AP Inter 2nd Year Civics Question Paper March 2016

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AP Inter 2nd Year Civics Question Paper March 2016

Time: 3 Hours
Max. Marks: 100

Section – A
3 x 10 = 30


  • Answer ANY THREE of the following questions in 40 lines each.
  • Each question carries 10 marks.

Question 1.
Explain the salient features of Indian Constitution.
Introduction: The Indian constitution was prepared and adopted by the Constituent Assembly which was set up in 1946.
The Constituent Assembly took nearly three years (From 9th December, 1946 to 25th November, 1949) to complete the framing of the constitution.

The Constituent Assembly approved the Indian Constitution on 26th November, 1949. The Indian constitution came into force on 26th January, 1950. Which we have been celebrating as The Republic Day”. The following are the salient or basic features of the Indian constitution.

1.Preamble: The Indian constitution begins with a preamble. The preamble clearly defines the objectives of our constitution. It declares India as a Sovereign, Socialist, Secular, democratic Republic. It provides liberty, equality, fraternity, and justice. It states that the people of India are the chief source of the political authority.

2. A Lengthy Written Document: The Constitution of India is the most written, 4engthy and detailed document in the world. In 1950, the Indian Constitution had 22 parts, 8 schedules and 395 articles. After subsequent amendments, it contains 12 schedules and 444 articles for the present.

3. A combination of rigidity and flexibility: The constitution of India is a blend of rigidity and flexibility. Our founding Fathers were programatic enough to provide for rigidity and flexibility as the situation demands. Article 368 provides the details of the amendment procedure.

i) Some of the provisions libe admission of New states (Ex: Telangana), provisions relating to citizenship, salaries and
allowances of the members of the constitutional bodies like President, Vice-President, Supreme Court and High Court judges, etc. Can be amended by simple majority. It is said to be flexible.

ii) Some provisions can be amended by a special majority i.e., not less than Two-thirds of the members of the House present and voting. Ex: Fundamental Rights, Directive Principles of state policy, etc. It is said to be half rigid and half flexible.

iii) Some provisions can be amended by two-thirds majority of the Parliament and with the concurrence of half of the states. Ex: Election of the President, executive powers of the union and the states, distribution of legislative powers between the union and the states, etc. It is said to be rigid.

4. Quasi-Federal polity: India is a states according to the constitution. Our constitution contains both the features of unitary and Federal Governments. It prescribed unitary system in emergencies and Federal system on ordinary occasions. Provisions of unitary state such as Single Citizenship, Single Integrated Judiciary, Single Election Commission, Role of All India Services Personnel etc., are found in our constitution. At the same time certain federal features like written, rigid constitution, Dual government, Bicameralism etc., are profoundly seen in our constitution. Thus it is a Quasi-Federal. Polity like Canada.

5. Republican government: Unlike the colonial Master, the UK, India preferred a Republican government. Here all public offices right from World members to the top president of India are open to all eligible citizens and there is no place for hereditary principle.

6. Parliamentary government: The constitution of India provided a Parliamentary government of the British type but with an elected President of Irish Model. Accordingly, the features of a Parliamentary government such as two executive heads, Ministerial accountability to the lower house of the legislature, Prime Minister leadership, etc., are prevalent in our political system.

7. Fundamental Rights and Fundamental Duties: Part – III of the constitution, Articles from 12 to 35, provides for a set of
basic human rights to all. They are justiceable and ensure basic freedoms.

They are six in number.

  1. Right to equality
  2. Right to freedom
  3. Right against exploitation
  4. Right to religion
  5. Cultural and educational rights and
  6. Right to constitutional remedies.

The 42nd Amendment to the constitution in 1976 incorporated the fundamental duties in Article 51A under part – IVA. Though they are not justiciable. But they put an obligation on the citizens to render certain duties in return for the protection they have been enjoying through fundamental rights. Fùndamental duties relate to respecting the constitution, the National Flag and National Anthem, safeguarding public property etc.

8. Single citizenship: Our Constitution provides for single citizenship for all persons who are born in India and who resided in India for a specific period. It enables the citizens to possess and enjoy identical rights and privileges. It also promotes unity, integrity and fraternity among the people.

9. Universal and Adult Franchise: The makers of the Indian constitution provided for the universal adult Franchise for all citizens without any discrimination based on caste, colour, creed, community, language, religion, region, sex, property etc. At the beginning, adult Franchise was given to all the citizens who attained the age of 21 years. Later voting age was reduced to 18 years through the 61st constitution, Amendment Act in 1988.

10. Secular state: Our constitution stands for a secular state. It does hot uphold any particular religrnn as the official religion of the Indian state. It ensures complete religious freedom to the people. It abolishes discrimination between individuals on religious grounds in the matters of employment, education, and legislation. It prohibits religious instructions in state-owned or state-aided educational institutions.

11. Independent judiciary: The Judiciary performs its functions independently. The legislature or the executive shall not interfere in the working of the Judiciary. The Judiciary carries on its obligations according to the constitutional norms and democratic principles.

12. Directive principles of state policy: Our constitution hinted out certain directive principles as the policy of the state in part IV from Articles from 36 to 51. These principles are drawn from Irish constitution. These principles reflect the welfare state concept. They are the directions to be followed by the various governments. Equal pay for equal work, provision of employment opportunities, fair distribution of wealth, old age pension, protection of ill health, provision of education, protection of women and children etc., are the some examples of these principles. Though these principles are non-justiciable, No responsible government can afford to ignore them.

13. Bi-cameralism: The constitution of India introduced Bicameralism at the National level. Accordingly, The Indian Parliament consists of two houses namely the Rajya Sabha (upper house) and the Lok Sabha (lower house). While the Rajya Sabha represents the states, the Lok Sabha represents the people.

14. Panchayati Raj and Nagar Palikas Acts: The Panchayati Raj and Nagar Palikas Acts are recent features of our constitution. The 73rd and 74th Constitutional Amendment Acts gave constitutional recognition to the Rural and Urban local governments. Which came into force in 1993 and 1994 respectively had become operative all over the territory of India. The ideals of democratic decentralisation or the grass roof democracy are realised by these acts. These acts provides for adequate representation for women, scheduled castes, scheduled tribes, and other weaker sections in the policy-making bodies of the local governments.

AP Inter 2nd Year Civics Question Paper March 2016

Question 2.
Describe the fundamental duties incorporated in Indian Constitution.
Fundamental Duties are a significant feature of Indian Constitution. They are incorporated in our constitution by the constitution 42nd Amendment Act of 1976 in part – IV under article 51 A. They are borrowed from the Russian Constitution.

