AP Inter 2nd Year English Grammar Note Making

Andhra Pradesh BIEAP AP Inter 2nd Year English Study Material Intermediate 2nd Year English Grammar Note Making Questions and Answers.

AP Intermediate 2nd Year English Grammar Note Making

Note making is an important process for a student, a lecturer or even others to become successful in their jobs. It helps us to understand the given passage. When we write a note making, first of all we have to read it two or three times. Important information has to be underlined. If we know the central theme of the passage. We should not bather about the difficult words found in the passage. We have to scan the passage carefully and find out important information. This information can be noted not in full sentences. There is no need of prepositions, conjunctions and so on in our notes.

Finally we have to decide a title for the passage. This title has to be written in the beginning itself. In our answering we can write a list of important points. Sometimes we can use diagrams, tables and other effective tools for this.

ఒక విద్యార్థికి, ఒక లెక్చరరుకు లేక మరి ఏ ఇతర వ్యక్తి కైనను తమ తమ పనులలో విజయం సాధించడానికి Note making ఒక ముఖ్యమైన పద్ధతి. అది మనకు ఇవ్వబడిన passageను అర్ధం చేసుకొనడానికి పనికి వస్తుంది. మనం నోట్ మేకింగ్ చేసేటప్పుడు, దానిని రెండు మూడుసార్లు చదవాలి. ముఖ్యమైన విషయాన్ని underline చేయాలి. మనకు దాని సారాంశం తెలిస్తే దానిలోని కఠినపదాలను గురించి ‘బాధపడవలసిన . అవసరం లేదు. మనం దానిని నిశితంగా పరిశీలించి ముఖ్యమైన సమాచారాన్ని కనిపెట్టాలి. ఇది పూర్తి వాక్యాలలో వ్రాయవలసిన అవసరం లేదు. prepositions, conjunctions వంటి వాటి అవసరం లేదు. దానికి ఒక టైటిల్ నిర్ణయించుకోవాలి. ఈ టైటిల్ ను ముందుగానే హెడ్డింగుగా వ్రాయాలి. జవాబు వ్రాసేటప్పుడు ముఖ్య విషయాల యొక్క లిస్టు వ్రాయవచ్చు. కొన్నిసార్లు diagrams, tables వంటి ఇతర ముఖ్యమైన పద్ధతులను అవలంభించవచ్చును.


Question 1.
Women empowerment has become the buzzword today with women working alongside men in all spheres. They profess an independent outlook, whether they, are living inside their home or working outside. They are increasingly gaining control over their lives and taking their own decisions with regard to their education, career, profession and lifestyle.

With steady increase in the number of working women, they have gained- financial independence, which has given them confidence to lead their own lives and build their own identity. They are successfully taking up diverse professions to prove that they are second to none is any respect.

But while doing so, women also take care to strike a balance between their commitment to their profession as well as their home and family. They are playing multiple roles of a mother, daughter, sister, wife and a working professional with remarkable harmony and ease. With equal opportunities to work, they are functioning with a spirit of team work to render all possible co-operation to their male counter parts in meeting the deadlines and targets set in their respective professions.

Women empowerment is not limited to urban, working women but women in even remote towns and villages are now increasingly making their voices heard loud and clear in society. They are no longer willing to play a second fiddle to their male counter parts. Educated or not, they are asserting their social and political rights and making their ‘ presence felt, regardless of their socio – economic backgrounds.

While It is true that women, by and large, do not face discrimination in society today, unfortunately, many of them face exploitation and harassment which can be of diverse types : emotional, physical, mental and sexual. They are often subjected to rape, abuse and other forms of physical and intellectual violence.

Women empowerment, in the trust sense, will be achieved only when there is attitudinal change in society with regard to womenfolk, treating them with proper respect, dignity, fairness and equality. The rural areas of the country are, by and large, steeped in a feudal and medieval outlook, refusing to grant women equal say in the matters of their education, marriage, dress – code, profession and social interactions.

Let us hope, women empowerment spreads to progressive as well as backward areas of our vast country.


Women empowerment: Now-a-days women are trying to be independent-own decisions – Financial independence for women – second to none in every respect.

Woman in society : Mother, Daughter, Sister-team work-co-operation from male partners – respect in professions.
Place: Both urban and rural areas to develop – social and political rights – No exploitation of ladies.
Prosperity: Women to prosper – respect, dignity and equality wrought.

AP Inter 2nd Year English Grammar Note Making

Question 2.
Sleep serves multiple purposes that are essential to your brain and body. Let’s break down some of the most important ones. The first purpose of sleep is restoration. Every day, your brain accumulates metabolic waste as it goes about its normal neural activities. While this is completely normal, too much accumulation of these waste products has been linked to neurological disorders such as Alzheimer’s disease. Alright, so how do we get rid of metabolic waste ? Recent research has suggested that sleep plays a crucial role in cleaning out the brain each night. While these toxins can be flushed out during waking hours, researchers have found that clearance during sleep is as much as two-fold faster than during waking hours.

