# AP Inter 2nd Year Civics Model Paper Set 5 with Solutions

Thoroughly analyzing AP Inter 2nd Year Civics Model Papers Set 5 with Solutions helps students identify their strengths and weaknesses.

## AP Inter 2nd Year Civics Model Paper Set 5 with Solutions

Time: 3 Hours
Max.Marks: 100

Section – A
3 x 10 = 30

Note:

• Answer any THREE of the following questions in 40 lines each.
• Each question cames 10 marks.

Question 1.
Explain the composition, powers and functions of the State Legislative Assembly.
The Constitution provides for a Legislature for every State on the model of the Parliament. As per Article 168, the State Legislature consists of the Governor and one or two Houses. In India, while some States have Bicameral Legislatures, the others have Unicameral Legislatures. Andhra Pradesh at present possesses Unicameral Legislature.

The Lower House of the State Legislature is known as the Legislative Assembly or Vidhana Sabha and the Upper House as the Legislative Council or Vidhana Parishad.

Composition of Legislative Council (Vidhana Parishad):
The Upper House of the State Legislature is known as Legislative Council. The Constitution lays down that a Legislative Council shall have not less than 40 members and not more than of the total membership of the State Assembly. The Legislative Council consists of both nominated and elected members. The election is conducted through indirect method by means of proportional representation with a single transferable vote.

Distribution of Seats:

1. $$\frac{1}{3} \mathrm{rd}$$ are elected by the members of the State Assembly.
2. $$\frac{1}{3} \mathrm{rd}$$ are elected by members of local bodies.
3. $$\frac{1}{12}^{\text {th }}$$ the are elected by teachers.
4. $$\frac{1}{12}{ }^{\text {th }}$$ the are elected by graduates.
5. The remaining 1/6th members are nominated by the Governor from among persons who have distinguished themselves in the fields of literature, Science, Arts, Social Services, etc.

Qualifications:
The members of the Council

1. must be citizens of India,
2. must have completed 30 years of age and
3. must possess such other qualifications as may be prescribed by the Legislature.

Term : The members are elected for a period of 6 years. But of them retire for every 2 years. The Council is a permanent body. It cannot be dissolved by the Governor.

Chairman and Deputy Chairman: The Council has a Chairman and a Deputy Chairman who are elected by the members of the Council from among themselves. The Chairman presides over the meetings of the Council.

Legislative Assembly (Vidhana Sabha):
Composition of the Legislative Assembly: The Legislative Assembly is the popular and powerful chamber of the State Legislature. It is the lower house and resembles more or less the Lok Sabha at the Centre. It consists of representatives directly elected by the people of the State on the basis of universal adult franchise. It’s maximum strength is fixed at 500 and minimum strength at 60. Only the Legislative Assembly of Sikkim has less than 60 because of it’s small population. Those who become members of State Legislative Assembly must be citizens of India and must be above 25 years of age.

Term of Office: The normal term of Assembly is 5 years. It may be dissolved earlier by the Governor on the advice of the Chief Minister. The Parliament may extend it’s term by one year, when National Emergency is in force.

Presiding Officers: The Presiding officer of Assembly is known as Speaker. He is elected by the members of the Assembly. The Assembly also elects a Deputy Speaker to conduct the business of the House in the absence of the Speaker.

Powers and Functions of the State Legislature: The State Legislature has the following powers.
1. Legislative Powers and Functions : The State Legislature has the power to make laws on aU the subjects included in the State List. It has also the power to make laws in respect of subjects included in the Concurrent List. However, such a law should not disagree with a law already made by the Parliament on the same subject. In the making of laws, the Legislative Assembly has been given more powers than the Legislative Council. The Legislative Council at the most may delay the legislation for a period of 4 months. Later the Assembly sends the bill to the Governor for his assent.

2. Constitutional Powers and Functions: Even though the Legislature has no powers to move the Constitution amendment bills, it’s consent is required for amending certain provisions of the Constitution. Such bills have to be referred to it after they are approved by the Parliament.

3. Executive Powers and Functions: The State Legislature exercises control over the Council of Ministers. It’s members make the Ministers individually and collectively responsible to the Legislature. The Council of Ministers is collectively responsible to the State Legislative Assembly. The Legislature can expose the actions of Executive, through questions, debates and adjournment motions.

In controlling the Executive, the Legislative Assembly has more powers than the Council. The Ministry has to resign when the Legislative Assembly passes no confidence motion against the Government.

4. Financial Powers and unctions: The State Legislature exercises complete control over the finances of the State Government. It sanctions money to the State Government to enable it to run the administration. It may pass, reduce, or reject the demands for grants presented to it by the Government. It may accept or reject proposals for taxation and borrowings presented to it by the Government.

In financial matters, the Assembly is more powerful than the Council. Because all money bills, including the Budget, shall be introduced first only in the Assembly. It can accept or reject any recommendations made by the Council.

5. Electoral Powers : The elected members of the Assembly participate in the election of the President. They also elect the representatives of the State to the Rajya Sabha and 1/3rd members of the Legislative Council if the State Legislature is bicameral. They also elect the presiding officers and deputy presiding officers of Assembly and Council.

Miscellaneous Powers: The state legislature:

1. Safeguards the dignity and privileges of its members.
2. Suspends, expels or terminates their membership.
3. Examines the report of the State Public Service Commission and the Comptroller and Auditor General etc.