They are 11 in number as mentioned below:

  • To abide by the Constitution and respect the National Flag and the National Anthem.
  • To cherish and follow the nõble ideals which inspired our national struggle for freedom.
  • To protect the sovereignty, unity and integrity of India.
  • To defend the country and render national service when called upon to do so.
  • To promote harmony and the spirit of common brotherhood amongst all the people of India and renounce practices derogatory to the dignity of women.
  • To value and preserve the rich heritage of our composite culture.
  • To protect and improve the natural environment including forests, rivers and wildlife and to have compassion for living creatures.
  • To develop the scientific temper, humanism, and the spirit of inquiry and reform.
  • To safeguard public property and to abjure violence.
  • To strive towards excellence in all spheres of individual and collective activity.
  • To provide educational opportunities by the parent or guardian to his child or waçd between the age of six and fourteen years.

Question 3.
Discuss the powers and functions of the Prime Minister of India.
The Prime Minister is the real executive head of the Union Government. He occupies an important position in the administration of our country. Since India has a Parliamentary form of Government the real power rests with him. He is the ‘uncrowned king’ and “the keystone of the Cabinet arch in the Union Government’.

1) He should be a citizen of India.
2) He should have completed the age of 25 Years.
3) He should be qualified for election as a member of the Lok Sabha.
4) He should not hold any office of profit under the union or state or local governments.

Appointment: The President appoints the Prime Minister. Generally, the President has to summon the leader of the majority party in the Lok Sabha to form the Ministiy If no party gets an absolute majority, the President can use his discretion and summon the leader of the party, who in his opinion can manage to form a ministry. Afterwards, the Prime Minister will be asked to prove his majority in the Lok Sabha.

Oath of Office: The President of India will administers the oath of office of the Prime Minister.

Term of Office: The Prime Minister shall remain in office during the pleasure of the President. But actually, he assumes his powers as long as he retains the confidence of the majority members in the Lok Sabha. He resigns when the Lok Sabha accepts a no confidence motion against his ministry.

Salary and Allowances: The salary and allowances of Prime Minister are decided by the Parliament from time to time. He gets his salary and allowances that are payable to a member of Parliament. At present the Prime Minister gets a salary and allowances of ₹ 1,60,000/- per month.

Powers and Functions: The Prime Minister is the head of the union government. He is the real executive. The Council of Ministers cannot exist without the Prime Minister.

His powers are explained here under.
1. Leader of the Union Cabinet: The Prime Minister is the leader of the Union Cabinet and Union Council of Ministers. He selects some eminent members of his party in parliament and sees that they are appointed as ministers by the President. He has a free choice of both allocating portfolios and reshuffling the ministry. All the ministers are personally and politically loyal to the Prime Minister. He decides the agenda of the cabinet meetings. Further, he presides over the cabinet meetings.

2. Leader of the Union Government:
The Prime Minister acts as the leader of the union government. The union executive (Union Council of Ministers) initiates its business after the swearing-in ceremony of the Prime Minister. All the ministers in the union ministry assume their office, owe their position and exercise their powers along with the Prime Minister.

In fact, the Prime Minister influences the nature and working of the union government. He not only has a clear understanding but holds complete control over the affairs of the union government. All the high-level officers and the entire ministry in the union government behave and act according to the wishes of the Prime Minister.

3. Leader of the parliament: The Prime Minister acts the leader of the Parliament in India. He is primarily a member of Parliament. He extends cooperation to the presiding officers in the smooth conduct of the two Hoses. He wields complete control over his party members in the Parliament. He ensures that his party members maintain discipline during the sessions of the Parliament.

He informs out the cabinet decisions to the Parliament. He communicates the major domestic and foreign policies of the union government to the members of Parliament. He maintains rapport with the opposition leaders and discusses the major issues confronted by the nation with them.

4. Link between the President and the Council of Ministers:
The Prime Minister acts as the main link between the President and the Union Council of Ministers. It is his duty to communicate to the President about the decisions of the Union Council of Ministers. He furnishes the every information required by the President concerning the affairs of union government. All the ministers shall formally meet the President only with the consent of the Prime Minister.

5. Leader of the Majority Party: The Prime Minister acts as the leader of the majority party or group in the lower House of Parliament. He participates in the meetings of the party and acquaints his party members on various issue and steps taken by his ministry in implementing the party promises. He utilizes the services of the senior party leaders in running the government. He acts as the main link between the part and the government.

6. Leader of the Nation: The Prime Minister is the leader of the nation. He takes initiative in finding solutions to several problems in the internal matters of the country. He plays an important role in the development of the nation.

7. Maker of Foreign Policy: The Prime Minister plays a dominant role in shaping the foreign policy of the nation. He keeps in touch with the developments in all countries. He meets Heads of various countries and maintains friendly relations with them.

8) Chairman of NITI Aayog: The Prime Minister heads the NITI Aayog (National Institution for Transforming India) NITI Aayog means policy commission. It is a policy think tank of government of India that replaces planning commission which aims to involve the states in economic policy-making in India. It will provide strategic and technical advice to the central and state governments. It will have a governing council comprising Chief Ministers of all the states and it governors of Union Territories. Union government set up the NITI Aayog on January 1, 2015.

Question 4.
Explain the powers and functions of Parliament of India.
Introduction: The Union Legislature (Parliament) is the highest legislative organ of the Union government. Articles 79 to 129 in part V of Indian Constitution deals with the composition, organization, powers and functions of the Indian Union Legislature.

Composition: Indian Parliament consists of the

  • President
  • Rajya Sabha (Council of states)
  • Lok Sabha (House of people)

The upper house Rajya Sabha represents the states and union territories.
The lower house Lok Sabha represents the people.
The President of India has the power to summon or prorogue
the two houses of Parliament though he is not a member of either house.
He can dissolve the Lok Sal5ha on the advice of the Union Council of Ministers headed by the Prime Minister.

Powers and functions of the Union Legislature (or) Indian Parliament: The Parliament enjoys extensive powers and performs variety of functions.

These powers and functions are under the following points.
1. Legislative Powers and Functions: The main function of the Indian Parliament is law-making. It makes laws on all the subjects mentioned in the Union List and Concurrent List. Under certain circumstances it also makes laws on the subjects mentioned in the State List. Further, it also makes laws on the matters that are not included in any of the three Lists i.e., on residuary matters.

