji Gonds rebellion signifies the self respect of Gonds. Though the magnitude and extent of Ramji Gond Rebeffion was construed as limited, its significant influence on prospective generations in terms of self respect is undeniable.

Komaram Bheem Revolt 1940 -1950: Komaram Bheem is a prominent Tribal leader who organised the Tribal communities, mostly the Gonds the Adilabad against the Nizam and his Jagirdari rule. The Gonds of Adilabad witnessed some problems during the early part of the 20th century which included the problem of land alienation, high rates of taxation, vetti or the bonded labour, socio-cultural suppression, economic exploitation and others.

The local Muttedars and Jagirdars forced the Gonds to pay heavy taxes failing which their lands were confiscated. The people who challenge these trends are met with severe punishments. Women members of the families faced atrocities and sexual assaults. The nexus between Nizam-Muttedar Jagirdar – rich landed gentry angered Komaram Bheem. He organised the Gonds against the misrule and atrocities of Jagirdars and their henchmen. Ultimately, there was an armed assault on Komaram Bheem led by Talukdar Abdul Sattar and his 90 Policemen.

Komaram Bheem and his followers encountered the assault with traditional arms such as bows, arrows, swords and spears. In the ensuring revolt Komaram Bheem succumbed to Nizam Police and secured a place in the history as a veritable deity of Gonds.

Komaram Bheem ‘dave the slogan of Jal, Jungle and Jameen. It means, people who live in forests should have rights on all resources of the forest, especially water and forest Land. morder to identify the pathetic problems of Tribals in Adilabad regarding violation of their land rights, etc, the Nizam VII appointed Prof. C.F. Haimendorf to look into their issues. On account of Haimendorf taking up the issues of Tribals in general, and that of Gonds in particular he is regarded as the Father of Tribals among the Gonds.

Further, the Tribal communities inhabiting in plain areas are demanding the extension of all safeguards and facilities. They are also demanding the protection of environment and are opposed to the construction of big dams ‘that would create ecological imbalance and large-scale displacement. As a result, the Tribal movements are also expressing concern for ecological issues.

Thus, the Tribal land right were violated under the Nizam’s rule in the Telangana region. However, at the sametime the tribals were given legal Pattas for their lands. The non-tribals from coastal Andhra encroached several acres of Tribal land in Adilabad and some parts of Karimnagar Warangal, and Khammam including banks of Godavari. The coastal Andhra settlers were very much attracted to the black cotton soil in these areas, which was fertile for cultivation of cotton, chilly, tobacco and other cash crops. Since these settlers had a vast experience in cultivating the mentioned crops, along with a ready commercial market, they were keen in encroaching the Tribal lands in Telangana.

Due to the heavy influx of coastal Andhra people into Telangana, the Supreme Court of India passed the Samatha Judgment in 1995. With the intervention of Supreme Court, all legal controversies regarding the protection of Tribal lands and the ambiguity that the previous governments have exploited earlier were removed.

The government of Andhra Pradesh set up a Commission by J.M.Girglani, lAS (Retd), to study the issues of Tribal land rights. Girgiani submitted his first report on 16 August 1995. later, this commission observed and analyzed the injustice faced by the Tribals for the Last 53 years and decided to submit a detailed report to the President of India annually The report dealt exclusively with the violation of Tribal rights in Telangana and advised that this kind of violations need to be shunned immediately.

Question 13.
Explain in brief the IndustrialPollution in Patancheru (relangana).
Patancheru in Medak District of Telangana is one of the largest industrial areas of the state. Industrialisation process in
patancheru area has begun in early 1970s and within a span of two decades it emerged as the thickest industrial zones in the state.

Several hundreds of industries particularly some of the biggest bulk drug and pharmaceutical industries sprung up in the area without proper waste disposal facility or effluent treatment plants until recently. This had adversely affected the surrounding land, irrigation fields and surface water bodies.

This environmental destruction has the direct impact on human health in the area. A study brought out by the Indian.
Institute of Chemical Technology (IICT), Hyderabad states that people residing in the contaminated areas are exposed to high levels of arsenic pollution that has resulted in various unknown diseases in the area.

The formation of civil society groups such as the Citizens Against Pollution (CAP) and the Patancheru Anti-Pollution
Committee (PAPC) took the issues of pollution to the state and national level. A number of petitions were filed by the in the Local State and nation-level judiciaries. All these have finally resulted in the Supreme Court of India giving direction to solve the problems of pollution in the area this compelled the authorities to initiate pollution control measures, regulate the industrialization process, establish proper waste disposal and effluent treatment mechanisms in the area and provide compensation for the farmers and supply drinking water to the effected villages.

