AP Inter 2nd Year Civics Model Paper Set 8 with Solutions

Thoroughly analyzing AP Inter 2nd Year Civics Model Papers Set 8 with Solutions helps students identify their strengths and weaknesses.

AP Inter 2nd Year Civics Model Paper Set 8 with Solutions

Time: 3 Hours
Max. Marks:100

Section – A
3 x 10 = 30


  • Answer any THREE of the following questions in 40 lines each.
  • Each question carries 10 marks.

Question 1.
What is Judicial Activism? What are its merits and Demerits?
Generally, Judicial Activism is construed to be the over willingness of the judiciary to jump into the arena of executive or legislative functions. Judicial Activism, in fact, is not a distinctly separate concept from usual judicial activities. In general parlance, the expression “activism” means “being active”, “doing things with decision” and the expression “activist” should mean “one who favours intensified activities”. In this sense every judge is an activist.

Judicial Activism is a policy-making in competition with policy making by legislature and executive. The essence of true Judicial Activism is rendering of decisions which are in tune with the temper and tempo of the times. The nature of Judicial activism is that it furthers the cause of social change or articulates concepts like liberty, equality or justice.

Judiciary which is an institution that traditionally confined to responding to cases brought before it, began considering many cases merely on the basis of Newspaper reports and postal complaints received by the court. But most of the cases of Judicial Activism have occurred through Public Interest Litigation in the sphere of Public Health, Child Labour, Environment, Corruption, etc. Therefore, the Judicial Activism became the most popular description of the role of Judiciary.

Causes for Judicial Activism:
The following are the causes for the emergence of Judicial Activism in India.

  1. Expansion of the rights of hearing in the administrative process.
  2. Excessive delegation without Limitation.
  3. Judicial Review over administration.
  4. Promotion of open government.
  5. Indiscriminate exercise of contempt of power.
  6. Exercise of jurisdiction when non – exist.
  7. Overextending the standard rules of interpretation in its search for socio-economic and educational objectives.
  8. Breakdown of other machinery of the government.

Merits of Judicial Activism:

  1. Judicial Activism has democratized the judicial system by giving, access to the courts not just to individuals but also to groups.
  2. It has enforced executive accountability.
  3. It made an attempt to make the electoral system more free and fair.
  4. It is due to the impact of Judicial Activism during elections the candidates who tender affidavits disclosing their assets, income, educational qualifications, criminal record, etc. This enables the people to elect better candidates.


  1. Judicial Activism has blurred the line of distinction between the executive and legislature on the one hand and the judiciary on the other hand.
  2. Some felt that Judicial Activism led to the worsening of relations and balance among the three organs of government.
  3. Democracy is based on the principle that each organ of government will respect the powers and jurisdiction of others. But Judicial Activism may negate this democratic principle.

AP Inter 2nd Year Civics Model Paper Set 8 with Solutions

Question 2.
Explain the Role and Responsibilities of the Speaker of Legislative Assembly.
The members of State Legislative Assembly elect one among them as a speaker to conduct the business of the House. His term of office is five years. The speaker is the guardian of the Rights and liberties of the members of the House.

Role and Responsibilities (or) Powers and Functions of the Speaker: The powers and functions of the speaker of the State Legislative Assembly are almost the same as those of the Speaker of Lok Sabha. His powers and functions are as follows.

  1. The speaker preserves order and decorum in the House for conducting legislative business.
  2. He allocates time for different kinds of business in the House.
  3. interprets the rules and procedure.
  4. He puts matters to vote and announces the results.
  5. He has the right of casting vote in case of a tie.
  6. He admits motions, resolutions and points of order.
  7. He is empowered to adjourn the meeting of the House in the absence of a quorum.
  8. He can order for removal of indecent and incriminatory references from the records.
  9. He allows the members to speak in the House.
  10. He may name a member and ask him to leave the House in case of disorderly behavior.
  11. He can adjourn the House in case of grave disorder or serious matter.
  12. He accepts and rejects the resignation of a member of the House after ascertaining whether it was submitted under due process or not.
  13. He appoints the Chaii’tnen of all the committees of the assembly and supervises their functioning. He himself is a Chairman of Business Advisory Committee, Rules Committee and the General Purpose Committee.
  14. He decides where a bill is a Money Bill or not. His decision on this question is final.

Question 3.
Mention briefly the main Provisions of the 73rd Constitution Amendment Act.
The Union Government headed by the Prime Minister PV Narasimha Rao strongly felt the need for immediate grant of Constitutional status to the Panchayat Raj Institutions. It introduced a Bill to that effect in the Parliament in September 1991. Later, the bill was referred to ajoint select committee which studied the former and submitted its report in July 1992. The bill was accepted by the Parliament and the same was referred to the state Legislatures for their approval. As majority state legislative assemblies accepted the Bill, it became an Act in the name of the Constitution (Seventy-Third Amendment) Act, 1992. The Act came into force from April 24, 1993.