Conclusion: The State Legislature plays an important role in the State Administration. It makes necessary laws for the welfare of the people of the State. It controls the Executive by making it responsible for their actions.

Question 2.
Discuss the three lists of Union-State relations.
The Constitution of India makes three-fold distribution of legislative powers between the Union and States. List-I (the Union List), List-II (the State List) and list-III (the Concurrent List)

The Union List: The Legislative1elations have been divided between the Union and States in a unique way. The Union list is a longest list. In the beginning of the constitution, it consists of 97 subjects. This list has at present loo subjects. The Union Parliament has exclusive power to make laws with respect to any of the matters enumerated in the Union List. The subjects in this list include Defence, atomic energy, matters related to the UN, Foreign Affairs, diplomatic representation, treaties with foreign states, war and peace, citizenship, Railways, National Highways, airways, shipping, regulation and control of air traffic, post and Telegraph, Telephones, currencies, commerce and Banking, Interstate Trade, Insurance, foreign loans, patents, weights waters, Union Public Service Commission, All India Services, election to Parliament etc. The laws made on these subjects are applicable to all the State and to all the citizens equally.

State List: Under normal circumstances, the State Legislature has exclusive powers to make laws with respect to any of the matters enumerated in the State List. It consists of 66 subjects of provincial importance. After the 42 Amendment, this number was reduced to 62 subjects. The State Legislatures have exclusive power to make laws on matters enumerated in this list. Some of the important subjects included in the State list are law and order, justice, jails, police, agriculture, irrigation, public health, local self government, pilgrimages, libraries, fisheries, markets and fairs and land revenue etc. These laws are only applicable to the individuals or institutions within that state only.

The Concurrent List: Both the Parliament and the State Legislatures are authorized to make laws over the subjects included in this list. There are 47 subjects of local and national importance. After the 42nd Amendment Act, 1976, their number was increased to 52. Both the Union and State Governments may enact laws on these matters. ut the Union law prevails upon the laws of the States in case of conflict between the two. Some of the subjects under the Concurrent List are – forests, protection of wild animals and birds, population control and family planning, education including technical and medical education, criminal law and procedure, marriage and divorce, trusts and trustees, adulteration, trade unions, electricity, press and newspapers, and weights and measures except establishment of standards etc.

The Union Parliament is empowered to amend and repeal the laws made by the States or any subjects mentioned in the concurrent List. It has power exclusively to make any law with respect of any subject not enumerated in the Concurrent List or State List. But under certain special circumstances the Union Government is empowered to abolish the powers of the states over the subjects included in the State List.

Residuary Powers: The powers which are not included in any of the above lists are called Residuary Powers. They are assigned to the union government. Ex: The power of the Parliament to impose taxes on the services sector of the economy.

Question 3.
Do you think that Indian Election System needs to be performed?
The overall health of a representative form of Government depends, to a very large extent, on the fairness and effectiveness of the electoral process. In order to strengthen the foundations of our democratic polity, several reforms need to be undertaken in the electoral system. The system should provide equal opportunities to all citizens and help to build an egalitarian society. This would call for a careful review and reforms of existing features governing legislative, administrative, and institutional dimensions of the electoral system in the country.

Within the broad framework of the existing constituency system of elections, geographics delimitation, and multi-party system with the right to individuals to contest, the main issues that need to be examind include plugging loopholes in the present Representation of People Act and Anti-Defection Act.

The various committees and commissions which were appointed to examine our electoral system, eleçtion machinery as well as election process have recommended various reforms that have to be introduced in our electoral system. These can be mentioned briefly here under.

1. The donation of companies to the political parties should be strictly banned.
2. The accounts of the political parties are to be audited by the Election commission periodically.
3. The number of members of the Election commission shall be raised.
4. The limit on election expenditure of the candidates must be proper, practical and realistic.
5. The announcement of new policies, projects and programmes by the party in power during elections should be banned.
6. The members of the election commission should be appointed by the president on the advice of the prime minister, leader of the opposition in the Lok Sabha and the chief justice of India.
7. The government should meet the election expenditure of the candidates.
8. The election commission should be authorised to invalidate the election of candidate if it was proved that he had used government machinery during elections.
9. Notification should be issued to the voters and electronic voting machines should be introduced after fool-proof arrangements.
10. The candidate who secures 51 percent of the polled votes shall be declared as winner.

Question 4.
Explain the various types of parties and estimate the role of Regional Parties in India.
There are four types of Political Parties in the modern democratic states.
They are:

1. Reactionary Parties
2. Conservative Parties
3. liberal Parties, and

The Reactionary Parties are those which are clinging to the old socio-economic and political institutions. The Conservatives believe in the status-quo. The Liberal Parties aim at reforming the existing institutions. The Radical Parties aim at establishing a new order by overthrowing the existing institutions. Parties are also again classified on the basis of ideologies. The political scientists have placed the radical parties on the left, the liberal parties in the Centre and the reactionary and conservative parties on the right. In other words, they are described as the ‘leftist parties’, ‘centrist parties’, and ‘rightist parties’.

After India became independent many political parties came into existence. Among these are some national parties, while some are regional parties D.M.K. in Tamil Nadu, Telugu Desam in A.P., National Conference in Jammu and Kashmir, Kranti Ranga in Karnataka and Assam Gana-Parishad in Assam have come into existence and have flourished as regional parties.