During sleep, brain cells actually shrink by 60 percent, allowing the brain’s waste- removal system – called the glymphatic system-to essentially “take out the trash” more easily. The result ? Your brain is restored during sleep, and you wake up refreshed and with a clear mind/ The second purpose of sleep is memory consolidation, sleep is crucial for memory consolidation, which is the process that maintains and strengthens your longterm memories. Insufficient or fragmented sleep can hamper your ability to form both concrete memories (facts and figures) and emotional memories. Finally, sleep is paramount for metabolic health. Studies have shown that when you sleep 5.5 hours per night instead of 8.5 hours per night a lower proportion of the energy you bum comes from fat, while more comes from carbohydrate and protein. This can predispose you to fat gain and muscle loss. Additionally, insufficient sleep or abnormal sleep cycles can lead to insulin insensitivity and metabolic syndrome, increasing your risk of diabetes and heart disease.


Sleep : Sleep essential for brain and body – restoration of strength – neurological disorders – metabolic waste – clearance of toxins during sleep.

How to get relief : Brain cells shrink up to 60 percent – take out the trash – memory consideration – for metabolic health – sleep of the individual – insufficient sleep can lead to insulin insensitivity – leads to risk of diabetes and heart disease.

Question 3.
There are many different kinds Of musical instruments. They are divided into three main classes according to the way that they are played. For example, some instruments are played by blowing air into them. These are called wind instruments. In some of these the air is made to vibrate inside a wooden tube, and these are said to be of the woodwind family. Examples of woodwind instruments are the flute, the clarinet and the bassoon. Other instruments are made of brass, the trumpet and the horn, for example. There are also various other wind instruments like such as the mouth organ and the bagpipes.

Some instruments are played by banging or striking them. One obvious example is the y drum, of which there are various kinds. Instruments like this are called percussion instruments.

The last big group of musical instruments are the ones which have strings. There are two main kinds of stringed instrument those in which the music is made by plucking the strings, and those where the player draws a bow across the strings. Examples of the former are the harp and the guitar. Examples of the latter are the violin and the cello.


AP Inter 2nd Year English Grammar Note Making 1

Question 4.
Yoga is good for the mind and body. Regular practice of yoga helps people to improve their balance and stamina. Although you won’t really get out of breath, like you might playing football or running, it does help to keep your heart healthy and you can lose weight. It can also help with back pain.

The breathing taught in yoga can help people to reduce stress and anxiety. There are lots of different possible breathing patterns you can do. Yoga also improves concentration and helps people to sleep better, so it’s great for anyone who’s under pressure at work or in their studies.

There are lots of different types of yoga, so you can choose what suits you best. Hatha Yoga is often good for beginners, because you hold each position for a few breaths. In Vinyasa Yoga you change position much more quickly and you might get out of breath. It’s quite challenging if you haven’t done much yoga before. Bikram Yoga is sometimes called ‘hot yoga’, because the room must be heated to around 40 degrees. As well as these and other more traditional forms of yoga, there are also some more unusual modem forms of yoga. For example, you might enjoy ‘laughter yoga’, where people, do breathing exercises and laugh about nothing in particular – laughing is very good for your health. Or what about ‘Aeroyoga’, where you do yoga while you are hanging from the ceiling ? It’s supposed to be very good for your back. Or ‘Doga’, where you do yoga together with your pet dog?

Whatever kind of yoga you choose, there are definitely some health benefits, and you should have fun too.


Yoga useful for mind and body – balance and stamina – playing football – heart healthy – breathing taught in yoga – reduces stress and anxiety – improves concentration.

Different types of yoga – Hatha yoga, Vinyasa yoga, Bikram yoga, modem ways – laughter yoga – good for health – yoga hanging over the ceiling, yoga with your pet dog – each of these have benefits and fun also.

AP Inter 2nd Year English Grammar Note Making

Question 5.
Is it possible for the colour of a uniform to affect the outcome of a sports match ? British anthropologists (scientists who study human behaviour) think so. In 2004, researchers studied the results of Olympic competitions in boxing, tae-know-do, and wrestling. These sports were great to study because uniform colours were randomly assigned. In each sport, contestants wearing red had a slight advantage. Those with red uniforms won a little more than half the time. Was this a matter of chance ? Or did red uniforms suggest danger and strength to opponents ? Many scientists have studied “the red effect.” Some have found that the colour of wrestler’s uniforms may affect a referee’s scoring. But nobody knows for sure. It’s not clear what effect red has on players, opponents, referees, and fans, or if it has any effect at all. It’s a great question to ask. And until it’s answered, you can be sure there will be many teams who are pinning their hopes on red.


According to British Scientists – results of Olympics and Wrestling – contestants with red uniforms had a slight advantage.

Doubt is not cleared – the red effect – It may affect a referee’s scoring – players, opponents, referees and fans – the effect is not known – many teams opt for red uniforms.

