AP Inter 1st Year Civics Question Paper March 2018

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AP Inter 1st Year Civics Question Paper March 2018

Time: 3 Hours
Maximum Marks: 100

Section – A (3 × 10 = 30)

Note :

  • Answer any three of the following questions in 40 lines each.
  • Each question carries ten marks.

Question 1.
Define Political Science and explain its scope.
Introduction : Political Science is a premier social science. It is mainly concerned with the study of the state in its relation with Society, Citizens, Associations and the world at large. Aristotle is hailed as the Father of Political Science. He wrote famous book “THE POLITICS”.

Origin of the word Politics : Aristotle, the Father of Political Science used the term “POLITICS” for the first time in his famous book “POLITICS”. The term “POLITICS” is derived from a greek word “POLIS” and latin word “POLITICUS” which means the city state.

Definitions of Political Science : Political Scientists gave various definitions on Political Science. They are as follows :

  1. J.W. Gamer : “Political Science begins and ends with the state”.
  2. Stephen Leacock : “Political Science deals With the government”.
  3. David Easton : “Political Science is concerned with the authoritative allocation of values for a society”.

Scope of Political Science : The scope of Political Sci-ence means the subject matter covered by it or the topics which are included in its study. It may be explained in the following ways :
i) Study of man in Relation to the Society and State : Aristotle stated that “Man is a Social Animal”. Man can satisfy his basic needs like food, clothing, shelter and protection in the society. Political Science explains the relationship between man kind society. It examines how man should adjust himself with the society. It is imperative that the modem man should develop proper attitude towards the society. This is possible only when he identifies him-self with the society.

Political Science is concerned with the perennial and central issue of establishing proper relationship between the state and the individuals. It deals with many topics of state activity, such as limitations of Political Authority and sphere of Individual Freedoms,

ii) Study of State : Aristotle also stated that man is a Political Animal. State is a human and political institution. It came into existence for the sake of man and continue in existence for providing happy and prosperous life for man. Individuals became members of the state since its inception. We can’t imagine the life of individuals outside of the state. Political Science studies the intimate Relationship between the state and the citizens. It also studies the Nature, Functions and Various theories of state authority.

It also comprises a study of the various activities of the state from that of ancient police state to the modern welfare state. Thus, Political Science deals with the Present, Past and Future aspects of the state.

iii) Study of the Government: Government is an important essential element of Modern State. It is an instrument which fulfills aims and goals of the state. There can be no state without a government. Government formulates, expresses and implements the will of the state. Government consists of three organs namely Legislature, Executive and Judiciary. Legislature makes the laws, Executive implements the laws and Judiciary interpretes the laws. Political Science studies the meting, forms, structure, nature and functions of the government. It also discusses the relationship among the various organs of the government. Hence, Political Science is treated as a science of government.

iv) Study of Associations and Institutions: Associations and Institutions help the Individuals for their moral, religious, cultural, scientific and technological progress. These carry on their activities at local, regional, national and international levels. Individuals join as members in these Associations out of their interests or purposes. There prevails a great linkage between these voluntary Associations and Institutions. Associations and Institutions in Modem times play a significant role in the Formulation and Implementation of policies of the state and government. Voluntary bodies such as trade unions, peasant groups, professional bodies etc., will have a great impact on the state and government. Political Science explains the nature, structure and functions of.the various Associations and Institutions.

v) Study of Rights and Responsibilities : Scope of Political Science includes the study of Rights and Responsibilities of citizens. Citizens in democratic states enjoy certain rights such as right to life, right to liberty, right to property etc. Political Science enumerates the definition, classification and different theories of Rights. Similarly, citizens will have some Responsibilities towards the state. These include paying taxes, obeying the laws etc. It explains the significance of Rights and Responsibilities of the citizens. Hence, Political Science examines the Relationship between Rights and Responsibilities.

vi) Study of National and International Issues : The scope of Political Science covers various issues of Modem state in relation with other stamps in matters of safeguarding Territorial integrity and Sovereignty. It studies the topics like Cold war, Balance of power, Disarmament, Detente etc. Modem states are not isolated. They depend upon other states in many spheres like importing raw materials, exporting finished goods, transport, technology, services and communications. This requires close relations among the states in international sphere. Political Science discusses not only the domestic policies of the state but also the issues of international dimensions. It covers a wide range of topics such as diplomacy, international politics, international law, international organisations etc.

vii) Study of Power : The behaviouralists of 20th century regarded Political Science as a study of sharing and shaping of power. They pointed out that Political Science discusses how power is grabbed, manipulated and perpetuated to have a control over the society. Morgenthau defined the power as “Man’s control over the Minds and Actions of other Men”.

viii) Study of Public Policy : Modem Political Scientists like David Easton and Gabriel Almond argued that Political Science is a “Policy Science”. They considered Political Science as the study of formulation, execution and evaluation of Public Policy, with the advent of Public Policy the scope of Political Science has further widened to include the dimensions of vital topics such as Industrial Policy, Agricultural Policy, Land Reform Policy, Education Policy, Population Policy etc. Public Policy of a Nation in the context of International Relations plays a crucial role in the formulation of diplomaticfeconomic, military and scientific strategies.
Conclusion : The above contents show the wide range of subjects that come under the purview of Political Science.

AP Inter 1st Year Civics Question Paper March 2018

Question 2.
Define Nationality. Explain the essential elements of Nationality.
Introduction : The concepts of Nation and Nationality have become important components in the domain of International Relations and political science respectively. Both inspired the people of several countries with patriotic feeling prior to the two world wars.