Question 14.
Explain the provisions of Gentlemens Agreement.
In order to clear the doubts among the people of Telangana that the visalandhra may obstruct their interests, the Gentlemen’s Agreement took place on 20th February 1956 at Delhi basing on the recommendations of Fazal Mi Commission. It was attended by Sri Bezawada Gopala Reddy the then chief minister of Andhra State, and his Colleagues Sarvasi Neelam, Sanjeeva Reddy, Gouthu lanchana, Alui Satyanarayan Raju from Andhra Region.

Sri Burgula Ramkrishna Rao the then chief minister of Hyderabad state and his colleagues savaging K.VRanga Reddy, Mari Channa Reddy, J.V. Narsinga Rao from Telangana Region. They had signed ÿn the Agreement which contains the following aspects.

1. The administrative expenditure of the state shall be contributed in proportion of both Andhra and Telangana should be confined for its development up to five years and it may be extended for another five years at the request of Telangana legislators.

2. The educational opportunities which are in Telangana shall be provided for them only more development is to be extended. Technical education and seats in Universities shall be allocated up 1/3th for Telangana students.

3. The yacancies arise in Future shall be allocated to both regions in proportion to their population.

4. 12 Years of Residency is must for Andhra people to get job in Telangana.

5. Regional Development council shall be constituted for over all development of Telangana. 6. In Council of ministers there shall be 60% from Andhra and 40% from Telangana respectively there must be one muslim
from Telangana part.

7. If the Chief Minister is belongs to Andhra region, the deputy chief minister must be from Telangana region and vise-versa. At least 2 poof folios must be given to Telangana out of Home, Finance, Revenue, Planning, Development, Commerce and Industry.

TS Inter 2nd Year Political Science Model Paper March 2019

Question 15.
Elucidate various types of Terrorism in Indian context.
Terrorism is the systematic use of force or threat of use of force (Violence) to achieving political religious or ideological goals. Terrorism posed the greatest danger and threat to many countries in the world and created law and order problem. The temples, mosques, churches, markets, railway stations, multi-storied buildings and other places where people densely move, are the targets of terrorism.

Types of Terrorisms: The Second Administrative Reforms Commission in India, in its report in 2008 classified Terrorism into 5 types based on different goals and objectives of Terrorist groups.
They are

  • Ethno-Nationalist Terrorism
  • Religious Terrorism
  • Ideology oriented Terrorism
  • State-sponsored Terrorism
  • Narco Terrorism.

On the basis of the methods used by terrorists the other type also emerged such as

  • Environmental Terrorism (bio Terrorism)
  • Cyber Terrorism
  • Suicide Terrorism and so on.

i) Ethno – Nationalist Terrorism: Terrorist groups resort to violence demanding sécession from Indian union or the
creation of a new state in the Indian Fedeation. Demands for Khalistan, Jammu and Kashmir, Greater Nagaland are some of the examples. The insurgent tribal groups in North East India also indulge in this sort of terror.

ii) Religious Terrorism: This terrorism is perpetuated in the name of religious fundamentalism. The terrorist attacks in
Mumbai on 26 November 2008 and other attacks in different parts of the country by ¡SI of Pakistan are acts of Religious
Terrorism. This is popularly known as Jehadi Terrorism.

iii) Ideology-oriented Terrorism (Left wing extremism): This form of Terrorism is also known as Left wing extremism
which condemns the economically exploitative and socially suppressive nature of the society It aims at revolutionary change through violence and terror. The ideology of Karl Marx, Mao Zedong, Lenin and others are considered as the basis for this type of extremism.

iv) State-sponsored Terrorism (Cross border Terrorism): This Type of Terrorism is a type of warfare by proxy emanating
from neighbouring countries. The terrorist groups are allowed to make frontal attacks on nations across the border to create insecurity in neighboring countries. India has been facing this problem from Pakistan since independence. Terrorist groups in India are supported by Pakisthan ISI and other agencies.

v) Narco Terrorism and Sandalwood Terrorism: This form of Terrorism focuses on indulging in prohibited trade of
narcotics and sandalwood. The attempts to make illegal traffic zones in North, West India and Jammu & Kashmir and ensuring Terrorism by illegal traders on officials is an example. Similarly, the sandalwood smugglers in reserve forest aréas of Tamilnadu, Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka resort to Terrorism against forest officials and police. Based on means employed by terrorists, terrorism can be further classified as:

a) Environmental Terrorism (Bio-terrorism): Environmental terrorism is a premeditated damage caused to the nature and natural resources. Using weapons of mass destruction, chemical weapons and biological weapons to create insecurity and massacre in the society. Sometimes, the deliberate use of viruses, bacteria, or other germs (agents) to kill people, animals and plants and destroy natural resourcesis called bio-terrorism. There are instances of Terrorists using these techniques unsuccessfully.