Reasons for the rise of regional parties: Regional parties have been playing a vital role in the Indian politics. These regional parties have come into existence due to the causes mentioned here under.

Causes for the promotion of regional parties:
1. Regional parties based on regional issues: India is a vast country with a great diversity. The Governments that came to
power after Independence have not attempted to eliminate the economic imbalances and the differences between the different regions. Regional parties have come into existence based on a problem in a certain region. In Tamil-Nadu at first D.K. and later D.M.K. have come into existence basing on the issues of preservation of Tamil culture, language issue, and opposition to the imposition of Hindi.

In Punjab, Akali Dal was set up for the formation of a Punjabi Suba to safeguard the special status of Kashmir, National Conference was founded. Due to excessive intervention of the centre in Andhra Politics and the self-respect of Andhra Telugu Desam party come into existence and captured power in 1983. As regional parties have given prominence to the solution of the local issues, they have been reaping the sympathy of the people. So within a short time regional parties have flourished.

2. Failure of the Congress in solving regional issues: The regional parties have flourished due to the failure of the Congress in solving regional issues. The Congress party has not taken regional disparities into account. It has not also tried to solve them in time and in a factful way. D.M.K in Tamil Nadu became powerful on account of the language problem and the imposition of Hindi to which Tamilians are opposed. On account of the Centre’s frequent intervention in A.P. Politics and disregard in selling up Central Government Industries Telugu Desam became powerful. In all the regions where regional parties have been formed, the failure of the Congress in solving regional issues is clearly seen.

3. Economic disparities between the states: The Central Government has not implemented schemes to remove the economic disparities between the regions of the country and to ensure economic well-being of all the regions. As economic disparities between the different states grew, the protests and agitations gave rise to the bir1h of the regional parties. With the vast economic resources at its disposal, the change did not attempt to remove the economic disparities. Economic inequalities are the main causes behind political agitations or movements. The frustration at the different provincial levels gave rise to the rise and development of regional parties.

4. Individuality of regional leaders and their influence: The individuality and influence of the regional leaders can be said
to be one of the factors for the rise of regional parties. May parties have been founded only by leaders who have individuality and influence. These have been able to secure popularity. Ex: Sri M.G. Ramachandran has founded the A.I.A.D.M.K. and Sri N.T. Rama Rao founded the Telugu Desam party. The strength behind these regional parties is derived from one individual. So, the party workers in a disciplined manner exhibit their allegiance to their leader. By this factor, only regional parties have been thriving.

5. Electoral agreements or adjustments: Where the regional parties are strong the national parties for their existence have been making electoral alliances with the regional parties. After the elections depending on the results these national parties have been joining the ministry or lending support from outside. So these regional parties have been flourishing. These factors have been responsible for the growth of regional parties in India.

Question 5.
Examine the causes that led to Bifurcation of Andhra Pradesh.
The movement for separate Telangana state was revived with the creation of Chattisgarh, Jharkhand, and Uttarakhand in 2000. This time, the political movement was spearheaded by the Telangana Rashtra Samithi (TRS). Andhra Pradesh was the first state to be formed on the linguistic basis. But even after co-existence of 57 long years, the sense of same language has failed to keep the people of the state united.

The rationale behind the agitation for Telangana is not merely Economic Backwardness’ but the culmination of grievances such as intentional neglect of the region in water sharing, funds allocation, employment opportunities, and even cultural discrimination. These claims may or may not pass the test of rationality. But, once a section of people start exhibiting their serious apprehensions and inconveniences to live with their counterparts in other regions, it is difficult to sustain unity.

Causes that led to Bi-furcation:
1. The congress party entered into an alliance with TRS in 2004 elections.

2. The congress-led UPA government promised that the decision on separate Telangana state will be taken at an appropriate time by getting consensus of all the political parties through the presidential address to the parliament during its first session on the eve of formation of 14th Lok Sabha.

3. The U.P.A. government constituted a cabinet sub-committee headed by Sri Pranab Mukherjee to have wider consultations with all the political parties regarding the creation of separate Telangana. Sri Raghuvams Prasad Singh (RJD) and Sri Dayanidhi Maran (DMK) were the other two members.

4. The Ruling party showed little interest in creating Telangana state. By the year 2009 when general elections are due,
the congress party had gone back on its promise.

5. During 2009 elections the Telugu Desam, CPI, and CPM parties entered into electoral alliance with TRS by forming the grand Alliance that they are in favour of separate State of Telangana.

6. In the Wake of Hunger Strike of Sri K. Chandra Sekhar Rao, the TRS supreme and with the intensification of agitation for separate Telangana. Home Minister Chidambaram said in December 2009, that is serious about Telangana.

7. The government of 1r1ia constituted a committee for consultations on the situation in Andhra Pradesh on 3rd February 2010. It was headed by Justice B.N. Sri Krishna. It examined two main issues namely,

• the demand for separate statehood Telangana
•  keeping the state united in the present form, Andhra Pradesh.

The committee submitted its report on 30 December, 2010 to the Ministry of Home Affairs.

The Sri Krishna Committee solicited suggestions and views from political parties, social organizations, and other stakeholders. The Committee’s report contained six options.

They are mentioned as follows.