2. Executive Powers and Functions: Another important function of the Indian Parliament is controlling the Executive (Union Council of Ministers). Parliament controls the Executive through various ways, such as by asking questions, supplementary questions and by introducing adjournment motions and no-confidence resolutions against the Ministry. Hence the survival of the Government depends upon the will of the members in the Lower House, The executive remains in office so long as it enjoys the confidence of the Lok Sabha.

3. Financial Powers and Functions: The Parliament controls the financial resources of the nation. It accepts the budget and other money bills required by the government. Its permission is needed for the government for imposing and collecting tax and for revising the existing tax rates. In this regard the Lok Sabha has more financial powers than the Rajya Sabha. All money, bills shall at first be introduced in the Lok Sabha. The Rajya Sabha has to accept all money bills sent by the Lok Sabha within 14 days. It approves the railway budget, appropriation bill and other money bills.

4. Judicial Powers and Functions: The Parliament has certain judicial powers and functions., it has the power to remove the President and Vice President. The procedure is called impeachment. It has also the power to recommend to the President the removal of the higher officials of the country such as the Chief justice and Judges of Supreme Court, High Court, and the Chairman and other members of U.P.S.C., Chief Election Commissioner etc., for violation of certain principles.

5. Constitutional Powers and Functions: The Parliament takes initiative for changing the provisions of the Constitution according to the changing times. Bills relating to the Constitution amendments may be introduced in either House. The State legislatures also join with the Parliament in accepting certain important Constitutional amendment bills. There are three methods of amending the Constitution.

6. Electoral Powers: The Parliament also serves as an electoral college. It participates in the election of the President and Vice President. The Speaker and Deputy Speaker who act as the presiding officers are elected by the members of Lok Sabha. The Deputy Chairman is elected by the members of the Rajya Sabha.

7. Deliberative Powers and Functions: The Parliament acts as the highest forum and direct agency of public opinion. Its members discuss various issues of national and international significance. They demand the government to solve the people’s problems.

8. Miscellaneous Powers: In addition to the above, the Indian Parliament has also the power to

  • create or abolish Legislative Councils
  • change the names and boundaries of the States etc.

Conclusion: A look at the powers and functions of the Indian Parliament shows that it is the centre of legislative activity and political activity of our country.

AP Inter 2nd Year Civics Question Paper March 2016

Question 5.
Write about the powers and fucntions of district collector.
Power and Functions of District Collector: The District Collector enjoys vast power and performs several functions as the head of the district administration. These may be explained as follows :
A) The Collector as District Revenue Officer: The Collector is the Chief District Revenue Officer. He, in that capacity, serves as the chief guide to the farmers in the district by fulfilling several obligations. His revenue functions include various activities such as collection of land revenue, sanction of agricultural loans to farmers, rescuing the farmers in times of natural calamities by assessing the loss incurred by them, rendering assistance to the union and state authorities in emergency relief measures etc.

B) The Collector as District Magistrate: The Collector acts as the District Magistrate. He will have supervision over the activities of the district police personnel. He sees that law and order conditions in the district are normal. For this purpose he will be assisted by a large number of police personnel. The district superintendent of police and other police officers owe responsibility to the Collector in matters such as supervision over police personnel prisons etc,. The Collector can inspect the police stations in the district. He is empowered to issue prohibitory orders on the occasion of breakdown of law and order. He can issue firing orders when all peaceful efforts failed in the restoration of normal.

C) The Collector as Chief Coordinator: The District Collector acts as the chief co-ordinator of various government departments in the district. He acts as the chief counsel and co-ordinator of the departments such as agriculture, irrigation, cooperation and labour affairs. The heads of these departments shall oblige and implement the suggestions and guidelines of he collector in the district. Even though these heads formulate their policies independently, they are answerable to the District Collector in their discharge..of their obligations.

D) The Collector as District Electoral Officer: The Collector acts the chief district electoral officer. He serves as the main agent of the Election Commission of India for conducting elections to the various representative bodies in the district. He takes steps for conducting the elections in fair and impartial manner. These indude preparation of electoral list and its modification, hearing public grievances on voters list, registration of new voters, appointing returning officers assistant returning officers etc.

E) The Collector as the Chief Census Officer: The Collector acts as the chief census officer in the district. He on behalf of the union and state governments, takes steps for holding census operations in the district for every ten years. He also sees that the statistical data regarding the number of much cattle, trees and domesticated animals in the district is collected properly. He also compiles such other information as required by the higher authorities in regard to the construction of houses for the poor, family welfare, women empowerment, rural infrastructure etc.

F) The Collector as Permanent invitee of Local Bodies:
The District Collector is a permanent invitee to the meetings of Panchayat Raj and urban local bodies in the district. He acts as a main link between the union and state governments and district local bodies on various matters. He participates in the normal emergency meetings of Zilla Parishad and mandal parishads in the district. He sends confidential reports to the state government on the nature of functioning of these bodies. He conducts the meeting meant for considering the no confidence motion against the Zilla Parishad chairman.

Other Functions: This District Collector also performs the following functions.

  1. Matters concerning the welfare of Ex-servicemen,
  2. Provision of irrigation facilities.
  3. Supervision over sub treasuries.
  4. Co-ordinating the activities of various government departments.
  5. Supervising the training programmes for Junior Officers.

Role of District Collector in Local Government: The District Collector plays a crucial role in the affairs of local governments in the district. He serves as the friend, philosopher, and guide to the common men living in the district. He also serves as a link between people and local bodies in the district. Normally the common men seek guidance and solace from the Collector in times of natural calamities and other unforeseen contengencies.

The Collector makes recommendations to the state government in regard to the working of the local bodies in the district. His valuable remarks are required for constituting new gram panchayats and mandal parishads in the district. The entire administrative, revenue, police, health, educational and agricultural personnel working in rural areas depend to a great extent upon the advice and suggestions forwarded by the Collector on may occasions.

He sees that the farmers in the district receive sufficient agricultural inputs such as fertilizers, water, rural credit, marketing facilities etc. He supervises the activities of village extension officers and sees that the farmers receive various types of assistance for carrying on their agricultural operations smoothly. He also sees that all persons below poverty line will receive, ration and pension facilities.

The fact that the Collector heeds more than one hundred committt es at the district level demonstrates his role in district affairs. He, like the Chief Minister at the state level, will hare tremendous influence and powers in the district. Many programmes of union and state governments like National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme (NREGS), Pradhan Mantri Gram Sadak Yojana (PMGSY), Janani Suraksha Yojana (JSY), Aam Admi Bima Yojana (AABY), Rural Landless Employment Guarantee Programme (RLEGP), Prime Ministers Employment Generation Programme (PMEGP).