The events that took place in the erstwhile Soviet Union, ethnic Riots between Serbians and croatians in the former Yugo slavia, the unification of East and West Germanies, the peace talks between Israel and Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) on West Asia etc., reflect the serious concern of the people for realising Nationality and Nation States. Meaning : The word “Nation” is derived from a latin word “NATIO” which means “BORN” (BIRTH) or “Common Descent”.

Definitions :

  1. R.G. Gettle : “Nationality is a population having the common bonds of Race, Language, Religion, Traditions and History”.
  2. J.H. Rose : “Nationality is a union of Hearts once made and never unmade”.
  3. J.W. Garner : “Nationality is a group or portion of population which is united by Racial and other bonds”.

Essential Elements of Nationality :
1) Purity of Race : Racial purity helps in the formation and strengthening of the idea of Nationality. Race is a physical phenomenon. It depends on certain distinctions of skull, stature, hair, complexion etc. These distinctions serve as a cementing bond among the members of a group.

But we should remember that common race is not an indispensable factor in the growth of Nationality. Modem races are so mixed that none of them can claim to be pure. Pure races have disappeared because of wars and migrations. Racial purity is now a myth only.

Ex: Canada and United states have transformed into single nations inspite of their racial diversities in their respective populations. Similarly, Australia and Britain are two distinct Nations although they belong to one racial stock.

2) Common Language : Language plays a key role in the promotion of nationality. The philosophers and scientists said that common language is essential for the development of nationality. Language is a medium to express all their feelings. It helps to express one’s ownselves to have cordial relations and to share the miseries and happiness in a group languages also promotes common feelings and traditions. Common language promotes the feeling of oneness and keeps the entire race on single track.

3) Common Religion : Religion is one important factor to strengthen nationality. There are many instances when people of different nationalities with common religion remain citizens in the same state. For instance, the main reason for the partition of Indian subcontinent into India and Pakistan in 1947 lies in the religion.

4) Geographical Unity : Geographical unity is necessary for the emergence of nationality. Nationality sentiments prevail and develop among the people living in a single geographical area. The people residing in such an area love, worship their country and make sacrifices for the sake of their motherland, people, who belong to one religion, converse the same language, same race living in a geographical area inculcate and improve their nationality sentiments. The formation of Israel in 1946 was purely due to the feelings of the hitherto wandering Jewish people to live in a single geographical area. Hence their desire of live in a territory made them united. This ultimately transformed them as patriotic persons.

5) Common History : Common History is considered as an important element of Nationality. It invokes an inspiration among the people and binds them together. Some historical incidents may give a . chance to the people to develop national sentiments. Ex : Indians have learnt the lessons of Nationalism from the British legacy.

6) Common Culture : Culture in its broad sense means a way of life. It is reflected through certain common elements like dress, customs, conventions, food habits, religious beliefs, ethical values etc. They easily develop into a single Nation. These elements bind the people together and hold together.

7) Common Political aspirations : Nationality sentiments prevail and develop among the people having common political aspirations. The political ideas, conventions and institutions which were formed due to the single political rule will have a considerable impact and influence over the people. For instance, the Swiss people love very much their direct democratic devices in political matters. Similarly the Americans express the feeling of worship towards their constitution. The British people also feel proud of their political and judicial institutions like rule of law, parliamentary democracy and judicial review etc.

8) Common Economic ties : This element of nationality has been stressed by ‘Karl Marx’. Since then onwards the importance of this element has been increasing. The Russians have great regard for their economic system, eventhough there exist diversities. Their unflinching love for socialism inspired nationalism among them. They successfully repulsed the attacks of Germany during the Second World War. Thus the common economic ties made them united and integrated them into a nation.

AP Inter 1st Year Civics Question Paper March 2018

Question 3.
Identify the safeguards of Rights.
Introduction : Rights are the essential conditions for the development of the personality of individuals. They are up-held by the laws of the state. Individuals cannot achieve progress in the absence of the Rights.

Definitions :

  1. T.H. Green : “Rights are those powers claimed and recognized as contributory to the common good.”
  2. H.J. Laski : “Rights are those conditions of social life without which no man can seek in general to be himself at his best.”

Safeguards of Rights : Individuals enjoy their rights only when they were fully protected or safeguarded by the State. In this regard, the following elements act as the safeguards of the rights.
1) Democratic Rule : Democratic rule safeguards the rights of the people to a great extent. People can enjoy their rights perfectly in democratic states only. This system – makes constitutional and legal provisions for safeguarding the right of the people.

2) Written and Rigid Constitution : A written constitution clearly defines the povers and functions of the government. It also explains about the various limitations of governmental authority. Besides, a rigid constitution will guarantee the rights of the people by making it difficult for the rulers and legislators to make amendments on flimsy grounds.

3) Constitutional Incorporation : Incorporation of fundamental rights in the constitution will prevent the encroachment of individual rights by the government. Such an arrangement protects the rights of the individuals to a great extent.

4) Separation of Powers : The powers of the government should be separated among the three organs of the government. Such as measure would act as a check against other organ. Ultimately, it serves as a safeguard of individual liberty.

5) Decentralisation of Powers: Individuals enjoy their rights, when powers are decentralised among the governmental institutions. This involves allocation of powers at various levels – national, provisional, local either on functional or territorial basis.

6) Rule of Law : Rule of law implies equality before law. It also denotes equal application of laws to the citizens. It gives no scope for discrimination between citizens on the grounds of region, religion, caste, colour, community etc.