1. Maintaining the status quo.
2. Bifurcation of the state into Seemandhra and Telangana. Each state is to develop its own capital. Hyderabad is to be converted into a Union Territory.
3. Dividing A.P. into two states – one of Rayala Telangana with Hyderabad as its Capital and the second one of the coastal Andhra Pradesh.
4. Dividing Andhra Pradesh into Seernandhra and Telangana with enlarged Hyderabad metropolis as a separate Union Territory. It will be linked geographically to Guntur district in coastal Andhra via Nalgonda district in the southeast and via Mahaboob Nagar district in the south to Kurnool district in Rayalaseema.
5. Bifurcation of the State into Telangana and Seemandhra as per existing boundaries with Hyderabad as capital of Telangana and Seemandhra to have new capital.
6. Keeping the State united and providing for creation of a statutorily empowered Telangana Regional Council for socio socio-economic development and political development of the Telangana region.
7. Telangana leaders rejecte% the recommendations of the Committee and insisted on the formation of Telangana state with Hyderabad as its capital, Protests in Telangana continued in the form of strikes, hunger strikes, suicides, giving petitions and roses to public officials and boycotting the public events.
8. The UPA coordination committee agrees to the division of Andhra Pradesh on July 30, 2013.
9. Andhra Pradesh Reorganization Bill, 2014 was passed by the Parliament in February 2014 amidst pandemonium in the Parliament. The Seemandhra region was in turmoil.
10. The Bill was attested by the President on March 1st, 2014.
11. The New 29th state of Telangana was created on 2nd June, 2014 with 119 members of Legislative Assembly and 40 members of Legislative Council, 17 members in the Lok Sabha and 7 members in Rajya Sabha.
12. The Residuary state of Andhra Pradesh would have 175 MLA’s, 58 MLC’s, 25 MPs in Lok Sabha and 11 MPs in Rajya Sabha.

There would be a common High Court and the expenditure would be apportioned between the two states. Hyderabad will remain the common capital under the Governor’s supervision for not more than ten years. Later in May 2015 a new capital city for Andhra Pradesh was announced with ‘Amaravati’. The capital city would stretch to the parts of Guntur and Krishna districts of the new state.

Section – B
8 x 5 = 40

Note:

• Answer any EIGHT of the following questions in 20 lines each.
• Each question carries 5 marks.

Question 6.
Write briefly the elements of the Constitution.
The term constitution implies a written document embodying the provisions relating to the powers and functions of the government organs the rights of the people and their relations with the government.

Elements of the constitution:
1. The constitution prescribes a set of basic rules that ensure coordination amongst the members and groups of a society. The constitution specifies the basic allocation of power in a society. It decides who frames the laws. For example, in a democratic country like, the people through their elected representatives make the laws i.e., the Parliament at national level and state legislatures at state level are empowered to make laws.

2. It specifies the structure of the government and its limitations of the modern governments are made up of three organs, viz.

• Legislature which frames the laws within the limits set by the constitution.
• The executive, the President or the Governor, the Council of Ministers headed by the Prime Minister or Chief Minister would be taking policy decisions as per the guidelines provided by the Parliament or Legislature.
• The Judiciary by interpreting the laws would set limits on the powers of both the legislature and executive.

Through the Judiciary, the constitution ensures limited and responsible government. Through the Judiciary, the constitution ensures limited and responsible government. For example: Article 13 of the Indian constitution establishes the Supremacy of the constitution.

3. The Constitution establishes the relationship between the rulers and the ruled. Fundamental rights and Fundamental Duties spell out in detail the mutual obligations of the citizens and the state. Part III and Part IVA of the Indian constitution bind the state and the citizens towards each other.

4. Every society has certain aspirations and goals. The state came into existence to fulfill the bare needs of the people and continues to exist for the good life of all. It is the constitution which directs the state i.e., government to make certain policies for welfare of the people. Ex: Directive principles of state policy which incorporated in part – IV of the Indian Constitution.

5. The constitution, as the Supreme document, serves as a shock absorber in limiting the fluctuations of present and future generations. It is a living document that connects the past with the present and assures a predictable future. Modern societies cannot survive without a just constitution.

Question 7.
Write a note on the changing relationship between fundamental rights and directive principles of state policy.
Fundamental Rights and Directive principles of state policy are the salient features of Indian Constitution. Changing Relationship between Fundamental Rights and Directive Principles: Although a distinction is mode between fundamental rights and directive principles of state policy by way of justiciable and non-justiciable nature. Yet over the years directive principles of state policy have become politically important and the relationship between the two has undergone several changes.

The Supreme Court consistently held the opinion that the directive principles of state policy should be subsidiary to the fundamental rights. Judgments in various disputes like Sajjan Singh Vs State of Rajasthan and Golaknath Vs. State of Punjab, the Supreme Court confirmed its stand and reiterated that it is the duty of Parliament to enforce the Directive principles without tampering the Fundamental Rights.

As a result of the invalidation of certain laws like the Nationalization of Banks and abolition of privy purses, the Parliament enacted the (Twenty-Fifth Amendment) constitution Act in 1971 which declared that the enforcement of the directive principles of state policy shall not be invalidated by any court on the grand that it violates the fundamental rights in articles 14, 19 and 31 of the constitution.

Again the (Forty Second Amendment) constitution Act passed by Parliament in 1976 declared that po law, giving effect to any of all directive principles, shall be invalid on the ground that it infringes on Fundamental Rights. However, in the Minerva Mills case, the Supreme Court restricted the original supremacy and sanctity of the fundamental rights over the directive principles of state policy. Thus, the fundamental rights have primary over the directive principles.