The Act reinserted Part IX which was deleted by the Constitution (Seventh Amendment) Act, 1956 and added a new Schedule, namely 11th Schedule. The Act deals with Articles 243 to 243 (O) of the Indian Constitution.

Salient features
The 73rd Constitutional Amendment Act of 1992 has the following salient features:

  1. The Act defined clearly certain terms like District, Gram Sabha, Panchayat, Village, etc.,
  2. It constituted a Gram Sabha for every village which acts as the legislative body at the village level.
  3. It made obligatory for every state to implement three tire system of Panchayat Raj i.e., Panchayat at the Village, intermediate and district levels.
  4. It insisted every state legislature to make laws for the composition of Panchayat on uniform basis. It further specified direct elections to panchayat based on territorial constituencies. It provides right to vote to the chairpersons of Panchayat and other members whether directly elected or not.
  5. It provided reservation in every Panchayat for Schedule Castes and Schedule Tribes in proportion to their population to the total population in the Panchayat area and women not less than 1/3rd of the total seats (Andhra Pradesh Government enhanced the Women Reservation up to 50%).
  6. It specified the duration of Panchayat as five years and insisted on holding elections before the expiration of the term or in case of dissolution within six months.
  7. It prescribed the eligibility and disqualifications of the candidates in local government.
  8. It provided for the creation of a Finance Commission for local bodies.
  9. It provided for auditing the accounts of the Panchayats by the state account and audit officers.
  10. It also provided for the State Election Commission for conducting elections to the local bodies.
  11. It stated that union territories shall follow the directives of the President of India in constituting or abolishing Panchayats.
  12. It mentioned some exemptions to the states having administrative councils in scheduled areas.
  13. It provided for special Tribunals for solving election disputes.

Question 4.
What is Representation? How many types of Representative Systems are there in India?
Representation: In Democracy people elect members to the Legislatures. The elected members are the representatives of the people. They represent the people in the Legislature. This process is called representation.

‘Types of Representative systems in India: Many methods are in practice for electing the representatives of Legislative bodies in India. They may be explained under the following heads:
i) Direct Method: This is widely practiced and easy method. The voter takes part in the election directly and csts his vote to the candidate of his choice. The elected representatives serve for a fixed term.
Ex: The members of Lok Sabha and State Legislative Assemblies are being elected through this method.

ii) In Direc’t Method: In this method the voters elect their representatives indirectly. Accordingly, first voters (Primary electors) elect the Intermediary electors known as secondary Electors. These secondary electors in turn, elect the Representatives on behalf of the first voters. The sequence is
Voters → Intermediatory voters → Representatives
Primary voters → Secondary voters → Representatives
(Members of Electoral College)
Ex: In India, voters elect the members of Legislative Assemblies in the states, who in turn, elect the members of Upper house, Popularly known as the RAJYA SABHA in the center in accordance with the provisions, Rules and Regulations in force. They also elect the members of Legislative council and form a part and parcel of electoral college for electing the President of India.

iii) Territorial Representation: Under Territorial Representation, the country will be divided into geographical units called “Constituencies”. Voters in every constituency elect their representatives in periodically held elections. i.e., for every five years.

  • Representatives of Local bodies.
  • Members of State Legislative Assemblies and
  • Members of Lok Sabha.

iv) Functional Representation: Under this method people are divided into functional groups, such as for example Doctors, Lawyers, Engineers, Teachers, Graduates, Capitalists, Workers etc. representatives from each functional group will be returned to legislative bodies. It is hoped that these representatives will ventilate all the problems related to their occupations. Ex: in India

  • The president of India nominates 12 members to the Rajya Sabha having special knowledge or practical experience in respect of matters such as literature, science, arts and social service.
  • 1/3 of the total members of the state legislative council shall be elected by the electorate consisting of the members of local bodies such as Municipalities, Zilla parishads etc.
  • 1/12 of the total members of state legislative council are elected by the electorate consisting of University graduates.
  • 1/12 of the total members of state legislative council are elected by the electorate consisting of secondary school teachers or those in higher educational institutions.
  • 1/6th of the total members of state legislative council are nominated by the governor on the basis of their special knowledge in literature, science, arts, co-operative movement or social service.

v) Proportional Representation: Under this system each party gets representation strictly in accordance with its voting strength. It means majority of electors would have majority of the representatives, but a minority of electors would have minority of representatives. There are two methods in proportional representation. These are

A) Single Transferable Vote System: The election of President, Vice President, and members of Rajya Sabha, etc. in India is based on this system. The main features of this system are

  1. Each voter will have only one vote.
  2. But the voter has to distribute this vote according to his preference (First preference, second preference, etc).
  3. The candidate to be declared elected should secure the required QUOTA of votes.
  4. Provision for transfer of votes.