The union and state governments, rely on the District Collector in tackling the financial, political and cultural matters of the people living in local areas. They nominate the District Collector as the chairman, co-ordinator or secretary of the above programmes at the district level. People regard the Collector as a repository of authority functioning independently with dedicated spirit. Even though some states like Gujarat and Maharashtra relieved the Collector from the perspective.

Section – B
8 x 5 = 40


  • Answer ANY EIGHT of the following questions in 20 lines each.
  • Each question carries 5 marks.

Question 6.
Write a note on sources of Indian Constitution.
1. A combination of rigidity and flexibility: The constitution of India is a blend of rigidity and flexibility. Article 368 provides the details of the amendment procedure. Some of the provisions like Admission of New states (Ex: Telangana), provisions relating to citizenship, salaries, and allowances of the President, Vice president, Supreme Court and High Court judges etc., can be amended by simple majority. It is said to be flexible.

Some provisions can be amended by a special majority i.e., not less than two-thirds of the members of the House present and voting. Ex: Fundamental Rights, Directive principles of state policy etc. It is said to be half rigid and half flexible. Some provisions can be amended by two-thirds majority of the Parliament and with the concurrence of half of the states. E.x: Election of the President, Distribution of Legislative powers between the union and the states etc. It is said to be rigid.

2. Republican government: Unlike the colonial master, the U.K., India preferred a Republican government. Here all public offices right from ward members to the top President of India are open to all eligible citizens and there is no place for hereditary principle.

3. Single citizenship: Our constitution provides for single citizenship for all persons who are born in India and who resided in India for a specific period. It enables the citizens to possess and enjoy identical rights and privileges. It also promotes unity, integrity and fraternity among the people.

Question 7.
Write any five differences between fundamental rights and directive principles of state policy.

Fundamental rights Directive Principles
1) The concept was borrowed from American constitution. 1) The concept was borrowed from Irish Constitution.
2) These aim at establishing a political democracy in the country. 2) These aim at establishing a social and economical democracy in the society.
3) These are justicable and then enforced by the courts. 3) These are non-justicable and cannot be enforced by the courts.
4) These are personal and Individualistic in nature. 4) These are societarian and socialistic in nature.
5) These promote the welfare of the Individual. 5) These promote the welfare of the society.

AP Inter 2nd Year Civics Question Paper March 2016
Question 8.
What are the powers and fonctions of Attorney General of India?
Article 76 of our Constitution provided for the office of the Attorney General of India. The Attorney General is the highest law Officer of the Union Governi n is appointed by the President. He holds the office during the p’easure of the President. He is entitled to all privileges and immunjties allowed to a Member of Parliament. When he attends sessions of the House, he occupies a seat on the treasury government benches.

The Attorney General of India Possess the same qualifications that are necessary for a judge of the Supreme Court. They are as follows.

  1. He must be a citizen of India.
  2. He must have served as a judge in some High Court for a period of at least five years.
  3. He must have served as an advocate in some High Court for a period of at least ten years.
  4. He must be a distinguished jurist in the opinion of the President.

Pay and Allowances
The Attorney General of India is paid not a salary but a remuneration that is determined by the President. The remuneration of Attorney General is equal to salary of a judge of the Supreme Court.

He may quit his office by submitting his resignation to the President. He can be removed by the President in case a special address is passed charging him with ‘proved misbehavior’ or ‘incapacitý by each House of Parliament with its absolute majority and with two-thirds majority of the members present and voting.

Powers and functions
The Constitution assigned some specific powers and functions to the Attorney General of India. They are mentioned as follows :

  1. The Attorney General of India render advice to the Union Government upon such legal matters which are referred to him by the President.
  2. He performs such other functions of legal character that are assigned to him by the President from time to time.
  3. He discharges the Functions conferred on him by the constitution or any other Laws.
  4. He appears in any court of Law on behalf of the union government in all cases.
  5. He represents the government in any reference made by the president to the Supreme Court.
  6. He appears in any High Court on behalf of the union government.

Question 9.
Explain any three powers and functions of the Chief Minister.
The following are the three important powers and functions of the Chief Minister.
i) Formation of the Ministry: The first and foremost responsibility of the Chief Minister is the formation of Ministry of his choice. The CM has a free hand in the selection and appointment of Ministers. He chooses some members of his party (or coalition partners in the case of a coalition) and recommends their names to the Governor to be appointed as Ministers. He advises the Governor to allocate portfolios among the Ministers.

ii) Leader of the State Council of Ministers: The Chief Minister is the head of the Council of Ministers. As such he occupies a position of exceptional authority. He is the Chairman of the State Council of Ministers. The Chief Minister decides the time, venue and the agenda of Cabinet meetings. The CM presides over such meetings, discussions are carried under his direction. He guides, directs, controls and co-ordinates the activities of the Ministers.

iii) Link between the Governor and the State Council of Ministers: The Chief Minister is the principal channel of communication between the Governor and the State Council of Ministers. As part of his Constitutional duty he communicates all the administrative decisions and legislative proposals of the State Council of Ministers to the Governor. It is his responsibility to furnish any information related to the activities of the Ministers as the Governor may call for. No minister shall meet the Governor without the consent of the Chief Minister.

Question 10.
Write the powers and functions of Vidhana Sabha Speaker.
The powers and functions of the Speaker of State Legislative Assembly are almost the same as those of the Speaker of Lok Sabha.
His powers and functions are as follows.

  1. The speaker preserves order and decorum in the House for conducting legislative business.
  2. He allocates time for different kinds of business in the House.
  3. He interprets the rules and procedure.
  4. He puts matters to vote and announces the results.
  5. He has the right of casting vote in case of a tie.
  6. He admits motions, resolutions and points of order.
  7. He is empowered to adjourn the meeting of the House in the absence of a quorum.
  8. He can order for removal of indecent and incriminatory references from the records.
  9. He allows the members to speak in the House.
  10. He may name a member and ask him to leave the House in case of disorderly behavior.
  11. He can adjourn the House in case of grave disorder or serious matter.
  12. He accepts and rejects the resignation of a member of the House after ascertaining whether it was submitted under due process or not.
  13. He appoints the Chairmen all the committees of the assembly and supervises their functioning. He himself is a Chairman of Business Advisory Committee, Rules Committee and the General Purpose Committee.
  14. He decides where a bill is a Money Bill or not. His decision on this question is final.