In the case of Keshavananda Bharati Vs state of Kerala. The Supreme Court held that the Parliament cannot among the basic structure of the Constitution. By implication, the Supreme Court considered fundamental rights as a part of the basic structure of the Constitution.

Question 8.
Explain the role and position of the president in Union government.
The President of India is the head of the union executive. He is the first citizen of India. He could exercise many powers as enstined in the constitution in the following manner.

Position of the President: There are different opinions on the actual position of the president of India in the administration of our country. The farmers of the constitution wanted with to be a nominal Head of the state.

Dr. Ambedkar compared his position to that of the British King Sri. M. C. Setalved, the farmer Attorney General of India mentioned that the position of the President of India is like the king in England and the Governor General in a Dominion. Sri Alladi Krishna Swamy Ayyar also said that it was perfectly clear that our president’s position was similar to that of the constitutional Monarch in England.

Jawaharlal Nehru, the first Prime Minister of India, said that We have not given our President any real power but we have made his position one of great authority and dignity.’ These opinions make it clear that our President is only a nominal figurehead and he does not have any real powers. This is confirmed by the 42nd Amendment of the constitution of India.

However, the President exercises independent powers under some conditions. He utilises these powers in regard to the appointment of the Prime Minister, dissolving the Lok Sabha, and ordering midterm pou to the Lok Sabha. Some presidents like Sanjiva Reddy, Zail Singh, R. Venkata Raman, Dr. S.D. Sharma etc., utilised their discretionary powers where there was political instability or Hung Parliament after the general elections in the country. Like the Monarch of England, he still enjoys three rights the right to be consulted the right to encourage and the right to warn.

Question 9.
Explain the election of the Speaker of the Lok Sabha.
The members of the Lok Sabha elect the Speaker from among themselves. According to the Parliamentary convention, the speaker is unanimously elected or chosen by the members on the request of the Prime Minister.

When no single party secures majority or when a coalition Ministry is formed, the coalition Ministry is formed, the coalition partners will make efforts for deciding the candidature for the office of the speaker. Sometimes coalition partners may hand over that office to a candidate selected by the parties that declare support from outside. A person elected as the speaker must be a member of the Lok Sabha.

Question 10.
Explain the Advisory Jurisdiction ql the Supreme Court
Under Article 143, the Supreme Court has advisory jurisdiction. Accordingly, the Supreme Court offers its advice to the President on those matters of legal or public, or constitutional importance, when the President seeks such advice. It also reports its opinion over the disputes referred to it by the President, arising out of any treaty, agreement which was made or executed before the commencement of the Constitution. So far the Supreme Court rendered its advice to the President on eight occasions. The president, in the recent past, sought the advice of the Supreme Court on the ‘Ayodhya Issue’.

These are excluded by Article 131. However, the Supreme Court is not bound to render advice on such matters, and the
President is not bound to accept such an advice.

One may immediately question about the utility of the advisory powers of the Supreme Court. The utility is twofold. In
the first place, it allows the government to seek legal opinion on a matter of importance before taking action on it. This may prevent unnecessary litigations later. Secondly, in the light of the advice of the Supreme Court, the government can make suitable changes in its actions or legislations.

Question 11.
What is the position and significance of the governor In the state?
The Constitution of India provides for the Parliamentary System of Government both at Centre and in the States. While the Governor is only a nominal executive, the real executive constitutes the Council of Ministers headed by the Chief Minister. The Constitution has assigned a dual role to the office of a Governor in the Indian federal system. He is the Constitutional head of the State Government as well as the representative of the Union Government.

As the Constitutional head of the state government, he must positively contribute to the progress and development of the State. He has to see that the political and administrative heads of the State Government strive for the promotion of the interests of the people. The Governor has to ensure that the ministers and bureaucrats must observe the constitutional and democratic norms. It is the responsibility of the Governor o see that the affairs of the government are carried on in accordance with Constitutional provisions. The Governor has to maintain close and harmonious relations with the real executive heads of the Union and State Governments.

The Governor is not supposed to run a parallel government in the State. His role is that of a good counselor, mediator, and arbitrator than an active politician. He shall abide by the advice of the State Council of Ministers. This does not mean that he should accept all proposals immediately. He can reserve Bills for reconsideration and prevent hasty decisions. Great caution and restrainment must be exercised while reporting to the President under Article 356. Otherwise, his image as guardian of the State Government would tarnished. He should keep himself away from active politics.

If he identifies himself with a political party, he cannot inspire the total trust of the people. Being the representative of the Centre, the Governor has the responsibility of informing through reports whether the State is complying with the directives issued by the Union from time to time. It is his constitutional obligation to inform the Union whether the constitutional machinery is functioning smoothly in the state or not.

The Centre-State relations largely depend upon the action and performance of the Governor. He can make or mar the healthy relations between the Union and the State. The Constitution has given certain discretionary powers to the Governor. If the Governor makes use of these powers sparingly, judiciously, and impartially, tensions between the Centre and the States would certainly be reduced. If he acts with bias and at the behest of the Central Government, the tensions between the Centre and State would undoubtedly be enhanced. The role of the Governor in the formation or dissolution of the Ministry or imposing of President’s Rule will have far-reaching implications and consequences in the healthy and harmonious Centre-State relations.