QUOTA: Under this system as stated above, A candidate in order to be declared elected need not secure majority votes. But he requires only quota of votes. For determining quota, two methods are followed.

A) Hare and Andrae’s method of fixing quota:
\(\frac{\text { NUMBER OF VOTES CAST }}{\text { Number of members to be elected (or Number of seats vacant) }}\) = Quota
Number of votes cast 14000
Number of seats vacant 14
Quota 1400 votes

B) Drop method:
\(\frac{\text { NUMBER OF VOTES CAST }+1}{\text { Number of seats vacant }+1}\) = Quota
Number of seats vacant + 1
Number of votes cast 4000
Number of seats vacant 4
Quota \(\frac{4000}{4+1}+1 \) = 800 + 1 = 801

AP Inter 2nd Year Civics Model Paper Set 8 with Solutions

Question 5.
Explain the Right to Information Act.
The Right to Information act 2005 is an act of the parliament “to provide a setting out the practical regime of right to information of citizens”. The act applies to all states and Union territories of India except to Jammu and Kashmir. According to the act all the citizens have the right to seek information from any quarter which under the control of the public authority. The idea is to give transparency, accountability and disclosure in Government administration.

The act specifies that citizens have a right to –

  • Request any information.
  • Obtain copies of documents.
  • Inspect document works and records,
  • Takes certified samples of materials of work.

Process: Under the act all authorities covered must appoint their information officer (PlO). Any person may submit request to the PLO for information in writing. If the request has been made to the PLO the reply is to be given within thirty days of receipt.

If information is not provided within this period it is treated deemed refusal. This is a fee of Rs. 10 filling the request Rs. 2 for page of information Rs. 5 each hour of after the first hour. Persons Below the Foverty Line (BPL) are exempted from the fee payment. However, he or she should submit a proof in support of his or her claim for belonging to the section below poverty line.

Exclusions: IB, RAW, CBI, Directorate of revenue Intelligence, Central Economic Intelligence, Bureau, Narcotics Control Bureau, BFS, CRPF, ITBP, Dadra and Nagar Haveli and Special branch, Laksha Dweep Police for that information relating to all allegations of human right violation could be given but only with the approval of central (or) state information commission.

The following exempt from disclosure section (8) Eight:

  • Information disclosure of which would prejudicially effect the sovereignty and integrity of India.
  • Information which has been expressly forbidden to be published by any court of law or tribunal or disclosure of which may constitute contempt of court.
  • Information the disclosure of which would cause the breach of privilege of parliament (or) state legislature.
  • The information which would impact the process of investigation or apprehension of prosecution of offenders.
  • The administrator appointed under Article 239 of the constitution.

The Central Information Commission: The central information commission consisted of one chief commissioner, a number of CIC not exceeding ten. All the commissioners shall be appointed by the president of India. Head quarter is in Delhi.

The state information commission: The state information commission consisted of one chief commissioner and not more than ten. information commissioners appointed by the state.

The central information commission or state information commission as the case may be shall while inquiring into any matter have the same powers as or vested in a civil court.

Section – B
8 x 5 = 40


  • Answer any EIGHT of the following questions in 20 lines each.
  • Each question cames 5 marks.

Question 6.
Explain the significance of Directive Principles of State Policy.
Directive principles of state policy are considered as the most significant feature of the indian constitution. They have great significance in the administration of our country. Though they lack legal sanction, they enjoy popular support and possess public sanction. If the party in power fails to implement these principles, it has to face resistance from the electorate in the coming elections.

So, no government can afford to ignore the implementation of these principles. The opposition, the press and the electorate would exert pressure on the government for implementing these principles. Hence the union government considered these principles as the basis for the functioning of National Planning Commission (or) NITI Ayog. They have helped the courts in exercising their power of Judicial Review.

To conclude, directive principles of state policy are considered as an authoritative declaration of the aims and aspirations of Indians formulated by their representatives after solemn and mature deliberations as they are considered’ as the goal of social Revolution.