7) Independent and Impartial Judiciary : Independent and impartial judiciary is another safeguard of rights. Judges in higher judicial bodies will deliver judgement with impartial and independent outlook. In the process of delivering justice, they jssue certain writs for immediate ‘ protection of the rights.

8) Independent Press : Independent and honest press is another essential safeguard of rights of individuals. Such agency will be able to disseminate news and views impartially and without fear or favour to anybody. In this regard the state should not try to threaten and silence the press. Then only individuals enjoy their rights to the maximum extent.

9) Social and Economic Equalities : Social and economic equalities are necessary for enjoying one’s rights. People will be able to utilize their rights properly and positively when there are social and economic equalities in the state. These equalities include absence of casteism, communalism, linguism, wide spread economic inequalities, exploitation etc.

10) Eternal Vigilance: Eternal vigilance is said to be the most important safeguard of rights of individuals. Individuals must be vigilant and cautious about the policies of the government. They should oppose the despotic tendencies of the government through democratic and constitutional methods. Under no circumstances they should allow the self seeking politicians to acquire power. Besides several other elements like judicial review, recall, strong opposition etc., are considered as the safeguards of rights.

AP Inter 1st Year Civics Question Paper March 2018

Question 4.
What do you mean by Democracy ? Write about the Direct democratic devices.
Meaning : The term Democracy is derived from two greek words namely, “Demos” and “Kratos”. Demos means people and Kratos means rule (or) authority.

Definitions :

  1. Abraham Lincoln : “Democracy is a government of the people, by the people and for the people”.
  2. Lord Bryce : “Democracy is that form of government in which the ruling power of the state is vested not in a particular class but in the members of the community as a whole”.
  3. J.R. Seely : “Democracy is a government in which everyone has a share”.

Direct Democracy : Direct Democracy is said to prevail when people themselves directly express their views and participate in the deliberative and administrative affairs of the government. People in direct democracy assume all powers of making laws. They formulate laws at a meeting attended by all the people. Direct Democracy is prevalent in Switzerland. In Switzerland, the citizens living in some small cantons meet together on a Sunday in April or May to elect their representatives and to make laws.

Devices of Direct Democracy :
There are four devices prescribed in direct democracies to enable the people to participate directly in the administrative activities of the State.
Those are :
1) Referendum
2) Initiative
3) Recall and
4) Plebiscite.

These methods may be explained as follows.
1. Referendum : It is one of the direct democratic devices. Literally it means, “must be referred to the people”. It is a device where by the electorate may veto a proposed legislation or a bill which the legislature has already passed. In other words, bills passed by the legislature are the voters for their approval or disapproval. If majority of the voters approve them, they become acts. But if they vote against them, they will be given up. Hence, referendum is known as “Popular Veto”. It is of two types – 1) Compulsory referendum : All the constitutional bills must be sent to the people. 2) Optional referendum: An ordinary bill passed by the legislative may be or may not be sent to the people. However, even that ordinary bill must be sent to the people, if a definite number of people demand it. Ex : In Switzerland 30,000 people or eight cantons (States) can demand referendum on an ordinary bill.

2. Initiative : It is another device of direct democracy. It is a method by means of which the people propose legislation i. e.; they can ask the legislature to pass a particular law. For instance, in Switzerland, if 50,000 voters request the legislature to pass a law, then the proposal is submitted to the consideration of the people. If majority of the people (30,000) approve it, then it becomes an act. Unlike referendum, initiative provides a chance to the people to start the making of law. It is of two types : (1) Formulative Initiative : People present a bill to the legislature (2) Unformulative Initiative : People present a demand to the legislature as king it to pass a bill.

3. Recall : It is another device of Direct Democracy. It means “Calling Back”. According to this method a specific number of voters may call back or dismiss an elected officer or a member of the legislature before the expiry of his term, if he is irresponsible. By means of this, the people can remove a representative or an officer from office when he fails to discharge his duties properly.

4. Plebiscite: The term “PlelSseite” is derived from a French word “Plebiscite”, which means “decree of the people”. It is used to obtain the opinion of the people on an important political issue or when there is a dispute regarding some territory. The question of accession or secession or territory is generally solved by means of plebiscite. It is not concerned with legislation. It is not apart of legal process. It is only a democratic method of ascertaining the opinion of the people on any political issue of public importance.

AP Inter 1st Year Civics Question Paper March 2018

Question 5.
Describe the merits and demerits of Unitary Government.
On the basis of distribution of powers between the Centre and the States, Governments are classified into Unitary and Federal. A Unitary Government is one in which all powers are vested in the Centre. For administrative convenience, the country may be divided into regional units which may be called as States. The units are mere agents of the Centre. They have no autonomy. The Centre transfers some of its powers to the units and they can be withdrawn by the centre at any time. Herman Finer defined Unitary Government as “a Government in which all authority and powers are lodged in a single centre whose will and agents are legally omnipotent over the whole area”. This type of Government exists in Britain, France, China, Japan, Italy etc.

Meaning: The word ‘Unitary’ consists of two words, namely, ‘Uni’ and Tary’, uni means ‘one’ and tary means ‘rule’. Unitary Government is a single integrated government with all executive powers. The Constitution vests all powers in the Central Government.

Definitions of Unitary Government:

  1. A.V. Dicey : “Unitary Government is one in which one central power habitually exercises the Supreme legislative authority”.
  2. Herman Finer : “Unitary Government is one in which all powers and authority are lodged with a centre whose will and agents are legally omnipotent over the whole area”.
  3. Prof. J.W. Garner : “Unitary Government is one in which the whole power of the Government is conferred by the Constitution upon a single central organ or organs from which the local governments derive their authority”.