Question 12.
What do you know about Public Accounts Committee?
Public Accounts Committee consists of 20 members out of which 15 members belong to Assembly and 5 members belong to Legislative Council. They are elected through indirect election by following the principle of proportional representation for a period of one year. The Chairman is normally the member of Opposition Party. The Ministers of Cabinet cannot be member of Public Accounts Committee.

Functions: Public Account Committee performs the following functions.
1. The committee examines the accounts showing the appropriation of sums granted by the house for expenditure of the state government.

2. It scrutinizes the appropriation accounts of the state and the reports of the Comptroller and Auditor General.

3. It shall be the duty of the Public Accounts Committee to examine such a trading, manufacturing, and profit and loss
accounts and balance sheets and the accounts of the state government and also to consider the report of the Comptroller and Auditor General.

4. The committee carefully considers the accounting and audit procedures.

5. The committee is not concerned with the question of policy approved by the legislature.

6. The committee investigates expenditure after it has already incurred. An overall, this committee is generally described as a post-mortem committee.

Question 13.
Discuss the powers and functions of the State Advocate Evaluate the recommendations of the Sarkaria Commission.
Every State in Indian Union shall have an Advocate General, an official corresponding to the Attorney-General of India. He performs similar functions for the State that of the Attorney-General of India. He is the highest law officer in the State.

Appointment: The AdvocatF General is appointed by the Governor of the State under the Article 165 of the Constitution. A person to be appointed as Advocate General must possess the following qualifications.

1. He should be a citizen of India.
2. He must have held a judicial office for ten years or an advocate of a High Court for ten years.
3. He must be a person who is qualified to be appointed a judge of a High Court.

Tenure and Removal: The Constitution of India did not mention the tenture of Advocate General. Furthermore, the Constitution does not contain the procedure and grounds for his removal. He holds office during the pleasure of the Governor. He may be removed by the Governor at any time. He may also quit his office by submitting his resignation to the Governor. Conventionally, he resigns when the government resigns or is replaced, as he is appointed on the advice of the government.

Salary: His remuneration is not fixed by the Constitution. He receives such remuneration as the Governor may decide from time to time.

Powers and functions: As the highest law officer of the State Government, he exercises the following powers and functions.

• He advises the State Government upon such legal matters which are referred to him by the Governor.
• He performs such other duties of a legal character that are assigned to him by the Governor.
• He discharges the functions and conferred on him by the Constitution.
• He appeared before any court of law within the State.
• He has a right to speak and to take part as member in the proceedings of the house(s), but no right to vote.
• He can also attend any of the Standing Committee meetings of State Legislature.

Question 14.
What are the functions of Panchayat Secretary?
The Union Government appointed a three-member Commission on Centre-State relations under the Chairmanship of R.S.Sarkaria, a retired judge of the Supreme Court. B.Sivaraman, S.R.Sen and Rama Subramaniam were appointed as other members. The Commission was asked to overhaul and review the working of existing arrangements between the Union and States in all spheres as and recommend such changes and measures as may be appropriate. It was initially given one year time to complete its work, but its term was extended four times. The final report was submitted on October, 27, 1987 and the summary was later officially released in January, 1988.

The Sarkaria Commission made 247 recommendations to improve the center-state relations. The important recommendations are mentioned below:

1. A permanent Inter-State Council called the Inter-Governmental Council should be set up under Article 263.
2. Article 356 (President’s Rule) should be used very sparingly in extreme cases as a last resort when all the available alternatives fail.
3. The institution of All India Services should be further strengthened and some. more such services should be created.
4. The residuary powérs of taxation should continue to remain with the Parliament, while the other residuary powers should be placed the Concurrent list.
5. When the President withholds his assent to the State bills, the reasons should be communicated the State Government.
6. The National Development Council (NDC) should be renamed and reconstituted as the National Economic and Development Council (NEDC).
7. The zonal councils should be constituted afresh and reactivated to promote the spirit of federalism.
8. The Union should have powers to deploy its armed forces, even without the consent of States. However, it is desirable that the States should be consulted.
9. The Centre should consult the States before making a law on a subject of the Concurrent List.
10. The procedure of consulting the Chief Minister in the appointment of the State Governor should be prescribed in the Constitutional itself.
11. The net proceeds of the Corporation tax may be made permissibly shareable with the States.
12.  The Governor cannot dismiss the Council of Ministers so long as it commands a majority in the assembly.
13. The Governor’s term of five years in a State should not be disturbed except for some extremely compelling reasons.
14. No commission of enquiry should be set up against a State Minister unless a demand is made by the Parliament.
15. The surcharge on income tax should not be levied by the Centre except for a specific purpose and or a strictly limited period.
16. The present division of functions between the Finance Commission and the Planning Commission is reasonable and Should continue.
17. Steps should be taken to uniformly implement the three-language formula in its true spirit.
18. No autonomy for radio and television but decentralization in their operations.
19. No change in the ‘role of Rajya Sabha and the power to reorganize the States.
20. Giving powers to the Municipalities to issue tax-free bonds.

The Union Government has implemented 180 (out of 247) recommendations of the Sarkaria Commission. The most important is the establishment of the Inter-State Council in 1990 but it has not served the purpose.