Question 7.
Explain the Role of the Prime Minister in the Union Government.
The prime Minister plays a predominant role in the affairs of the union government. He will have an indelible impression on everyone in the administration of the union government. He is described as the Primus Interparus (first among equals). His role as the leader of the Union Council of Ministers, Union Cabinet, Party in power, Lok Sabha, Nation, and as the link between the President and the Union Council of Ministers is unique. He wields tremendous political power and patronage. He enjoys enormous powers and fulfills innumerable tasks. It all depends on the image, influence, stature, and personality of the Prime Minister in the union government.

Jawaharlal Nehru, Dr. Ambedkar and other eminent leaders of the National Movement and members of the Constituent
Assembly described the Prime Minister as the linchpin of the union government. It is in this context that Sir William Harcourt remarked that everyone expects from the Prime Minister dignity and authority, firmness to control, tact, practice and firmness, an impartial mind, a tolerant temper, a kind and prudent counsellorship, and accessibility to the people.

AP Inter 2nd Year Civics Model Paper Set 8 with Solutions

Question 8.
Write a note on the Types of Bills.
A Bill is a proposed law under consideration by a legislature.
A bill does not become law until it is passed by the legislature. Once a bill has been enacted into law, it is called on Act or statute. Bills introduced in the Parliament are of two types.

  1. Public bill (Government bill) and
  2. Private bills (Private member’s bills)

the public bills are introduced by the Ministers in the Parliament where as private bills are introduced by any member of Parliament other than a Minister. The bills introduced in the Parliament may also be classified into four categories.

  1. Ordinary bill: Ordinary bills are concerned with any matter other than financial subjects.
  2. Money bill: Money bills are concerned with the financial matters like taxation, public expenditure, etc.
  3. Finance bill: The financial bills are also concerned with financial matters but are different from money bills. These bills deal with fiscal matters i.e., revenue of expenditure.
  4. Constitutional Amendment Bill: Constitutional Amendment bills are concerned with the provisions of the constitution.

Question 9.
What are the Powers and Functions of the Attorney – General of India.
Article 76 of our Constitution provides for the office of the Attorney General of India. The Attorney General is the highest law officer of the Union Government. He is appointed by the President.

He holds the office during the pleasure of the President. He is entitled to all privileges and immunities allowed to a Member of Parliament. When he attends sessions of the House, he occupies a seat on the treasury government benches.

The Attorney General of India Possess the same qualifications that are necessary for a judge of the Supreme Court. They are as follows.

  1. He must be a citizen of India.
  2. He must have served as a judge in some High Court for a period of at least five years.
  3. He must have served as an advocate in some High Court for a period of at least ten years.
  4. He must be a distinguished jurist in the opinion of the President.

Pay and Allowances
The Attorney General of India is paid not a salary but a remuneration that is determined by the President. The remuneration of Attorney General is equal to salary of a judge of the Supreme Court.

He may quit his office by submitting his resignation to the President. He can be removed by the President in case a special address is passed charging him with ‘proved misbehavior’ or ‘incapacity’ by each House of Parliament with its absolute majority and with a two-thirds majority of the members present and voting.

Powers and functions
The Constitution assigned some specific powers and functions to the Attorney General of India. They are mentioned as follows :

  1. The Attorney General of India render advice to the Union Government upon such legal matters which are referred to him by the President.
  2. He performs such other functions of legal character that are assigned to him by the, President from time to time.
  3. He discharges the Functions conferred on him by the constitution or any other Laws.
  4. He appears in any court of Law on behalf of the union government in all cases.
  5. He represents the government in any reference made by the president to the Supreme Court.
  6. He appears in any High Court on behalf of the union government.

Question 10.
‘The Preamble is the Soul of the Constitution’. Explain.
A preamble is the most salient features of Indian constitution. It denotes the essential philosophy of Indian constitution. It reflects the aims, aspirations, and objectives of the makers of Indian constitution. Jawaharlal Nehru described the Preamble as a declaration, a firm resolve, a pledge, an understanding and something more than a resolution. Preamble begins with the sentence ‘we, the people of India’ adopt, enact and give to ourselves this constitution’. It declared India as a sovereign socialist, secular, democratic, and republic. It announced that Indians enjoy liberty, equality, fraternity, and justice. t clearly stated that sovereignty in India belongs the people of IndiaJustice Madholkar pronounced that Preamble is the essence of Indian constitution. Justice Hidayatullah praised the Preamble as “the soul of the constitution”.

The Preamble after the Constitution (Forty Second Amendment) Act, 1976 is as follows:
We, the people of India having solemnly resolved to constitute India into a Sovereign Socialist Secular Democratic Republic and to secure to all its citizens. Sovereign’ – which means its authority within the country is undisputed and externally it is free from other’s control. “Socialist” means a state that doesn’t allow any kind of exploitation – social, economic and political.