Merits of Unitary Government :
Unitary Government has many merits. Some of them may be identified in the following lines as below.

  • Powerful Government : Unitary Government brings uniformity in administrative and legislative matters. As there is only one central government having single legislature, executive and judicial wings, the central government will remain most powerful in its working. So this government provides stable and integrated rule.
  • Efficient Rule : In a unitary set up all the regional or Provincial Governments strictly follow the instructions of the Central Government. The Central Government tackles all issues efficiently and effectively. This is due to the concentration of governmental powers in the Central Government.
  • Less expensive and time saving: There will be only one Government in a Unitary System. Provincial units may or may not exist. As a result, the formation and maintenance of Unitary Government requires less amount of finances. There will be no duplication of institutions. As a result public money and time are saVed in Unitary System.
  • Administrate Uniformity: In unitary system the entire country is placed under the direct rule and control of the Central Government. As a result there will be uniform laws, rules and regulations throughout the country. This secures uniformity in law-making and administrative process.
  • Quick decisions possible : Unitary system comprises one government for the entire State. That Government takes decisions quickly and promptly. As a result Unitary Government will tackle any unforeseen events in times of emergency.
  • Single citizenship : The citizens in a unitary state will have single citizenship. So, there will be no discrimination between them within the four corners of the country. Ultimately, single citizenship promotes national unity, integrity and solidarity among the people.
  • Useful for small countries : Unitary Government is suitable to the small countries having limited population and geographical area. Moreover, it embodies the element of homogeneity irrespective of culture, language, race, religion etc.

Demerits of Unitary Government :
Unitary Government has several demerits. They may be listed out as follows.

  • Scope for Despotism : As all the powers are vested with the Central Government in a Unitary System, the persons at the helm of affairs may adopt despotic policies thereby affecting the freedoms of individuals.
  • More burden on Central Government: There will be no distribution of powers between the Central and State Governments in this system. Only the Central Government carries on all the functions. As a result, there will be a scope for more burden on Central Government leading to negligence and delay.
  • Growth of inefficiency : The local or regional governments do not have much autonomy and independence in this system. So the former depend upon the Central Government. People too lose their political initiative at local levels. This leads to the growth of inefficiency in administration.
  • Not suitable for large countries : Unitary Government is not suitable for large countries having extensive population, vast territory, diverse cultures and religions. So unity in diversity is difficult to achieve in large countries.
  • Irresponsibility : The Central Government is not responsible to anybody in a unitary set up. The units cannot dictate terms to the Central Government. So there is a scope for the Central Government to behave irresponsibly.

AP Inter 1st Year Civics Question Paper March 2018

Section – B (8 × 5 = 40)

Note :

  • Answer any eight of the following questions is not exceeding 20 lines each.
  • Each question carries five marks.

Question 6.
Explain any two essential elements of state.
Essential elements of state : State is the predominant and superior politico – social institution existing in the society. It consists of 4 essential elements. These elements of state may be explained in a detailed way in the following paragraphs.

1) Population : Population is the fundamental and essential element of state. There can be no state without population. Plato, Aristotle, Rousseau and others considered this feature as an important one. The famous poet Sri. Gurajada Apparao also states that it is the people, rather than the land, that comprise the state. Political writers differ in their opinions regarding the exact size of population possessed by the state. While Plato fixed 5,040, Rousseau fixed 10,000 to be an ideal population for a state. But today we can find the countries like China and India which have more than 100 crores of population on one hand and the countries like Andora, San Marino are having small number of people on the other hand in the modem world.

2) Territory : Territory is another essential element of the state. It is necessary for the origin and existence of the state. There can be no state without territory. Every state must have more or less territory of its own. There is no unanimous opinion among the political writers regarding the size of territory of the state. Some preferred vast territory, where as others preferred small territory. But today we can find the countries like America and Canada having large territory on one hand, and tfie countries like Vatican, Monaco having very less territory on the other hand in the modem world.

Question 7.
Distinguish between State and Government.
Introduction : We often use the terms “State” and “Govem- ment” indiscriminately one for the other”. “State means gov-ernment in practice” said by H.J. Laski. “State means almost government machinery”.

State : State is a people organized for law within a definite territory.

Government : Government is an instrument which fulfills aims and goals of the state.

Differences between State and Government : The following are the differences between state and government.

State Government
1. State has four elements namely population, territory, government and sovereignty. 1. Government is one of the essential elements of the state.
2. State is a permanent organisation. 2. Government is a temporary organisation.
3. State consists of the whole body of people – The rulers and the ruled. 3. Government consists of only the rulers.
4. State has the sovereignty. 4. Government does not have sovereignty.
5. State is the master. 5. Government is the servant.
6. Membership of the state is compulsory. 6. Membership in government is not compulsory.
7. All states are alike in the sense they possess the same four features (or) elements like Population, Territory, Government and Sovereignty. 7. Governments are different types, viz. Parliamentary – Presidential – Unitary – Federal, Democratic – Dictatorial etc.

Question 8.
What are the differences between Nation and Nationality ?
The concepts of Nation and Nationality laid formidable foundations to several modem political systems.

Nation : “Nation is a nationality which has organised itself into a political body either independent or desiring to be in-dependent”.

Nationality : “Nationality is a population having the common bonds of race, language, religion, traditions and history”.