Question 15.
What are the functions of Panchayat Secretary?
Every Panchayat shall have a full time Secretary who is an officer of the government. He shall draw his salary and allowances from the Panchayat fund as per government rules. He will be in charge of the office of the Panchayat. He will work under the direct supervision of the Panchayat Sarpanch.

Powers and Functions of the Panchayat Secretary :
Panchayat at Secretary performs the following functions. They are:

• Preparation of budget and annual administration report.
• Preparation of monthly/quarterly statements of accounts.
• Maintenance of cash book.
• Keeping all records of the Panchayat in safe custody.
• Allotment of duties to the staff posted in Gram Panchayat.
• Submission of application for grant-in-aid and maintain grant-in-aid register.
• visit the work sites and assess the work in progress.
• Attend to complaints relating to developmental works etc.

Question 16.
What is representation? What do you know about territorial representation?
Representation: In democracy; people elect members to the Legislatures. The elected members are the representatives of the people. They represent the people in the Legislature. This process is called representation.

Territorial Representation: In the territorial or geographical representation system, the total electorate of the country is divided into territorial units called constituencies which elect one or more representatives. The constituencies are more or less equal in size and population. All voters living in a particular Constituency take part in the election of representatives. Where one representative is elected from a constituency it is known as a single-member constituency Where more than one representative is elected, it is known as a multi-member constituency. Most of the modem states, including India, have followed single-members constituencies for the elections to the lower houses of the legislature.

Question 17.
Explain briefly about Bharatiya Janata Patty.
Bharatiya Janatha Party is one of the All India Parties in India. It was established on April 6, 1980. Earlier it was known as
Bharatiya Jan Sangh founded by Shyam Prasad Mukharjee on October 21, 1951. Deenadayal Upadhyaya, Atal Bihari Vaj Payee, Lai Krishna Advani, Murali Manohar Joshi, Jana Krishna Murthy, Kushbhav Thakre, and Venkaiah Naidu acted at its presidents.

Although initially unsuccessful, winning only two seats in the 1984 general election, it grew in strength on the back of the Ram Janmabhoomi and Babri Majid issue. Following victories in several state elections and better performances in national elections, the BJP became the largest party in the Parliament in 1996; however, it lacked a majority in the lower house of Parliament, and its government lasted only 13 days. After the 198 general elections, the BJP-led coalition known as the National Democratic Alliance (NDA) formed a government under Prime Minister Atal Bihari Vajpayee for a year. Following fresh elections, the NDA government, again headed by Vajpayee, lasted for a full term in office; this was the first non-Congress government to do so. In the 2004 general election, the BJP-led NDA suffered an unexpected defeat, and for the next ten years the BJP was the principal Opposition party.

Long-time Gujarat Chief Minister Narendra Modi, a principal campaigner and charismatic leader of the party, led it to a landslide victory in the 2014 general elections. Since that election, Narendra Modi leads the NDA government as Prime Minister with the alliance of 13 state-owned parties.

Policies: Bharatiya Janatha Party favours a strong unitary state in place of the present quasi-federation. It has the following policies.

1. The party is committed to adopt the principles of nationalism, democracy, value based politics, national integration, positive secularism and Gandhian socialism.
2. It strives to implement five concepts, namely Suraksha, Sucharita, Swadeshi, Somrastha and Suvajya.
3. It aims at the construction of Ram temple at Ayodhya, abrogation of Article 3 to, and implementation of Uniform Civil Code.
4. It also aims at adopting electoral reforms.
5. It believes in the implementation of Swadeshi and Swabhiman Policies.
6. It also aims at the adoption of a practical non-aligned policy in foreign affairs. It favours settlement of all disputes with the neighbouring stats through dialogue and discussion. It strongly believes in the utilization of nuclear energy and arms for achieving peace and prosperity It demands more democratization of the United Nations Organisation by expanding the membership of the Security Council.
7. It favours the continuation of the economic reforms initiated by the earlier governments through the policies of liberalization, privatization and globalization.
8. It vehemently opposes dynastic rule, assigning top executive offices and strongly supports decentralization of power and empowerment of women.

Section – C
15 x 2 = 30

Note:

• Answer any FIFTEEN of the following questions in 5 lines each.
• Each question carries 2 marks.

Question 18.
Fundamental Rights.
Fundamental Rights and Fundamental Duties are the salient features of Indian constitution. Six Fundamental Rights were incorporated in Part – III articles from 12 to 35. They are justiciable and ensures basic freedoms to all Indians.

Eleven fundamental duties were incorporated in Part IV A under Article 51 A. They put an obligation on the citizens to render certain duties in return for the protection they have been enjoying through Fundamental Rights.

Question 19.
Gandhian ideas of directive principles of state policy.

1. The state shall organize village panchayats and endow them with adequate powers and authority so as to enable them, to function as the units of self-government (Article 40).”
2. The state shall strive the promotion of cottage industries on individual or cooperative basis in rural areas (Article 43). ‘
3. The state shall promote the educational and economic interests of the SCs, STs, and BCs of society with special care (Article 46).
4. The state shall endeavour to bring about prohibition of intoxicating drinks and of drugs which are injurious to health (Article 47).

Question 20.
Quo-warranto.
Quo – Warranto literally means ‘What Warrant or Authority. It enables the competent court to enquire into the legality of the claim which a party assets to a public office and to oust him from its enjoyment if the claim is not well founded.