“Secular’ – It gives equal freedom to all religions.
“Democratic” – Stipulates that the sovereign power vests with the people. They exercise it periodically through universal Adult Franchise.

A “Republican” state assures that public offices are open to every citizen without any discrimination. There is no place for hereditary principles.

  1. Justice – social, economic, and political.
  2. Liberty of thought, expression, belief, faith, and worship.
  3. Equality of status and of opportunity; and to promote among them all.
  4. Fraternity assuring the dignity of the individual and the unity and integrity of the nation.

In our Constituent Assembly this twenty-sixth day of November, 1949 do hereby adopt, enact, and give to ourselves this Constitution”.

AP Inter 2nd Year Civics Model Paper Set 8 with Solutions

Question 11.
Explain any Five Differences between Fundamental Rights and Directive Principles of State policy.

Fundamental Rights Directive Principles
1) The concept was borrowed from the American Constitution. 1) The concept was borrowed from Irish Constitution.
2) These aim at establishing a political democracy in the country. 2) These aim at establishing a social and economical democracy in the society.
3) These are justicable and then enforced by the courts. 3) These are non-justicable and cannot be enforced by the courts.
4) These are personal and Individualistic in nature. 4) These are societarian and socialistic in nature.
5) These promote the welfare of the Individual. 5) These promote the welfare of the society.

Question 12.
Describe the Composition and Powers of the Union Council of Ministers.
Composition of Council of Ministers: Our Constitution did not mention the exact size of the Union Council of Ministers. But there are three kinds of Ministers:

  1. Cabinet Ministers
  2. Ministers of State
  3. Deputy Ministers.

The Cabinet Ministers are entrusted with the maintenance of some important ministries. They enjoy independence and decision-making powers.

The Ministers of State act as the heads of some important sections in the ministry. They Te directly responsible to the Prime Minister for their activities.

The Deputy Ministers have t independent and discretionary powers. They assist the Cabinet Ministers and perform the functions assigned to them.

The Cabinet or the Council of Ministers is the pivot around which the entire administration of our country revolves. it is the steering wheel of the ship of the State”. It is the hyphen that joins the Executive and Legislative organs of the Government.

Powers and Functions:
1. Executive Powers: The Union Cabinet is a deliberative and policy formulating body. It discusses and decides all National and International policies of the country. The policies decided by the cabinet are carried out by the Ministers. It directs and leads the Parliament for action and gets its approval for all its policies. It co ordinates and guides the activities of departments of the Government. It also plays an important role by suggesting persons for all major appointments. It considers the reports of various committees before they are presented to the Parliament.

2. Legislative Powers: The Cabinet plans the legislative programme of the Government at the beginning of each session of Parliament. It drafts Bills on all important matters and introduces them in the Parliament. It also decides the time of summoning and prorogation of Parliament. The inaugural speech of the President to the Parliament is prepared by the Cabinet.

3. Financial Powers: The Cabinet possesses important financial powers. It has complete control over national finance. It prepares the Union Budget. It decides what taxes are to be imposed and how much of expenditure is to be incurred. Money Bills are always introduced in the Lok Sabha by the Finance Minister.

4. Foreign Relations: In the field of foreign relations also the Cabinet plays an important role. It determines and formulates the foreign policy of the country and decides India’s relations with other countries. It considers and approves all international treaties and agreements.

Question 13.
Write any three Functions of District Collector?
1. Revenue Administration: Revenue administration is a traditional function of the Collector.

  • The Collector makes arrangements for the collection of land revenue
  • He hears the difficulties of the farmers on land revenue matters
  • He receives petitions from the farmers and tries to settle their problems
  • He collects land revenue. In this respect, he is assisted by officials of revenue department like Revenue Divisional Officers, Mandal Revenue Officers, Revenue Inspectors, etc.,
  • He is responsible for Land reforms, Land acquisition, etc.
  • He recommends remissions of Land revenue during famines or other calamities.
  • He maintains land revenue records and agricultural statistics of the district.

2. District Magistrate: The Collector acts as the District Magistrate. In that capacity, he

  • Issues orders for the maintenance of law and order in the district.
  • Disposes of petitions and complaints from the private individuals and the Government.
  • Imposes prohibitory orders during disturbances.
  • Supervises Subordinate Courts.
  • Take steps for the provision of better facilities to prisoners.
  • Inspects police stations .. ..etc.

3. As a District Election Officer: District Collector is the returning officer for elections to Parliament and State Legislature
within the district. It is his responsibility to coordinate the election work at district level and conduct the polls freely and peacefully. Thus the Collector plays a key role in district administration. He is considered as the friend, philosopher, and guide of the people in the district.