Question 6.
Television is considered a vast media for communication. Television is at the same time considered a media running in everyone’s home carrying misinformation. Likewise, there are so many debates on the advantages and disadvantages of television. Strictly speaking, this is true. Television carries the news from one comer of the world to another at the same time it carries so many unwanted programs. The educational programs in television are innumerable. Lots of programs are available on Science and Technology. Current news is made available with audio and visuals through television. Many learning programs and social programs are also telecasted in many channels. This will be a great way to induce/motivate people to know and excel in their field of expertise. Women at home rely on television as their best companion. Women today at home cannot imagine a day without television. They can also find television as a medium to bring everyone in the family together for some time. Many animated programs and cartoon channels are telecasted for kids and children. Programs that are informative and teach them easily are also available in such channels. This also occupies the children when they are done with their assignments ! For people who work the whole day, Television is a big stress buster. Watching various channels, fun programs and songs would give them great relief.

Children start to become addicts to Television. This ultimately spoils their studies. Another great disadvantage is that watching Television for long hours might disturb a person’s sleep cycle, routine and severely affect one’s health too. The advertisements telecasted in TVs attract people to change their brands, increase their needs and wants; most important is children start pestering for stuff that are telecasted on Television. Though ; television played a vital role in carrying news and information across the world, after the advent of computers and internet, it has considerably lost its importance in the society.


Television is a vast media of communication. So many debates – advantages and disadvantages – News from one comer to another. Many unwanted programs – programs on science and Technology. Women take T.V as their companion – Animated programmes and cartoon channels for children – watching T.V is a good habit. When it is under control children should not become addicts – computers and internet – a substitute for T.V.

Question 7.
The process of study involves four operations – perception, comprehension, retention and retrieval. In other words, you should first perceive what is relevant to your needs and select only those areas which are important. You cannot study everything available in every book you can lay your hands on. Once you have decided on areas, which are important, you have to read and understand – or comprehend the material that you have selected – for no learning can take place without comprehension. What is not Understood is not learnt. Comprehension is thus imperative in the process of learning. However, mere comprehension is not enough. What one understands now, may also be easily forgotten later. Hence, you, as a student, have to make special efforts to retain what you comprehend. You also have to retrieve all that you leam throughout the year at the time of examination.


Four operations – perception, comprehension, retention and retrieval. Select the area of study – understand the material and comprehend. Sometimes forgetting is possible.
Try to retain the subject you studied.
You have to retrieve all that you learnt, at the time of examination.

Question 8.
There are four important types of heart diseases. Firstly, congenital heart disease, which is present at birth; an example of this is the so-called ‘blue baby’. It accounts for 2 percent of all heart diseases. The second type, rheumatic, is quite common in some 30 to 40 percent of all heart cases. It is caused by an infection of the throat which, is untreated causes damage to the heart. The symptoms are a chronic sore throat, painful joints and high fever. This disease is widespread in many developing countries, due to poor living conditions and overcrowding.

High blood pressure is also an important cause of heart disease, of the third type, hypertensive, and accounts for some 15 to 25 percept of all heart cases. It is believed that among other factors such as stress and smoking, a higher salt intake in the diet leads to blood pressure.

Degenerative heart disease, commonly known as Ischaemic heart disease, is the cause of heart attacks, and is one of the most important health problems among adults throughout the world. Ischaemic heart disease is due to blocking of the two blood vessels which supply blood to the heart muscle. At birth they are wide open, but in a diseased state one or more of these vessels is completely blocked, leading to defective blood supply to various points of the heart. This results in the well-known symptom of pain on emotional or physical stress called angina. What causes this is the laying down of a fatty substance, called cholesterol, in the wall of the artery, which gradually blocks the vessel and may close it completely.

How does cholesterol get into the blood ? It results partly from a diet rich in fats of animal origin, such as butter, cream, cheese, rich cuts of beef, ham and bacon, egg yolk, and saturated cooking fats, such as ghee.


There are four types of heart diseases.
Congenital heart disease, rheumatic, hypertensive and degenerative heart disease.
First type – 2 percent, second type 30 to 40, Third 15 to 25 and the fourth type the remaining.
First type of heart disease – at birth also called ‘blue baby’.
Second type – Sore throat, painful joints.
Third type – High blood pressure.
Fourth type – because of blocked vessels.
Butter, cream, cheese, beef, ham and bacon etc., cause the increase in cholesterol.

AP Inter 2nd Year English Grammar Note Making

Question 9.
Like rivers, trees are our natural wealth. Trees prevent erosion or washing away of the soil. The thick roots or the trees absorb large quantity of water, hence reduce the danger of the flood by checking the flow of water. Trees provide a home for wild animals they produce many kinds of timber. To keep the air clean, trees are needed. We must grow more and more trees in and around our houses. “Grow more Trees” is a programme, patronized by the Indian govt. Under this programme, we plant new trees every year. This scheme has a great significance cutting down trees has resulted in the imbalance of environment. Trees are important not only to human beings but also to birds, and animals. Their branches give shelter to millions of birds, and the forests support the life of wild animals.


Trees are natural wealth.
Floods are controlled.
They provide shelter for wild animals.
Timber is produced, Air is cleaned.
Govt arranges the programme “Grow more Trees”.
Even the birds and animals get shelter.
Wild life is saved by the trees.

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