Question 11.
Write the powers and functions of High Court of the state.
The following are the two powers and functions of the High Court.
1. Original Jurisdiction: Every High Court in India has original jurisdiction in regard to matters of admiralty, will, marriage, divorce, company laws, contempt of court, and certain revenue cases. Every High Court is empowered to issue directions, orders or writs for the enforcement of any of the Fundamental Rights.

Every High Court is empowered to settle disputes relating to election of members of Parliament and State Legislatures. The High Courts of Bombay, Calcutta and Madras possess original jurisdiction in Civil as well as Criminal cases arising within the presidency towns. They are authorized to hear Civil Cases involving property of the value of ₹ 20,000/- or more. They enjoy exclusive privileges and authority in this regard. In fact this power of High Court was in vogue before independence. It has been retained in the new Constitution. The other High Courts also enjoy the same jurisdiction as was available to them before independence.

Under Article 226, the High Courts is empowered to issue writs for enforcing Fundamental Rights. The High Court issue writs like Habeas-corpus, Certiorari, Mandamus, Quo-warranto and Injunction for protecting the Fundamental Rights of the India Citizens.

2. Appellate Jurisdiction: Every High Court hears appeals against the judgement of the subordinate courts. The appellate Jurisdiction of the High Court extends to both Civil and Criminal Cases.

a) Civil Cases: An appeal to the High Court on the civil side is either a first appeal or a second appeal. In civil cases, appeal to the High Court lies from the decision of a District Court. Appeals can also be made from the subordinate courts directly provided the dispute involves a value of more than ₹ 5,00,0001- (or) a question of fact of law. When a court subordinate to the High Court decides an appeal differing from the decision of an inferior court, a second appeal can be made to the High Court.

b) Criminal Cases: In Criminal cases, it hears the appeals in which the accused has been sentenced to more than seven years imprisonment by the Sessions Judge. All cases involving capital punishment awarded by the Sessions Court come to High Court as appeals. Its approval is necessary for the imposition of death sentences by the District Sessions Judge. It also hears cases involving the interpretation of the Constitution.

Question 12.
Discuss administrative relations between union and the states in India.
Articles 245 to 255 in Part XI and Chapter I of the Indian Constitution deal with the legislative relations between the Union and the States. The Constitution of India makes threefold distributions of legislative powers between the union and the States viz.

  • The union list
  • The state list and
  • The concurrent list.

They can be explained in the following way.
The Union List: The legislative relations have been divided between the Union and States in a unique way. The Union list is a longest list. In the beginning of the constitution it consists of 97 subjects. This list has at present loo subjects. The Union Parliament has exclusive power to make laws with respect to any of the matters enumerated in the Union List. The subjects in this list include Defence, atomic energy; matters related to the UN, Foreign Affairs, diplomatic representation, treaties with foreign states, war and peace, citizenship, Railways, National Highways, airways, shipping, regulation and control of air traffic, post and Telegraph, Telephones, currencies, commerce and Banking, Interstate Trade, Insurance, foreign loans, patents, weights waters, Union Public Service Commission, All India Services, election to Parliament etc. The laws made on these subjects are applicable to all the State and to all the citizens equally.

State List: Under normal circumstances, the State Legislature has exclusive powers to make laws with respect to any of the matters enumerated in the State List. It consists of 66 subjects of provincial importance. After the 42 Amendment, this number was reduced to 62 subjects. The State Legislatures have exclusive power to make laws on matters enumerated in this list. Some of the important subjects included in the State list are law and order, justiee, jails, police, agriculture, irrigation, public health, local self government, pilgrimages, libraries, fisheries, markets and fairs and land revenue etc. These laws are only applicable to the individuals or institutions within that state only.

The Concurrent List: Both the Parliament and the State Legislatures are authorized to make laws over the subjects included in this list. There are 47 subjects of local and national importance. After the 42nd Amendment Act, 1976, their number was increased to 52. Both the Union and State Governments may enact laws on These matters. But the Union law prevails upon the laws of the States in case of conflict between the two. Some of the subjects under the Concurrent List are – forests, protection of wild animals and birds, population control and family planning, education including technical and medical education, criminal law and procedure, marriage and divorce, trusts and trustees, adulteration,
trade unions, electricity, press and newspapers and weights and measures except establishment of standards etc.

The Union Parliament is empowered to amend and repeal the laws made by the States or any subject mentioned in the Concurrent List. It has power exclusively to make any law with respect of any subject not enumerated in the Concurrent List or State List. But under certain special circumstances, the Union Government is empowered to abolish the powers of the states over the subjects included in the List.

Residuary Powers: The powers which are not included in any of the above lists are called Residuary Powers. They are assigned to the union government. Ex: The power of the Parliament to impose taxes on the services sector of the economy.

AP Inter 2nd Year Civics Question Paper March 2016

Question 13.
Write about the recommendations of Sarkaria Commission.
The Union Government appointed a three-member Commission on Centre-State relations under the Chairmanship of R.S.Sarkaria, a retired judge of the Supreme Court. B.Sivaraman, S.R.Sen, and Rama Subramaniam were appointed as other members. The Commission was asked to overhaul and review the working of existing arrangements between the Union and States in all spheres as and recommend such changes and measures as may be appropriate. It was initially given one year time to complete its work, but its term was extended four times. The final report was submitted on October, 27, 1987 and the summary was later officially released in January, 1988.

The Sarkaria Commission made 247 recommendations to improve the center-state relations. The important recommendations are mentioned below:

  1. A permanent Inter-State Council called the Inter-Governmental Council should be set up under Article 263.
  2. Article 356 (President’s Rule) should be used very sparingly in extreme cases as a last resort when all the available alternatives fail.
  3. The institution of All India Services should be further strengthened and some more such services should be created.
  4. The residuary powers of taxation should continue to romain with the Parliant, while the other residuary powers should be placed the Concurrent List.
  5. When the President withhol& his assent to the State bills, the reasons should be comnunicated the State Government.
  6. The National Development Council (NDC) should be renamed and reconstituted as the National Economic and Development Council (NEDC).
  7. The zonal councils should be constituted afresh and reactivated to promote the spirit of federalism.
  8. The Union should have powers to deploy its armed forces, even without the consent of States. However, it is desirable that the States should be consulted.
  9. The Centre should consult the States before making a law on a subject of the Concurrent List.
  10. The procedure of consulting the Chief Minister in the appointment of the State Governor should be prescribed in the Constitutional itself.
  11. The net proceeds of the Corporation tax may be made permissibly shareable with the States.
  12. The Governor cannot dismiss the Council of Ministers so long as it commands a majority in the assembly.
  13. The Governor’s term of five years in a State should not be disturbed except for some extremely compelling reasons.
  14. No commission of enquiry should be set up against a State Minister unless a demand is made by the Parliament.
  15. The surcharge on income tax should not be levied by the Centre except for a specific purpose and or a strictly limited period.
  16. The present division of functions between the Finance Commission and the Planning Commission is reasonable and should continue.
  17. Steps should be taken to uniformly implement the three-language formula in its true spirit.
  18. No autonomy for radio and television but decentralization in their operations.
  19. No change in the role of Rajya Sabha and the Centres power to reorganize the States.
  20. Giving powers to the Municipalities to issue tax-free bonds.