Question 14.
Write a short note on Electoral Functions.
The electoral functions are different for the individual voter and for the political system. For the Individual voter, elections may be regarded as a means of political participation and to some extent, of policy choice, although for many voters. Even in democratic societies, elections may be a customary at to which little significance is attached. For the political system, elections are important devices for assuring legitimacy and for system maintenance and support building. Hence, the electoral functions may be considered into four broad categories.

They are:

  • Political choice
  • Political participation
  • Support- building and system – maintenance, and
  • Linkage functions.

a) Political choice: The elections may be used or interpreted as a plebiscite, a referendum, or a mandate. They are the instruments for choosing the leaders and also determining the will of the people. They are devices for controlling political leaders. Control of leaders involves some degree of control of governmental choice and policies. They provide the means for the peaceful and orderly transfer of power.

b) Political participation: The major electoral function is to provide opportunities and channels for political participation. This function of elections is a central one as political participation is essential in the democratic system. The participation strengthens the democratic system.

c) Support-building and system – maintenance: The elections support the political system by providing legitimacy, political stability, integration, and identification. The elections, are there fore a contributing rather than a controlling factor of a political system. Rosenau uses the term support-building as function of elections and hence, all other functions could be subsumed under it.

d) Linkage functions: Elections are important agencies of political communication between te people and the government in the sense of political linkages. They provide a chance for the people to have more direct contact with their leaders.

Question 15.
What is Political Party? Explain its characteristics and Functions.
Political Parties are the lifeblood of democracy. Political parties mould public opinion and create an order out of the choices of individual opinions. In general sense, political party is an organized group of citizens having the purpose of controlling the government through shared interest, by replacing some of its members in public office.

Political parties are defined by various political scientists in different ways. Some of them are given below:

  1. Gilchrist: ‘A political party as an organized group of citizens who profess to share the same political views and who acting as a political unit try to control the Government”.
  2. Leacock: “A political party is a more or less organized group of citizens who act together as a political unit”.

Characteristics of Political Parties: The following are the important characteristics of political parties.

  1. A party should consist of a group of persons of common interest and shared values.
  2. A party should have its own ideology and programme.
  3. It should capture power only by constitutional means through elections.
  4. It should endeavour to promote the national interest and national welfare.

Functions of Political Parties: The following are the main functions of political parties.
1. They articulate and aggregate social interests of people: Parties express public expectations and demands of social groups to the political system. Parties put forward different policies and programmes for the welfare of people. These political parties are articulate and aggregate the peoples demands and channelize into political system for policies.

2. Political recruitment: Political parties perform the recruitment function in the political system. Parties recruit leaders, train them, and then make them ministers to run the government in the way they want. By this recruiting function, they provide leadership to the country.

3. Means of public opinion: They raise and highlight the people’s problems and issues. Political parties may agitate and
launch movements for the solution the problems faced by people. Political parties demand the government for welfare policies their programmes will reflect the opinion of the people.

4. They promote political Socialization and participation of citizens: Political parties create a link between citizens and the political system; they enable political participation of individuals and groups with the prospect of success. They educate the citizens and prepare them for their adult roles are us citizens and voters.

5. Making laws: When parties come to power, they make laws for the country. Irrespective of their personal options.
Opposition parties also participate in the discussions and debates and suggest the changes in the policies and programmes of the government.

6. Role of opposition: Parties that lose in elections play the role of opposition to the parties in power by criticizing the government for its failures or wrong policies. They can evaluate the performance of the ruling party and inform to the public about the merits and demerits of the policies and acts made by it.

7. Access to government machinery and welfare Schemes:
For an ordinary citizen, it is easy to approach a local party leader than a government officer. That is why they feel close to parties even when they do not fully trust them. Parties have to be responsive to people’s needs and demands.

8. They contribute legitimacy to the political system: In establishing the connection between citizens’ social groups and the political system, the parties contribute in anchoring the political order in the consciousness of the citizens and in social forces.

AP Inter 2nd Year Civics Model Paper Set 8 with Solutions

Question 16.
Write a note on Telugu Desam Party in Andhra Pradesh.
Telugu Desam party is a prominent regional party in Andhra Pradesh. It was founded on March 29, 1982 by N.T. Rama Rao, a popular Cine Star It has achieved landslide victory in the A.P state Legislative Assembly elections held in December 1982. N.T.Rama Rao acted as the Chief Minister of Andhra Pradesh thrice – 1983, 1984 and 1994. There was a first split in the party in August 1984. N. Bhaskara Rao, a cabinet Minister quit the party and started a new party called Telugu Desam party (Democratic) and formed the ministry with the support of congress – I. Consequently, Telugu Desam Party and some other parties launched agitation under the name of Restoration of Democracy’. N.T. Rama Rao was reinstated as the Chief Minister by the then Governor, S.D. Sharma on the intervention of president Zail Singh. The party has lost its power in 1989.