Differences between Nation and Nationality :

Nation Nationality
1) Nation is a political concept. 1) Nationality is a psycho logical feeling.
2) Nation is always a politically organised state. 2) Nationality is always an unorganised and flexible feeling.
3) Nation is always independent. 3) Nationality is not independent.
4) There can’t be a nation without nationality. 4) There can be nationality without a nation.
5) People who form into a nation should obey the laws of the state. 5) Untill the people of nationality form into a nation, there can’t be constitution¬al laws. But they oblige certain common rules in their best interests.

AP Inter 1st Year Civics Question Paper March 2018

Question 9.
Write about any three sources of law.
Definitions : The English word ‘Law’ originates from the ancient Teutonic word ‘Lag’ which means “something that lies fixed or uniform”. Political thinkers defined law in different ways which are listed below :

  1. “Law is the command of tfie sovereign”. – John Austin
  2. “Law is the system of ri|hts and obligations which the State enforces”. – T.H. Green

Sources of Law :
1) Customs, Practices and Traditions : These are one of the important sources of law. In primitive societies, there were no laws in written form. All disputes were settled in accordance with social customs and traditions. Customs regulated the social life in the early societies. Customs and traditions cannot be laws in political sense. But, when the State recognises certain traditions, they in turn be¬come laws. Ex : The laws relating to marriage, divorce etc., found in our Country are based on traditions, the common law of England.

2) Religion : In ancient times customary laws and religious laws were intermixed. The religious teachers enjoyed unlimited powers in those times. Their decisions were treated on par with laws. The primitive men believed that the judgements of the religious teachers had divine sanction. The ancient Roman laws were merely the religious laws. The Hindu and Muslim laws derived inspiration mainly from religion.

3) Judicial Decisions / Adjudication / Judgement of the Courts : The judgements of the judges also serve as a source of law. Generally, judges interpret laws, apply them to particular cases and deliver judgements. Their judgements become precedents and are usually followed by . other judges in similar cases. In course of time such judgements acquire the status of law. In this way judges add to the law of the country. There are many instances that new laws have evolved by way of interpretation. Many of the laws in Britain, America and India have originated from the judgements of the Judges of the respective countries.

Question 10.
Describe any three types of liberty.
Introduction : The concept of Liberty is of great significance in the study of political science. Liberty is an essential condition without which man cannot develop his personality. It became a source of inspiration to the millions of the people living all over the world.

Meaning : The term liberty is derived from the Latin word “LIBER” which means free from restrictions.

Definitions : Liberty is defined in many ways by different political thinkers. Some of them are cited below :

  1. “Liberty means the absence of restraints”. – J.R. Seeley
  2. “Liberty is the freedom of an individual to express without any external hindrance to his personality”. -G.D.H. Cole
  3. “Liberty means the positive power of doing or enjoying something worth doing or enjoying”. – T.H. Green
  4. “Liberty is the eager maintenance of that atmosphere in which men have the opportunity to be at their best selves”. – H.J. Laski

Types of Liberty : Liberty is of different types. Some of them may be described in the following :
1. Natural liberty
2. Civil liberty
3. Economic liberty
4. Political liberty
5. National liberty.

1. Natural liberty : Natural liberty is understood as unco-ntrolled freedom or absolute freedom. It is believed that natural liberty existed in the pre-social and pre-state human life. According to this concept there were no rules and regulations except the laws of nature in the past. All persons were free to do anything according to their will arid capacity. But this type of liberty is not possible in civilised society, since liberty is a social condition. True liberty does not inconvenience others. Liberty is not a license. Natural liberty is equal to anarchy. The weak cannot enjoy liberty without law. Some writers imagined that this kind of liberty existed before the origin of state.

2. Civil liberty : Civil liberty is also known as personal liberty. It relates to the individual’s freedom in his life as a member of the social organisation. It is enjoyed by the individuals in the society. Civil liberty is the essential pre-requisite to the existence and survival of human beings. It enables them to lead happy, honourable and civilised life in the state. So it is a must to everyone. The state recognises the various freedoms of individuals. In this regard Gettle said that “Civil liberty is the group of rights recognised and implemented by the state”. The constitution of the America and the India have incorporated civil liberty in the form of fundamental rights. Civil liberty is manifested in several rights.
These include :
A) Right to Life
B) Right to Work
C) Right to Property
D) Right to Religion
E) Right to Speech, Expression, Assembly, Movement and Residence etc.

3. Economic liberty : Economic liberty means the right of everyone to earn his livelihood. Laski described economic liberty as the security and opportunity to find reasonable significance in earning one’s daily bread. Economic liberty ensures everyone freedom from want and fear, hunger and starvation, unemployment and insufficiency. Economic liberty denotes freedom from want or insecurity of economic nature. Without economic liberty democracy is meaningless. It will also be secured by adopting the following measures.

  1. Provision of minimum wages:
  2. Guarantee of the right to work.
  3. Protecting the workers from unemployment, sickness and other types of insecurity.
  4. Providing adequate leisure.
  5. Giving representation to the workers in the management of the industries.

Question 11.
Explain Political Rights.
Political rights are those rights which enable the individuals to participate in the political affairs of the state.

The following are the important political rights :
1. Right to vote : Right to vote is the most important political right enjoyed by the citizens in modern democratic states. It serves as a powerful weapon for adult citizens in choosing their representatives to various legislative bodies. It makes them as real sovereign. All the citizens are entitled to this right without any discrimination based on creed, colour, language, race, region, religion, sex etc. However, persons such as aliens and minors are deprived of this right.