The Union Government has implemented 180 (out of 247) recommendations of the Sarkaria Commission. The most important is the establishment of the Inter-State Council in 1990 but it has not served the purpose.

Question 14.
Write about the functions of Election Commission of India.
Article 324(1) of the constitution provides the Election Commission to supervise and conduct the elections to parliament, state legislatures, the offices of the President and the Vice-President of India.

Composition: The Election Commission of India consists of the Chief Election Commissioner and Two other Commissioners.

Appointment: The Chief Election Commissioner and other commissioners are appointed by the president of India.

Tenure: The Chief Election Commissioner and other commissioners hold office for a period of 6 years or until they attain
the age of 65 years whichever is earlier.

Removal: The Chief Election Commissioner and other commissioners can be removed by the president on the basis of a resolution passed to that effect by both the Houses of Parliament with special majority either on the ground of proved misbehavior or in capacity.

Salary and Allowances: The Chief Election Commissioner and two other commissioners shall receive salary and Allowances which are similar to that of a Judge of the Supreme Court.

Powers and Functions of Election Commission :
The Constitution of India in its Articles 324-328 enumerates the powers and functions of the Election Commission. These can be mentioned here under.

  1. It prepares all periodically revised electoral rolls.
  2. It makes every effort to ensure that the voters’ list is free of errors like non-existence of names of registered voters or existence of names of that non-eligible or non-existent.
  3. It notifies the dates and schedules of election and scrutinizes nomination papers.
  4. During this entire process, the Election Commission has the power to take decisions to ensure a free and fair poll.
  5. It can postpone or cancel the election in the entire country or a specific State or constituency on the grounds that the atmosphere is vitiated and therefore, a free and fair election may not be possible.
  6. The Commission also implements a model code of conduct for parties and candidates. It can order a re-poll in a specific constituency.
  7. It can also order a recount of votes when it feels that the counting process has not been fully fair and just.
  8. The Election Commission accords recognition to political parties and allots symbols to each of them.
  9. It advices the President whether elections can be held in a state under President’s rule in order to extend the period of emergency after one year.
  10. It advices the Governor on matters relating to the disqualifications of the members of State Legislature.

Question 15.
What is a political party? Explain its characteristics.
Political Parties are the lifeblood of democracy. Political parties mould public opinion and create an order out of the choose of individual opinion. In general sense, political party is an organized group of citizens having the purpose of controlling the government through shared interest, by replacing some of its members in public office.

Political parties are defined by various political scientists in different ways. Some of them are given below:
1. Gilchrist: “Political party as an organized group of citizens who profess to share the same political views and who acting as a political unit try to control the Government”.
2. Leacock: “A political party is a more or less organized group of citizens who act together as a political unit”.

Characteristics of Political Parties: The following are the important characteristics of political parties.

  1. A party should consist of a group of persons of common interest and shared values.
  2. A party should have its own ideology and programme.
  3. It should capture power only by constitutional means through elections.
  4. It should endeavour to promote the national interest and national welfare.

Functions of Political Parties: The following are the main functions of political parties.
1. They articulate and agregate social interests of people: Parties express public exectations and demands of social groups to the political system. Parties put forward different policies and programmes for the welfare of people. These political parties are articulate and aggregate the peoples demands and channelize into political system for policies.

2. Political recruitment: Political parties perform the recruitment function in the political system. Parties recruit leaders,
train them and then make them ministers to run the government in the way they want. By this recruiting function, they provide leadership to the country.

3. Means of public opinion: They raise and highlight the peoples problems and issues. Political parties may agitate and launch movements for the solution the problems faced by people. Political parties demand the government for welfare policies their programmes will reflect the opinion of the people.

4. They promote political Socialization and participation of citizens: Political parties create a link between citizens and the political system; they enable political participation of individuals and groups with the prospect of success. They educate the citizens and prepare them for their adult roles are us citizens and voters.

5. Making laws: When parties come to power, they make laws for the country. Irrespective of their personal options. Opposition parties also participate in the discussion and debates and suggest the changes in the policies and programmes of the government.

6. Role of opposition: Parties that lose in elections play the role of opposition to the parties in power by criticizing the government for its failures or wrong policies. They can evaluate the performance of the ruling party and inform to the public about the merits and demerits of the policies and acts made by it.

7. Access to government machinery and welfare Schemes:
For an ordinary citizen, it is easy to approach a local party leader than a government officer. That is why they feel close to parties ever when they do not fully trust them. Parties have to be responsive to people’s needs and demands.

8. They contribute legitimacy to the political system:
In establishing the connection between citizens social groups and the political system, the parties contribute in anchoring the political order in the consciousness of the citizens and in social forces.

Question 16.
What are the different options suggested by Srikrishna Committee regarding the status of Andhra Pradesh?
The government of India constituted a Committee for consultations on the situation in Andhra Pradesh on 3 February, 2010 headed by Justice B.N.Sri Krishna. It Examined two main issues namely:

  • The demand for separate statehood of Telangana.
  • Keeping the state united in the present form, Andhra Pradesh.

The Committee submitted its report on 30 December, 2010 to the union home ministry The committee’s report contained the following six options.

  1. Maintaining the status quo.
  2. Bifurcation of the state into Seemandhra and Telangana. Each state is to develop its own capital. Hyderabad is to be converted into a union Territory.
  3. Dividing A.P into two states – one of Rayala Telangana with Hyderabad as its capital and the second one of the coastal Andhra Pradesh.
  4. Dividing Andhra Pradesh into Seemandhra and Telangana with Hyderabad metropolis as a separate union Territory.

It will be linked geographically to guntur district in coastal Andhra via Nalgonda district in the south East and via Mahaboob Nagar district in the South to Kurnool district in Rayalaseema.