Assembly elections and has served as the main opposition in the state Legislative Assembly. It came to power again by winning majority seats in 1994 and 1999 elections. The party has undergone yet another split in August 1995 under the leadership of N.Chandra Babu Naidu and got recognition by the Election Commission as the real one. The party has joined as a partner in the United Front Ministry (1996-98) at the centre. It has extended its support from outside to the Union government led by National Democratic Alliance ministry (1999-2004). The party has continued in power in Andhra Pradesh between 1994 and April 2004. In the Andhra Pradesh general elections, 2004 and 2009 the Congress Party captured the power.

The Telugu Desam Party gained a few more Assembly seats in 2009 elections than the 2004 election. In 14th Assembly General Elections held in 2014, the Telugu Desam Party under the leadership of Nara Chandra Babu Naidu got 102 seats out of 174 Seats and formed the government. Sri N. Chandrababu Naidu became the first Chief Minister of bifurcated Andhra Pradesh in 2014.

Policies: Following are the main policies of Telugu Desam Party.

  1. Provision of essential commodities at subsidised prices to the people living below poverty line (BPL).
  2. Construction of houses for the poor.
  3. Empowerment of women.
  4. Adoption of e-governance.
  5. Provision of education to every child between the age group of 6- 15.
  6. Promotion of welfare of the scheduled castes, scheduled tribes and other weaker sections.
  7. Administration at the doorsteps of the common man.
  8. Provision of better Civil amenities to the poor.
  9. Adopting secular policy.
  10. Support to economic reforms such as liberalization, privatization and globalization.

Question 17.
What are the Different options suggested by Sri Krishna Committee regarding the status of Andhra Pradesh.
The government of India constituted a Committee for consultations on the situation in Andhra Pradesh on 3 February, 2010 headed by Justice B.N.Sri Krishna. It examined two main issues namely:

  • The demand for separate statehood of Telangana.
  • Keeping the state united in the present form, Andhra Pradesh.

The Committee submitted its report on 30 December, 2010 to the union home ministry The committees report contained the following six options.

  1. Maintaining the status quo.
  2. Bifurcation of the state into Seemandhra and Telangana. Each state is to develop its own capital. Hyderabad is to be converted into a union Territory.
  3. Dividing A.P into two states – one of Rayala Telangana with Hyderabad as its capital and the second one of the coastal Andhra Pradesh.
  4. Dividing Andhra Pradesh into Seemandhra and Telangana with Hyderabad metropolis as a separate union Territory.

It will be linked geographically to Guntur district in coastal Andhra via Nalgonda district in the south East and via Mahaboob Nagar district in the South to Kurnool district in Rayalaseema.

5. Bifurcation of the state into Telangana and Seemandhra as per existing boundaries, with Hyderabad as capital of Telangana and Seemandhra to have new capital.

6. Keeping the state united and providing for creation of statutorily empowered Telangana Regional Council for the Socio-economic development and political development of Telangana Region.

Section – C
15 x 2 = 30


  • Answer any FIFTEEN of the following questions in 5 lines each.
  • Each question carries 2 marks.

Question 18.
Written Constitution.
The constitution of India is the most written, lengthy, and detailed document in the world. In 1950 the Indian constitution had 22 parts, 8 schedules, and 395 articles. After subsequent amendments, it contains 12 schedules and 444 articles for the present.

Question 19.
The Indian constitution begins with a preamble. The preamble clearly defines the objectives of our constitution. It declares India as a sovereign, as a socialist, Secular Democratic Republic. It provides liberty, equality, fraternity and justice. It states that the people of India are the chief sources of the political authority.

Question 20.
Types of Directive Principles.
On the basis of their content and direction directive principles of state policy can be classified into three broad categories namely socialistic, Liberal – intellectual, and Gandhian principles.

Question 21.
Mention any three Liberal Principles.

  1. The state shall secure for the citizens uniform civil code throughout the country (Article 44).
  2. The state organize Agriculture and Animal husbandry on modern and scientific lines, (Article 48).
  3. The state shall take steps to separate judiciary from executive in public services of the state (Article 50)

Question 22.
Composition of the Union Executive.
The constitution of India provides for the Union Executive. Articles 52 to 78 in part V of the constitution deal with the union executive. The Union Executive consists.