2. Right to contest in elections : This right empowers the citizens to contest as candidates to various legislative bodies in the state. Especially this right enables those, who have political sagacity, enthusiasm and dynamic nature, to actively participate in the political dynamics of the state. As a result, it increases political enthusiasm among the citizens. Such an element is considered as a base of democratic polity.

3. Right to hold public offices : This right provides opportunities to the citizens to hold various public offices for a definite period. It gives no scope for exclusion of citizens or conferring special privileges to some at the cost of others. This helps the citizens to exercise authority in a dignified manner.

4. Right to petition : This right enables the citizens to forward petitions denoting their requirements or grievances. It is considered as a vital political right in the modern state. The citizens could be able to find solutions to their immediate or long pending issues by bringing them to the notice of the government through this right. It also helps the public authorities to know the grievances of the people and attend to them properly and promptly.

5. Right to criticism : This right gives opportunity to the citizens to criticize the various public policies and programmes. It also enables them to highlight the omissions and commissions of the leaders, and administrative personnel at various levels. It also gives scope for the citizens to render positive and constructive criticism about the on goings in the government from time to time. Ultimately it keeps the administrative authorities and policy makers to be vigilant in discharging their obligations.

AP Inter 1st Year Civics Question Paper March 2018

Question 12.
Point out any three sources of justice.
Meaning : The word “Justice” is derived from a Latin word “JUS” which means “to bind”.

Definition : “Justice means speaking the truth and paying one’s debts”. – Caphalous

Sources of Justice :
Earnest Barker gives four sources of Justice. They are mentioned as below.
1. Nature
2. Ethics
3. Religion
4. Economic elements

1. Nature : The Greek stoics perceived nature to be a source of Justice. Their perception of nature was a combination of moral philosophy and religious beliefs. For them nature, God and reason were inseparable entities. They pointed out that men who lived according to nature shared similar views of reason and God. They viewed that nature embodies three things. They are : 1. Man should be free, 2. Man should be treated equally, 3. Man should be associated with his fellow beings by the common element of reason. These three things in turn have remained as a basis for liberty, equality and fraternity in society in course of time.

2. Ethics : Idealist thinkers like Plato, Emanuel Kant, Thomas Hilly Green, Earnest Barker and other propounded that justice originated from ethical practices. They pointed out that values accepted by the society over a period of time have intum become the impersonaL source of positive Justice. The state enforced this positive justice in course of time.

3. Religion : Religion is regarded as another source of Justice. This source has been in force since medieval age. The church authorities held the notion that it was God who propounded the notions of justice, right and wrong. God, through church, initiated the concept of justice as the rule of the theory of might. Thomas Acqinas a philosopher turned saint believed that the Church is the manifestation of religion. According to him, life based on laws is the best one. The king must lead the people in right directions. He must exercise his authority in compliance to the church authority.

4. Economic elements: Economic elements are also treated as a source of justice. These elements attained significance with the advent of industrial revolution which led to glaring economic disparities between different sections of society. Industrial revolution, inspite of its tremendous achievements, led to the growth of miseries, poverty and immorality in society. It forced the people to have a strong zeal of enterprise. Adam Smith, David Ricardo, Thomas Robert Malthus and other classical economists analysed justice in terms of economic factors. Later, revolutionary thinkers like Karl Marx and Frederich Engles strongly advocated the role of economic elements as a basis to the justice. These thinkers began to prove the deficiencies in capitalist society. They argued that justice prevails only when economic equality is achieved through a classless society.

Question 13.
Write about the two methods of acquiring Natural Citizen- . ship.
i) Jus Sanguinis – (Kinship or Blood Relationship) : This type, of Citizenship denotes acquiring citizenship by kinship or blood relationship. Under this method birth within the territory of a state entitles a person to have citizenship. Every person is treated as a citizen of the state where he is born. According to Jus Sanguinis, a child acquires the citizenship of the parents irrespective of its place of birth. Here blood relationship alone determines the Citizenship. Ex : A child bom to the Indian parents will be – treated as Indian citizen irrespective of its place of birth,

ii) Jus Soli (Land or Place of Birth) : Jus Soli means acquisition of citizenship by the principle of place of birth. According to this method, citizenship is determined by the place of birth and not by parentage. It is the place of birth which determines citizenship. However this method is not more popular in modem times. It was popular in the Middle Ages when, citizenship was associated with land. At present, however, this practice is observed exclusively in Argentina.

Question 14.
Write briefly about Representative Democracy.
Indirect democracy is also known as representative democracy. According to J.S. Mill “Representative democracy is one in which the whole people or some numerous portion ‘ of them exercise the governing power through deputies periodically elected by themselves”. This type of democracy for the first time, came into vogue in England. Later on, France, Germany, Italy and India adopted this system. At present representative democracy is prevalent in several countries like India, France, Japan, America, Canada, Holland, Sri Lanka etc. Under this system, citizens who attained the age of maturity elect their representatives in times of elections.

These representatives will assume the deliberative and legislative powers of the government on behalf of the people. They formulate different legislative policies in accordance with the wishes and aspirations of the electorate. They are responsible and responsive to the people for their acts. They continue in office only for a definite period of time. They can be removed by the citizens in times of elections when they fail to promote the welfare of the people. Hence in indirect democracy the people rule the country not themselves directly but indirectly through the periodically elected representatives.

Respond to public opinion. Indirect or representative democracy is again classified into two types namely. 1. Presidential 2. Parliamentary. In Presidential system all executive powers are exercised by a single executive head. Ex : In USA where there is Presidential system all executive powers are concentrated in the office of the President. On the other hand, in Parliamentary system executive powers are exercised by some ministers under Prime Minister’s leadership and in the name of the President. The ministers along with the Prime Minister are responsible for their acts to the Parliament. Ex : U.K., India, Australia etc.