5. Bifurcation of the state into Telangana and Seemandhra as per existing boundary & with Hyderabad as capital of Telangana and Seemandhra to have new capital.

6. Keeping the state united and providing for creation of statutorily empowered Telangana Regional Council for Socio -economic development and political development of Telangana Region.

Question 17.
Describe the formation of Andhra State.
The Desire of Formation of Andhra Pradesh is not a new one. Sri C.R. Reddy had expressed his feeling of fõrmation of Andhra Pradesh by virtue of their Telugu speaking on the eve of his guest lecture of convocation of Osmania University in 1938 later Prof. Mamidipudi Venkata Rangaiah expressed this view in an article.
1. Role of Communist Party: The Credit of the development of concept of Visalandhra has goes to communists of Andhra. They got thumping majority in 1952 general elections both in Andhra and Telangana regions the formation of Visalandhra was also included in their election manifesto to they used to promote the feeling among the people by establishment of Andhra State in 1953, October the politics has gone through the regions of Andhra and Telangana towards the formation of Visalandhra.

2. First Visalandhra Mahasabha: In 1949, November 26 the first Visalandhra mahasabha was held at Vijayawada under the leadership of Sri Ayyadevara Kaleswara Rao.

3. Second Visalandhra Mahasabha: In 1954, June 13 and 14 the second Visalandhra Mahasabha was held at Hyderabad led by Sri. Sri.

4. Fazal All Commission: In the wake of formation of separate Andhra the Keralites, and Karnatakas used to agitate for separate states. The Marathas had also joined with them N.V. Gadgil advised Nehruji, it is inevitable to the formation of linguistic state, unless and otherwise, the congress party could not Survive in South India. By following this advice on 22nd December this the Indian government as announced the formation of state the organization constitution (SRO) under the chairperson of fazad and essential him H.N., Kunzru, and K.M Phalikhan were other members committee had submitted its report to the union government on 30th September 1955.

The committee in its report observed and examined merits and demerits by forming Visalandhra and it also studied depends on the formation of decorate, Telangana, and its positive arguments by mentoring positive and Negative views the committee vision it is better to make an agreement like Sri Baga which was held in the case of formation of separate andhara State which does not create any harm to job opportunities and to protect the interests of Telangana people than the Visalandhra can be formed in addition to the above the Telangana Legislators has to approve the resolution with 2/3 majority who were elected in 1952.

5. Gentlmen’s Agreement: In Order to clear the doubts among the people of Telangana that the Visalandhra may Obstruct their Interests, the Gentlemen’s Agreement took place on 20th February 1996 at Delhi basing on the recommendations of Fazal Ali Commission. It was aitendd by Sri Bezwda Gopala Reddy the then Chief Minister of Andhra State, and his Cofleagues Sarvasri Neelam Sanjeeva Reddy, Gouihu Lanchanna, Ahuri Satyanarayana Raju from Andhra Region.

Sri Burgula Ramakrishna Rao the then Chief Minister of Hyderabad state and his co11eaues Savasri K.V. Ranga Reddy, Marri Chenna Reddy, J.V. Narsinga Rao from Telangana Region.

They had signed on the Agreement which contains the follows aspects.
1. The administrative expenditure of the state shall be contributed in proportion of both Andhra and Telangana. The surplus of Telangana should be confined for its development up to five years and it may be extended for another five years at the request of Telangana legislators.

2. The educational opportunities which are in Telangana shall be provided for them only more development is to be extended. Technical education and seats in Universities shall be allocated up to 1/3 for Telangana students.

3. The Vacancies arise in Füture shall be allocated to both Regions in proportion to their population.

4. 12 years of Residency is must for Andhra people to get job in Telangana.

5.  Regional Development Council shall be constituted for overall development of Telangana.

6. In Council of Ministers there shall be 60% from Andhra and 40% from Telangana respectively there must be one Muslim from Telangana part.

7. If the chief minister is belongs to Andhra Region, the deputy chief minister must be from Telangana Region and vice versa. At least 2 portfolios must be given to Telangana out of Home, Finance, Revenue, Planning, Development, Commerce and Industry.

Decks had been cleared for formation of Visalandhra in the wake of gentle agreement. The state Reorganization Bill was introduced in both houses of parliament on 16th March, 1956. On 5th April, 1956 the bill was approved by the Andhra legislative assembly by the following amendments.

The Name of the state should be Andhra Pradesh.
The capital and the high court must be set up at Hyderabad.
The general elections shall be held for the entire Andhra Pradesh in 1962;
The legislative council with 72 members should be set up.

  • On 13 April 1956, the bill was approved by the Hyderabad state legislative assembly.
  • On 25th August 1956 the bill was approved by Rajya Sabha and later by Lok Sabha.
  • On 31st August, the president of India gave his assent to the bill.
  • On 1st November 1956 on the eve of Diwali, the first linguistic state of Andhra Pradesh was formed.
  • C.M. Trivedi was the first governor.
  • Neelam Sanjeev Reddy was the first chief minister.

AP Inter 2nd Year Civics Question Paper March 2016

Section – C
15 x 2 = 30


  • Answer ANY FIFTEEN of the following questions in 5 lines each.
  • Each question carries 2 marks.

Question 18.
Write a short note on Preamble.
The Indian constitution begins with a preamble. The preamble clearly defines the objectives of our constitution. It declares India as a sovereign, as a socialist, Secular Democratic Republic. It provides liberty, equality, fraternity and justice. It states that the people of India are the chief sources of the political authority.

Question 19.
Write a short note on Habeas corpus.
Habeas corpus literally means ‘To produce the body of. It is in the nature of calling upon a person who has detained another to produce the latter before it. The court wants to know on what grounds a person has been detained. This writ frees a person whose detention has no legal justification.

Question 20.
What is the qualification required for contesting as Vice President?
A person to be eligible for election as vice president should possess the following qualifications:

  1. He should be a citizen of India.
  2. He should have completed 35 years of age.
  3. He should be qualified for election as a member of the Council of states.
  4. He should not hold any office of profit under the Union, State or Local Governments in India.

Question 21.
Write a short note on Article 352.
Article 352 of the Indian constitution empowers the President to impose National Emergency during the period of war, External Aggression, Armed Rebellion or internal disturbance. So far National Emergency was proclaimed on Four occasions.
They are:

  • Chinese Aggression (1962)
  • Indo – Pak war (1965)
  • Indo-Pak war in the context of Bangladesh überation movement (1971) and
  • Opposition’s call for blocking Parliament (1975).