  • The President
  • The Vice – President
  • The Prime Minister and
  • The Union Council of Ministers

Question 23.
Article 352.
Article 352 of the Indian constitution empowers the President to impose National Emergency during the period of war, External Aggression, Armed Rebellion or internal disturbance. So far National Emergency was proclaimed on Four occasions.
They are:

  • Chinese Aggression (1962)
  • Indo – Pak war (1965)
  • Indo-Pak war in the context of Bangladesh Liberation Movement (1971) and
  • Oppositions call for blocking Parliament (1975).

AP Inter 2nd Year Civics Model Paper Set 8 with Solutions

Question 24.
Qualifications required for Contesting as Vice-President.
A person to be eligible for election as vice president should possess the following qualifications:

  1. He should be a citizen of India.
  2. He should have completed 35 years of age.
  3. He should be qualified for election as a member of the Council of states.
  4. He should not hold any office of profit under the Union, State, or Local Governments in India.

Question 25.
Qualifications of Rajya Sabha Member.

  1. He shall be a citizen of India.
  2. He shall have completed 3d years of age.
  3. He should not hold any office of profit under union, state or local government.
  4. He shall possess such other qualifications as prescribed by the Parliament.

Question 26.
Every political party whether ruling or opposition has its own whip in the Parliament. He is appointed by the concerned party to serve as an assistant floor leader. He is charged with the responsibility of ensuring the attendance of his party members in large numbers. He regulates and monitors their behaviour in the Parliament. The members are supposed to follow the directives given by whip, otherwise, disciplinary action can be taken against those members.

Question 27.
Qualifications of Judges of Supreme Court.
A person to be appointed as a judge of the Supreme Court shall possess the following qualifications:

  1. He should be a citizen of India.
  2. He should have continuously worked as a judge in one or more High Courts at least for a period of 5 years.
  3. He should have continuously worked as an advocate of one or more High Courts for not less than 10 years or
  4. He should be a distinguished jurist in the opinion of the president of India.

Question 28.
Qualifications of Governor.
Article 157 of our Constitution lays down the following qualifications for the appointment of a person as a Governor.

  1. He shall be a citizen of India.
  2. He should have completed the age of 35 years.
  3. He should not be a member of either house of Parliament or state legislature.
  4. He should not hold any other office of profit.
  5. He should not be an insolvent declared by any court of law.

Question 29.
Two Discretionary Powers of the Governor.

  1. Playing a decisive role in appointing the new Chief Minister in a situation when no single party has a clear majority in the State Legislative Assembly.
  2. Dismissing a Ministry when it refuses to resign even after losing majority support in the house.

Question 30.
Deputy Speaker.
The members of State Legislative Assembly elect one among them as a Deputy Speaker. His term of office is 5 years. The deputy speaker performs the duties in the absence of the speaker.

Question 31.
Appointment of High Court Judges.
The Chief Justice of High Court is appointed by the President after consultation with the Chief Justice of India and the Governor of the concerned State. The other judges of High Court are appointed by the President with the consultation of the Chief Justice of High Court of the concerned State. In the case of a common High Court for two or more States, the Governors of concerned States are consulted by the President.

Question 32.
Any 3 relations between union and states.
The Union and State Relation in India are divided into three heads.
They are:

  1. Legislative
  2. Administrative and
  3. Financial Relations.

Question 33.
Union list.
The union list is a longest list. It consists of 100 subjects. The Union Parliament has exclusive power to make laws on these subjects like Defence, Foreign Affairs, Railways, Airways, Banking, Insurance, etc.

Question 34.
Town ship.
Township is established by the public sector undertakings to provide basic civic amenities to its personnel. It has no elected members There will be a Town Administrator for every township. He is appointed by the concerned ministry of union government. Its services are meant not for the general public but for the personnel working in the public sector undertakings.

Question 35.
Rural Local government.
Rural Local Governments or Panchayati Rai institutions in India. signifies the system of Rural Local Governments. They serve as the backbone of Indias political culture. These institutions are of three types, popularly known as three-tier system.

  1. Gram Panchayats
  2. Mandal Parishads and
  3. Zilla Parishads.

AP Inter 2nd Year Civics Model Paper Set 8 with Solutions

Question 36.
In democracy, people elect members to the legislatures. The elected members are the representatives of the people. They represent the people in the legislature. This process is called representation.

Question 37.
J. V. P. Report.
The Jaipur congress session appointed three Men Committee which consists of Jawaharlal Nehru, Vallabhaipatel, and Pattabhi Seetha Ramaiah, Popularly known as NP Committee to reconsider the separate state demand. The committee submitted report in 1949 April stating that the separate state can be formed upon a condition that the Andhra people has to set a side the desire of Madras City.

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