Question 21.
Article – 356.
Article 356 of Indian Constitution empowers the President to proclaim the constitutional emergency If the President on receipt of a report from the governor or otherwise, is satisfied that a situation has arisen in which the government of a state cannot be carried on according to the constitutional provisions. He is empowered to proclaim this emergency. It is also called as the President’s Rule.

Question 22.
Chairman of Rajyasabha.
The Vice President is the ex-officio chairman of the Rajya Sabha. As such he enjoys the same powers like the speaker of Lok Sabha such as

1. Presiding over the meetings of Rajya Sabha.
2. Maintaining discipline, decency and decorum in the House.
3. Exercising casting vote in case of a tie.
4. Protecting the privileges and rights of the members.

Question 23.
Appointment of Prime Minister.
After the conduct of General eleions of the Lok Sabha, the President has to invite the majority party leader of the Lok Sabha to form the Government. When no single party is able to secure majority seats in Lok Sabha, the President invites the Leader of a coalition to form the Government. The president uses his discretionary powers in this regard.

Question 24.
Panel of Speakers.
The Speaker nominates some of the members of the Lok Sabha as panel speakers. Maximum strength of panel chairpersons will be 10. If both the Speaker and Deputy Speaker are absent at particular time, one of the members from the panel of chairpersons will act as the Speaker.

Question 25.
No confidence motion.
According to Article 75 of the constitution, No Confidence Motion can be tabled in the Parliament when the Cabinet behaves in an irresponsible manner and if the ruling party does not enjoy majority. No confidence motion is introduced by the opposition parties through written notice supported by at least 50 members and there will be a discussion on the motion. After the discussion, there will be a voting. If the No-Confidence Motion is passed or approved in the house the cabinet has to resign.

Question 26.
Judicial Activism.
Generally, Judicial Activism is construed to be the over willingness of the judiciary to jump into the arena of executive or legislative functions. In general parlance, the expression “activism’ means “being active”, and “doing things with decision” and the expression “activist” should mean “one who favours intensified activities”. Judicial Activišìñ is a policy-making in competition with policymaking by legislature and executive. The essence of true Judicial Activism is rendering of decisions which are in tune with the temper and tempo of the times. The nature of Judicial Activism is that it furthers the cause of social change or articulates concepts like liberty equality or justice.

Question 27.
Any two executive powers of the Governor.

1. The Governor appoints, the Chief Minister and the members of the Council of Ministers on the advice of the Chief Minister.
2. He allocates portfolios among the Ministers and reshuffles their portfolios.

Question 28.
State Ministers.
The Ministers of State hold portfolios of less importance compared to the Cabinet Ministers. They may be attached to the individual Cabinet Ministers or might be given independent charges of crucial departments in the major minorities. In such a case they enjoy independence. They are answerably directly to the Chief Minister. They are not subject to the control of Cabinet Ministers.

Question 29.
Salaries and allowances of M.L.A.
The salary of MLA is decided by the respective State Legislature as per the Article 164 of the indian constitution. The members of Andhra Pradesh State Legislative Assembly receive a monthly salary of ₹ 90,000/— which includes a basic pay of ₹ 15,000/—
and constituency allowance of ₹ 75,000/-. Those legislators who are not provided government accommodation will get an additional ₹ 10,000/- as H.R.A members also get daily allowance of ₹ 800/- when the state legislature is in session.

Question 30.
High court as a court of record.
The State High Court acts as a court of Record. It records all its decisions and judgments. Such records are of great significance. They carry evidentiary value. They are taken as Judicial precedents to the Judges and Advocates in legal matters.

Question 31.
National Integration Council.
National Integration Council ‘as set up in 1961. The Council was directed to examine the issues like communalism, Casteism, Regionalism, Linguistics, and narrow-mindedness affecting National Integration. It makes necessary recommendations in the above matters.

Question 32.
Any three tension areas in Union-State relations.
Generally in Indian Political System, the following areas created tensions between the union and states.

1. Use of Article 356 in the states.
2. Discrimination in financial allocation to the states.
3. Appointment of enquiry commission against the Chief Ministers.
4. Demand for State Autonomy.

Question 33.
There will be a Chief Executive Officer in every Zilla Parishad. He is appointed by the state government and responsible to the State Government and Zilla Parishad in the exercise of his powers and functions. He serves as the administrative head of Zilla Parishad. He plays a key role in preparing the annual budget and agenda for the general meetings of the Zilla Parishad in consultation with Zilla Parishad Chairman. He will have administrative control over the personnel, assets, and records of the Zilla Parishad. He takes necessary steps for implementing the decisions of zilla parishad, zilla mahasabha, and standing committees.

Question 34.
Notified Area Committee.
This is constituted either for a fast-developing town or an area not fulfilling the conditions for the creation of Municipality. As it is created through a special notification of the state government, it is known as notified areas committee. It does not possess statutory position. It will have a chairman and some members who are nominated by the state government. Its functions are more or less same as, that of a municipality.

Question 35.
Smart City.
A “Smart city is an urban region that is highly advanced in terms of overall infrastructure sustainable real estate, communications, and market viability. It is a city where information technology is the principal infrastructure and the basis for providing essential services to residents. They benefit everybody including citizens businesses, the government, and the environment.

Smart cities are those that are ables to attract investments. Good infrastructure, simple and transparent online processes that make it easy to establish an enterprise and run it efficiently are important features of an investor-friendly city.

Question 36.
Collector as Chief Electoral Officer in the District.