b) Cyber Terrorism: The criminal activities perpetuated by the use of computers and telecommunications capabilities resulting in violence, destruction and disruption of services to create fear and confusion among people. Spreading misinformation and lies, harassing women, posting sensitive comments on individuals and incidents with Facebook, Twitter e-mail and so on (social media) come under their purview.

c) Suicide Terrorism: Terrorist groups resort to this type of Terrorism by employing suicide bombers to create large scale massacre in the society. The first suicide attack by the Fedayeen was on July 13, 1991 on Border Security Post. The attacks on Jammu and Kashmir Assembly complex in October 2001, Indian Parliament in Dec 2001 and storming of Akshardham Temple in Gujarat in 2002 are some of the examples. In fact, the former Prime Minister of India, Rajiv Gandhi along with 18 others was assassinated in May 1991 by a suicide bomber employed by LTTE.

Though the aims and objectives, means and methods differ, all the Terrorist groups have a unanimous intention of creating fear, violence, insecurity and confusion among Indians.

Terrorism and Insurgency: There is a very little thin layer of difference between Terrorism and Insurgency. While Insurgency is confined within the National boundary and directed against one’s own Government, Terrorism an transcend the National boundary and may be directed against one’s own country as well as Other countries.

Question 16.
Discuss the merits and demerits of E-Governance.
E-Governance means Electronic Governance. It can also be called as Paperless Governance. Under this, the government
functions on the basis of utilization of Information Technology.

Definition: According to the former President of India, Late Dr. A.P.J. Abdul Kalam, E-Governance in the Indian còntext means, “A transparent Smart E-Governance with seamless access, secure and authentic flow of information crossing the inter-departmental barrier and providing a fair and unbiased service to the citizen”.

Merits of E-Governance:

  1. Informing consulting the citizen
  2. Reforming the process of Governance
  3. Access to information
  4. To improve quality services for citizens
  5. Simple rules
  6. Efficiency
  7. Accountability
  8. Transparency
  9. Quality service for more citizens.

Demerits of E-Governance:

  1. High cost of implementation and maintenance
  2. Lack of integrated services
  3. Poor infrastructure
  4. A weak legal framework and poor laws
  5. Need to reform legal, administrative, police, and judiciary
  6. Difficulty in understanding the citizen’s needs and linguistic barriers
  7. Poor Public Financial Management System
  8. Denial of role and participation by the civil society in public decision-making

Question 17.
Describe the powers and functions of General Assembly.
The General Assembly is the principal Legislative and deliberative organ of the United Nations Organization. It is called meeting venue of the world towns”. At present, it consists of 194 member States. Each member State can send five delegates but enjoys the right of one vote on resolutions.

Functions: General Assembly acts as a deliberative body on international affairs. It can discuss, investigate, review, supervise, recommend and criticize on the overall working of the United

Nations Organizations. It performs the following functions:

  • To discuss and recommend on all matters relating to the international peace and security.
  • Directing and supervising the matters concerning the international social and economic cooperation.
  • It considers the reports and information on the administration of non-self-governing territories.
  • It approves the annual budget and exercise exclusive control over the finances of the United Nations Organization.
  • It elects 10 non-permanent members of the Security Council, 54 members of the Economic. and Social Council, 15 Judges of the International Court of Justice and the Secretary General of the Ünited Nations Organization.
  • It adopts all the international conventions.
  • General Assembly can make the necessary Amendments if any to the charter of the UNO.
  • It takes steps to admit the states or to suspend or expel the existing member States.

TS Inter 2nd Year Political Science Model Paper March 2019

Section – C
15 x 2 = 30


  1. Answer any fifteen of the following questions in 5 lines each.
  2. Each question carries 2 marks.

Question 18.
Methods of Extremists.

  1. Boycott of British goods, honorary titles, and Govt., offices.
  2. Encouraging native education.
  3. Striving for membership to Indian in Legislative Councils.
  4. Patronizing native goods and industries.
  5. Practicing passive resistance.

Question 19.
Article 19.
Right to freedom (Articles 19 – 22): Articles 19 to 22 deals with this Right. Article 19 is the most important part of the Constitution. It guarantees 6 freedoms to the citizens.