AP Inter 1st Year Civics Question Paper March 2018

Question 15.
Distinguish between Secular State and Theocratic State.
Secular state and theocratic state are not same and identical. Eventhough both arise in human political organizations like State, they completely differ from one another in several aspects. These may be demonstrated with the help of the following table.

Secular State Theocratic State
1. Secular State is based on elements other than religion. 1. Theocratic State is based primarily on religious elements.
2. There will be no official religion in a Secular State. 2. There will be a particular religion which is declared as official religion in a Theocratic State.
3. Citizens belonging to all religions enjoy religious freedom without any discrimination. 3. Citizens of a particular majority religion will have priority and privileges over those of other religious denominations.
4. Rule of law prevails in a Secular State. 4. Religious diktats take precedence over the ordinary laws.
5. Secular State is based on the principle equality of all religions. 5. Theocratic State is based on the premise that some men belonging to a particular religion will be more important in public affairs.
6. Religion is not a criteria or basis for the imposition of taxes 6. Religion will be treated as the basis for imposing taxes or for extending tax concessions.
7. The state will be neither religious nor irreligious. 7. The state will be pro-reli¬gious by showing special favour to a particular community in several matters.
8. Education is imparted on secular model in the state aided or partially state aided institutions. 8. Educational curriculum comprises some pro-religious topics.

Question 16.
Explain the merits and demerits of a Rigid Constitution.
Rigid Constitution : Rigid Constitution is one whose provisions cannot be changed easily. In this system the constitutional amendment methods are different from those of ordinary laws. There will be a special procedure for amending the provisions of the rigid constitution. The rigid constitution will have firmness due to its special procedures of amendment. The Constitution of the United States is the best example of a rigid constitution.

Merits :

  1. Rigid constitution secures political stability.
  2. It is a product of political experience.
  3. It avoids hasty and ill-considered legislation.
  4. It protects the fundamental rights of the citizens.
  5. It preserves and enhances the interests of the provinces in a federal state.
  6. It is suitable for all kinds of people.

Demerits :

  1. Rigid constitution cannot be easily amended to suit the changing needs.
  2. It may affect the nation’s progress and growth.
  3. It is not suitable for tackling the issues arising during emergencies.

Question 17.
Discuss the features of Federal Government.
Governments are classified into Federal and Unitary on the basis of the distribution of powers between the Centre and the States. A federal system is one in which the powers of the government are distributed constitutionally between the Centre and the State Governments. Ex : America, Switzerland etc.

Meaning : The term “Federation”*is derived from a Latin word “Foedus” which means “Treaty of Agreement”.’

Definitions :

  1. A.V. Dicey : “A federal government is a political contrivance intended to reconcile national unity with the maintenance of State’s rights”.
  2. J.W. Gamer : “Federal government is a system in which the totality of governmental power is divided and distributed between the Centre and the States by the National Constitution”.
  3. Hamilton : “Federation is an association of states that forms a new one”.
  4. K.C. Wheare : “A federal government is a method of dividing powers so that the regional and Central Government are each within their sphere, co-ordinate and independent.”

Features of Federal Government :
Federal Government comprises several features. They may be denoted as follows :
1. Written Constitution : A Federal Government normally has a Written Constitution. Such a Constitution is considered as the supreme law of the land. It defines, decides and devises powers between the Central and State Governments. Hence, it became a practical necessity of Federal Government.

2. Dual Citizenship : Fecferal State provides dual citizenship to the citizens. Accordingly, the citizens will have membership in both the Centre and the States simultaneously. As a result, they participate in the election of representatives to both the national and provisional bodies.

3. Division of Powers : In a Federation, the Powers of Government are divided between the Centre and the States. The Central Government exercises control over matters of national importance like defence, external affairs, customs, exports and imports etc. On the other hand, certain matters like education, agriculture, health, irrigation etc., having provincial importance are allocated to the State Governments.

4. Bicameralism: Bicameralism is another important feature of a federation. In a federal state, we observe two chambers in the union legislature and some of the provincial legislative organisations. The first or lower chamber represents the interests of the people. The second chamber or upper house comprises the members representing the States.

5. Rigidity : Generally, the Constitution of a federation is very rigid. So it Cannot be amended easily. The concurrence of the Centre and States is required for amending some of the important provisions. So, neither the Centre nor the states unilaterally can amend the constitutional provisions.

6. Independent Judiciary : Independent judiciary is another essential feature of a Federal Government. Such an organisation will settle disputes between the Centre and the States. Th ’ Judges in Judiciary constitutionally enjoy independent position. Once appointed, they could not be removed by anybody under normal conditions. They will be there to safeguard the fundamental rights of citizens. They can check the misuse of powers by the executive and legislative authorities.

AP Inter 1st Year Civics Question Paper March 2018

Section – C (15 × 2 = 30)

Note :

  • Answer any fifteen of the following questions in not exceeding 5 lines each.
  • Each question carries two marks.

Question 18.
Write about ancient city states.
Ancient Greece consisted of a large number of city’states. They were small both in size and population. For example, Athens, Sparta, Corinth. Each city – state had its own government. The greeks based their political philosophy on the concept of city-state. The population of the city-state was divided into three groups :

  1. Citizens
  2. Aliens and
  3. Slaves.

Question 19.
Write any two differences between State and Association.

State Association
1. State is a political oi ganization. 1. Association is a social organization.
2. State has sovereignty. 2. Association has no sovereignty.