Question 22.
Write a note on quorum of Lok’Sabha.
Quorum implies minimum attendance of members required for conducting the meetings of the Lok Sabha. Quorum is fixed at 1/10th of the total membership. The speaker determines whether there is Quorum on a particular day for conducting the meetings.

Whenever there is no Quorum, he postpones the meetings for an hour or two or for the next day. There are several instances where in the meetings of the Lok Sabha were deffered due to lack of Quorum.

Question 23.
Write about the question hour.
In both houses of Parliament first hour is allotted to question hour. The members, by giving notice to the presiding officer, can ask questions pertaining to public issues, administrative inefficiency or about the role of the government.

Question 24.
Write an essay on ‘Judicial Review”.
Judicial Review means the power of the Supreme Court or High Court to Examine the constitutional validity of the legislative enactments and executive actions of both central and state governments and to declare them null and void’ if found repugnant of the provisions of the constitution.

AP Inter 2nd Year Civics Question Paper March 2016

Question 25.
Write the qualifications of Governor.
Article 157 of our Constitution lays down the following qualifications for the appointment of a person as a Governor.

  1. He shall be a citizen of India.
  2. He should have completed the age of 35 years.
  3. He should not be a member of either house of Parliament or state legislature.
  4. He should not hold any other office of profit.
  5. He should not be an insolvent declared by any court of law.

Question 26.
Write about State Cabinet Ministers.
The Cabinet is a small boy consisting of Ministers holding the most important portfolios such as Home, Financer Planfling and Industries etc. They enjoy independence in taking and implementing decisions concerning their Ministry. They attend the Cabinet meetings, concerned by the Chiefs Minister. Sometimes the Ministers of state and Deputy Ministers may attend the Cabinet meetings, incase their presence is needed during deliberations. They met frequently and determine the policies of the State Government under the Stewardship of the Chief Minister.

Question 27.
Write the qualifications of M.L.A.
A person who wishes to contest for the membership of the State Legislative Assembly must be possess the following qualifications.

  1. He should be a citizen of India.
  2. He should have completed the age of 25 years.
  3. He should possess such other qualifications as prescribed by any act of Parliament.
  4. However, no person can simultaneously be a member of any House of the Parliament and of a State Legislature.

Question 28.
Write a note on Chairman of Legislative Council.
There will be a chairman in the Legislative council for conducting the meetings. He is elected by the members of the Legislative council among themselves. Dr. A. Chakrapani Yadav is the Present Chairman of Legislative council of Andhra Pradesh.

Question 29.
Write the qualifications of High Court Judges.
A person to be appointed as judge of High Court should possess the following qualifications.

  • He should be a citizen of India.
  • He should have held a judicial office in the territory of India at least 10 years. or
  • He should have been an advocate of a High Court or of two or more such courts for 10 years period. However, the constitution has not prescribed a minimum age for appointment as a judge of a High Court.

Question 30.
Write a note on ‘NITI’ Aayog’.
The NITI Aayog (National Institute for Transforming India) is tasked with the role of formulating policies and directions for the government. Its governing council will consist of the Chief Ministers of all the states in Indian Union and the Lieutenant Governors of the Union Territories.

Question 31.
Write a note on M.PD.O.
Mandal Parishad Developmeîìt Officer (MPDO) is the administrative head of Mandai Parishad’the plays a crucial role in the administrative affairs of the Mandai Parishad. He prepares the agenda of the parishad meetings and participates in the meeting and renders advice to the members on several matters of the Mandal Parishad. He prepares the annual budget of the Mandal Parishad. He takes steps for the effective working of the Mandal Parishad.

Question 32.
What is ‘Smart Village’?
The concept of smart village is the recent development in Panchayat Raj System in A.P inaugurated by the Chief Minister of A.P to achieve holistic, inclusive and sustainable development of the state. The state has a vision 2029. To realize this vision, the Government has adopted the mission-based approach to create the social and economic infrastructure; has adopted initiated campaigns to create awareness-seeking participation of the share holder.

A smart village /ward ‘ displays sustainable and inclusive development with all sections of its community enjoying a high standard of living.

Question 33.
Write a note on Electronic Voting Machines.
An Electronic voting machine is a simple electronic device used to record votes in place of ballot papers and boxes which were used earlier in conventional voting system. The advantages of the EVM over the traditional ballot paper system are given below.

  • It eliminates the possibility of invalid and doubtful votes.
  • It makes the process of counting of votes much faster that the conventional system.
  • It reduces to a great extent the quantity of paper used, thus saving a large number of trees.
  • It reduces cost printing as only one sheet of ballot papers required for each polling station.

Question 34.
Write any two election reforms.
The Electoral Reforms will ensure the free and fair elections in the country. The successful functioning of Indian democracy depends on the electoral reforms.

Some Electoral Reform proposed:

  1. The donation of companies to the political parties should be strictly banned.
  2. The accounts of the political parties are to be audited by the Election commission periodically.
  3. The number of members of the Election commission shall be raised.
  4. The limit on election expenditure of the candidates must be proper, practical and realistic.
  5. The announcemer of new policies, projects and programmes by the party in power during elections should be banned.
  6. The members of the election commission should be appointed by the president on the advice of the prime minister, leader of the opposition in the Lok Sabha and the chief justice of India.
  7. The government should meet the election expenditure of the candidates.
  8. The election commission should be authorised to invalidate the election of a candidate if it was proved that the had used government machinery during elections.
  9. Notification should be issued to the voters and electronic voting machines should be introduced after fool-proof arrangements.
  10. The candidate who secures 51 percent of the polled votes shall be declared as winner.

AP Inter 2nd Year Civics Question Paper March 2016

Question 35.
Write a note on regional parties.
A political party which participates in state Assembly elections and secures 6% of valid polled votes and 2 Assembly seats can be recognised as a regional party. Ex: TDP in Andhra Pradesh, DMK and AIADMK in Tamil Nadu, AGP in Assom, National conference in J & K, Akalidal in Punjab, BJD in Odisha etc.

Question 36.
Write a note on multiple-party system.
In Multi-party system there are more than two parties operating in a political system. Ex: This type of party system is in existence in India, France, Sweeden etc.

Question 37.
Write about J.V.P. Committee.
The Jaipur Congress session appointed a three-man committee which consisted of Jawaharlal Nehru, Vallabhaipatel and Pattabhi Seetha Ramaiah popularly known as JVP Committee to reconsider the separate state demand. The committee submitted report in 1949 April stating that the separate state can be formed upon a condition that the Andhra people has to set a side the desire of Madras city.

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