They are:

  • Freedom of speech and expression.
  • Freedom to assemble peacefully and without arms.
  • Freedom to form associations or unions.
  • Freedom to move freely throughout the territory of India.
  • Freedom to reside and settle in any part of the territory of India.
  • Freedom to’ pradicé any profession or to carry on any occupation.

Article 20 says that a person shall be convicted only for violating an existing law. Article 21 says that no person shall be deprived of his life and liberty except according to the procedure established by law. Article 22 provides that, every person should be,informed the cause of his arrest.

Question 20.
Any four Fundamental Duties.

  1. To Abide by the Constitution, Respect its ideals and Institutions, the National Flag and the National Anthem.
  2. To cherish and follow the noble ideals which inspired our national movement.
  3. To uphold and protect the sovereignty unity and integrity of India.
  4. To defend the country and render National Service when called upon to do so.

Question 21.
What is an Electoral college? Who are the members of Electoral college?
Electoral College is a body that elects the Indian President.
The Following are the members of Electoral College:

  • Elected members of both Houses of Parliament i.e., 238 from Rajya Sabha and 543 from Lok Sabha 781.
  • Elected members of State Legislative Assemblies and
  • Elected members of Legislative Assemblies of Delhi and Pondicheri.

Question 22.
Mention any four powers of Lok Sabha Speaker.

  1. The Speaker presides over the meetings of the I.ok Sabha.
  2. He exercises his vote in case of a tie over a bill.
  3. He presides over the joint session of the Parliament
  4. He has a privilege of determining whether a bill is Money Bill or Not.

Question 23.
What is Grama Sabha?
There will be a Graina Sabha in every Panchayat. It comprises all the adult citizens who have been entitled to vote. It meets at
least twice a year usually after Rabi and Kharif crops are harvested. It discusses and approves the administrative and audit reports. It identifies the beneficiaries of development schemes. It takes steps for mobilizing voluntary labour for community welfare programmes.

TS Inter 2nd Year Political Science Model Paper March 2019

Question 24.
L.M.Singhvi Committee.
LN Singhvi Committee was constituted by the government of India in 1986. This committee recommended for the “Constitutional Recognition of Panchayats for Strengthening their identity and integritÿ’. It gave certain suggestions for the recognition of Local Self Governments. The Recommendations of L.N. Singhvi Committee were accepted by the government of India. It was during the Prime Ministership of P.V. Narasimha Rao, the constitutional Amendment Bills were passed by the Union Parliament and were ratified by the State Legislatures. They received the assent of the President. Finally, the bills emerged as “The Constitution 73rd Amendment Act, 1992 and the constitution 74th Amendment Act, 1993.

Question 25.
Write a brief note on the Sarkaria Commission.
In view of the growing demand from the various States, for the review of the Centre-State relations then the Prime Minister Mrs. Indira Gandhi appointed a commission on 24th March 1983 under the Chairmanship of Ranjit Singh Sarkaria, a retired Judge of Supreme Court. The Commission consisted of R.S. Sarkaria (Chairman), B. Siva Raman and S. Sen as its members. Mr. Subrahmanyam was its secretary. This commission submitted its final report to the Prime Minister Mr. Rajiv Gandhi on 27th October, 1987.

Question 26.
NITI Aayog.
The NITI Ayog (The National Institution of Transforming India Ayog) came into force on January 1st,2015. It has strengthened the Centre-State relations by ensuring partnership of States in the vision of National Development priorities of fostering Co operative federalism, so that the State could become stronger and build a Nation.

The main objectives of NITI Ayog are:

  • Elimination of poverty.
  • Redressal of inequality.
  • Integrate villages, institutional development process and
  • Safeguarding environmental and ecological asses.

The Prime Minister of India is the Chairperson of the NITI Ayog. It has a Governing Council comprising the Chief Minister of all the States and Union Governor of Union Territories. It has some Regional Councils also With the establishment of the NITI Ayog, the earlier Planning Commission was abolished. It may be said that the NITI Ayog is the Institution which needs demands of the present globalization.

Question 27.
SHE teams.
The Telangana Police started a special team for the safety and security of women in Telangana state as “SHE TEAMS”. The Hyderabad police constituted 100 “SHE TEAMS” on 24th October 2014 to check harassment of women in public places and later it was extended to all districts in Telangana. The “SHE TEAMS” constitute as an important part of the measures being taken by the Telangana government for women’s safety and security.

Each “SHE TEAM” consists of five police personnel, in which a Sub-Inspector and four constables exist. They have been provided with small cameras to record the movements of suspects.

Question 28.
Who are Minorities?
The government of India Notified Six Religious Communities as minorities. They are Muslims, Christians, Sikhs, Buddhists, Parsis and Jams.