Question 20.
What are the features of law ?
The following are some important features of law :

  1. It is enforced by the State.
  2. It is definite, precise and universal.
  3. It reflects the will of the people.
  4. Laws are compulsory and cohesive in nature.
  5. Any violation of law leads to punishment.

Question 21.
What is constitutional law ?
The basic law according to which the Government in a State is conducted is called constitutional law. It defines the political system. It is usually prepared by a body known as Constituent Assembly, formed only for that purpose. All other laws in the State are subordinate to this law. It also contains fundamental rights and fundamental duties.

Question 22.
Mention any four safeguards of liberty.

  1. Democratic rule
  2. Written and rigid constitution
  3. Independent judiciary
  4. Rule of law
  5. Fundamental rights

Question 23.
What is meant by political equality ?
Political equality implies the provision of adequate conditions for the people in the political affairs of the state. It is enjoyed by the citizens only. It could be achieved by granting various political rights such as :

  1. Right to vote
  2. Right to contest in elections
  3. Right to hold public offices
  4. Right to criticise the government etc.

AP Inter 1st Year Civics Question Paper March 2018

Question 24.
Moral Rights.
Moral rights denote claims based on the ‘moral’ code of the community. These rights are morally prescribed to men in the society. The ethical or moral principles in the society act as the basis of the moral rights. Customs, traditions and us¬ages are regarded as the basic source of these rights. Men enjoy these rights in a civil society. These rights are based on the moral conscience of the people. They don’t have legal support. However, they are backed by the society. So violation of these rights is not considered as a crime. Individuals could be punished for their violation. Moral rights are indefinite and vague. But they are popular in nature. The State cannot ignore these rights for a long time.

Question 25.
Classification of Responsibilities.
Responsibilities are broadly classified into : (i) Moral respon-sibilities (ii) Legal responsibilities. Legal responsibilities are further classified into : (i) Positive responsibilities (ii) Negative responsibilities.

Question 26.
What is Distributive Justice ?
Distributive justice implies the distribution of goods and wealth of citizens by the state on Merit basis. Aristotle stated that justice is a sort of proportions. He regarded it as the most powerful instrument against revolutions. But modern writers like John Rawls denied Aristotle’s view. He pointed out that inequalities are inherent in the society. He remarked that inequalities must be balanced by some restrictive arrangements in the political system.

Question 27.
What are the views of John Rawls on social justice ?
John Rawls Admitted that :

  1. Social Justice implies equal access to the liberties, rights and opportunities to the deprived sections of the society.
  2. Social Justice is built around the idea of a social contract committed by the people for obeying certain rules.

Question 28.
Who is an Alien ?
An Alien is a person living in a state but owing Allegiance to another State. Aliens are entitled to such rights and obligations which are incorporated in the covenants of the Foreign State. Ex : In America, Aligns must obey the laws and pay taxes just like the American Citizens.

Question 29.
List out two conditions of loss of citizenship.

  1. Renunciation : A person is deprived of his citizenship, if he wishes to become the citizen of any other State.
  2. Marriage : Generally a woman loses her citizenship when she marries an alien.

AP Inter 1st Year Civics Question Paper March 2018

Question 30.
Write any four conditions essential for the success of Democracy.

  1. Sound system of Education
  2. Independent Press
  3. Strong Opposition
  4. Social Equality

Question 31.
Write any two definitions of Democracy. ,
Democracy is form of government in which the people rule themselves directly or indirectly through their periodically elected representatives.

Definitions :

  1. Abraham Lincoln : “Democracy is a government of the people, by the people and for the people”.
  2. J.R. Seely : “Democracy is a government in which every one has a share”.

Question 32.
Write about any two features of Secular State.
Features of Secular State : Secular State comprises the following features.

1. No place for religion : Secular States does not assign significance to any particular religion. It will not make laws or implement them on religious grounds.

2. Equal status : Secular state accords equal status to its people. It makes no differentiation between individuals on the grounds of their caste colour, community, religion, race, region, language etc. As a result, people will have satisfaction and extend co-operation to the government in the implementation of various policies and programmes. They live together with the fellow members of other religious denominations.

Question 33.
What do you mean by Theocracy ?
The state having an official religion is called a Theocratic State. In such states all other religions or religious activities are either prohibited or discouraged or highly regulated or controlled by the state. At the official and important offices of the state are either appointed or elected only those from the official religion. State officially participates in the religious affairs and rituals.

Question 34.
What do you mean by Constitution ?
The term constitution implies a written document embodying the provisions relating to the powers and functions of the Government organs, the rights and duties of the citizens.

AP Inter 1st Year Civics Question Paper March 2018

Question 35.
What is an Evolved Constitution ?
Evolved constitution is also called Cumulative constitution. It is the result of evolutionary changes. It may be the product of collected material. It acts as the basis to the political institutions of a country. Several customs, usages, traditions, principles and judicial decisions are the major sources of this Constitution. Ex : British Constitution.

Question 36.
Write briefly about the theory of Separation of Powers.
Theory of separation of powers is propounded by Montesquieu in his famous book ‘The Spirit of Laws’. The powers among the three organs of the Government in presidential executive will be distributive on the basis of the theory of separation of powers. Its main feature is Checks and Balance’. Which means the three organs of the Government possess equal powers and each organ checks the other two organs from crossing their limits.

Question 37.
How many organs of government are there ? Name them.
There are three organs of Government.
They are :

  1. Legislature,
  2. Executive and
  3. Judiciary.

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