Question 29.
Write about Chakali Ailammas incident in Telangana.
Vishnur RamachandraReddY, a deshmukh of Jangaon in Warangal district tried to forcibly take possession of land belonging to Chakali Ailamma. She was physically tortured along with her husband and children. However with the support of the sangham, she fought relentlessly and acquired her land.

Question 30.
Who were the Rajakar’s in Telangana’.
The Ittehad-ul-muslimeen developed a cadre of volunteers who were called Razakars who began to rouse the feelings of muslims against Hindus. The growing militancy and power of the Majlis Ittehad were evident in the activities of the Razakars, a parliamentary voluntary force organized by Kasim Razvi, the leader of the Ittehad. As the peasant resurrection spread in Rural Telangana, The Nizam government sent batches of Razakars. The Razakars resorted to large-scale terrorism and even took violent methods such as murder, arson and rapes.

TS Inter 2nd Year Political Science Model Paper March 2019

Question 31.
Write about Hydrabad as common capital.
According to the AP. Reorganization Act, 2014, Hyderabad remains as the common capital for the states of Telangana and Andhra Pradesh for a period not exceeding 10 years.

Question 32.
Lok Satta.
Started as a Non-Government Organisation in 1996, it emerged as a political party in 2006. This party tried to debate upon the issue of development as part of its stand on Telangana. However, when the leaders of Telangana in the party persisted, it welcomed the formation of separate state as part of a comprehensive and amicable solution. Lok Satta states that the real issue is to improve the lives of people irrespective of the formation of the state.

The President of the Lok Satta Jaya Prakash Narayana was non-commital on the Telangana issue. He stated that creation of separate Telangana state only will not address all the problems of Telangana. The questions of underdevelopment, regional imbalances and social economic development require a much deeper answer. Never the less, the leaders and cadre of lok Satta have also participated in the separate Telangana Movement.

Question 33.
Telangana Jagruthi.
Telangana Jagruthi was established in June, 2008 as a socio-cultural organizations and strikes to protect the culture, value systems, art forms, folklore, literature and the ethnic Telugu dialect of Telangana region. It has strongly resented the arrogance of certain sections over belittling the ethnic Telugu dialect and negligence of its culture. Telangana Jagruthi endorsed the demand for the creation of Telangana. It perceived that a separate state of Telangana will only protect and safeguard the culture, art forms and values of Telangana. As a Part of its mass mobilization programme, Telangana Jagruthi conducted the Bathukamma festival is conducted a mammoth March at Tank Bund in Hyderabad with millions of people.

Telangana Jagruthi led by its leader K Kavitha motivated the people in favour of Telangana State formation by extensively undertaking mass contact programmes, rallies, vanta vaarpu programmes and so on. Telangana Jagruthi has used culture and cultural symbols to motivate masses for Telangana Movement.

The social base of the movement was widened with the inclusion of housewives, middle classes, traditional households and other who are enlightened by Telangana Jagruthi to actively participate in the movement.

Question 34.
The activists who expose or disclose corruption in public offices and alert people against corruptions.

Question 35.
Forms of Corruption.
The World Bank defines corruption as using “Public office for private profit”. There are different forms of corruption which include bribery, extortion, embezzlement, favouritism, nepotism, communalizer, undue influence etc. The Prevention of Corruption. Act 1988 declares the act of bribeir; misappropriation, obtaining pecuniary advantages, abasing official position, possessing assets disproportionate to known sources of income etc, are corruption practices and punishable under law. The most recent phenomenon in the forms of corruption in India is “quid pro quo corruption”.

This means political leaders and high-ranking officials take decisions in favour of corporate houses and arid high-profile business people who inturn make inflated investments into the industrial units, business undertaking, and NGO’s owned and managed by the family members of concerned leaders and officials. In other words, It is an exchange of benefits by both the leaders officials combine and corporations. The Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI) is investigating many cases of quid pro quo corruption scandals.

TS Inter 2nd Year Political Science Model Paper March 2019

Question 36.
In which year the RTI was enacted and enforced?
The Right to Information Act was enacted and came into force in the year of 2005.

Question 37.
What is Panchasheel’
Panchasheel is the most important feature of the Indias foreign policy. India adopted this feature on 29th May 1954 by an alliance with China. Panchasheel means five principles of conduct.

These principles include:

  • Mutual respect for the territorial integrity and sovereignty of the States
  • Non-aggression
  • Non-interference in the internal affairs of other States
  • Equality and mutual benefits and
  • Peaceful co-existence

Panchasheel became very popular in several States of the World. It was considered as the greatest contribution made by India to international relations.

Leave a Comment