Andhra Pradesh BIEAP AP Inter 1st Year Sanskrit Study Material गद्यभागः 3rd Lesson शशक-कपिञ्जल कथा Textbook Questions and Answers, Summary.
AP Inter 1st Year Sanskrit Study Material 3rd Lesson शशक-कपिञ्जल कथा
लघुसमाधानप्रश्नाः Short Answer Questions
पञ्चतन्त्रे कति भागाः सन्ति, ते के?
पञ्चतन्त्रे पञ्च तन्त्राणि सन्ति । मित्रभेदः, मित्रसंप्राप्तिः, काकोलुकीयम्, लब्धप्रणाशः तथा अपरीक्षितकारकम् इति।
तीक्ष्णदंष्ट्रस्य धर्मोपदेशं श्रुत्वा शशकः किमवदत्?
तीक्ष्णदंष्ट्रस्य धर्मोपदेशं श्रुत्वा शशकः एवम् अवदत्-एष नदीतीरे तपस्वी धर्मवादी तिष्ठति। तदेनं पृच्छावः।
समीपगतौ शशकपिजलौ तीक्ष्णदंष्ट्र: किमकरोत्?
समीपगतौ शशकपिजलौ तीक्ष्णदंष्ट्र: समकालमेव पदा, दंष्ट्र: च बद्ध्वा भक्षितवान्।
कयोः मध्ये विवादः वर्तते?
शशकपिञ्जलयोः मध्ये विवादः वर्तते।
एकपद समाधान प्रश्ना: One Word Answer Questions
पञ्चतन्त्रं केन विरचितम्?
पञ्चतन्त्रं विष्णुशर्मणा विरचितम्।
शशकपिजलौ केन भक्षितौ?
शशकपिञ्जलौ मार्जारेण भक्षितौ।
मया + अपि = मयापि – सवर्णदीर्घसन्धिः
केन + अपि = केनापि – सवर्णदीर्घसन्धिः
मम + अग्रे = ममाग्रे – सवर्णदीर्घसन्धिः
अथ + असौ = अथासौ – सवर्णदीर्घसन्धिः
न + अन्या = नान्याः – सवर्णदीर्घसन्धिः
कोटर + अन्तर्गतम् = कोटरान्तर्गतम् – सवर्णदीर्घसन्धिः
तव + इदम् = तवेदम् – गुणसन्धिः
धर्म + उपदेशः = धर्मोपदेशः – गुणसन्धिः
सदा + एव = सदैव – वृद्धिसन्धिः
न + एव = नैव – वृद्धिसन्धिः
मा + एव = मैव – वृद्धिसन्धिः
मम + एतत् = ममैतत् – वृद्धिसन्धिः
तौ + ऊचतुः = तावूचतुः – अयवायावादेशसन्धिः
उभौ + अपि __= उभावपि – अयवायावादेशसन्धिः
एते + अपि = एतेऽपि – पूर्वरूपसन्धिः
कोटरान्तरे – कोटस्य अन्तरे – षष्ठीतत्पुरुषसमासः
अहिंसा – न हिंसा – नञ्तत्पुरुषसमासः
धर्मवादी – धर्मस्य वादी – षष्ठीतत्पुरुषसमासः
धर्मोपदेशः – धर्मस्य उपदेशः – षष्ठीतत्पुरुषसमासः
नदीतटे – नद्याः तटे – षष्ठीतत्पुरुषसमासः
शशकपिजलौ – शशः च कपिञ्जलः च – द्वन्द्वसमासः
शशक-कपिञ्जल कथा Summary in English
शशक-कपिञ्जल कथा Introduction:
विष्णुशर्मा संस्कृतवाङ्मये नीतिकथासाहित्यस्य प्रमुखः स्रष्टा। अयं पञ्चमशताब्दीयः। अस्य जननीजनको जन्मस्थलं चेत्यादि वैयक्तिकसमाचारः नैव उपलभ्यते। परम् अयं कथाकथने सुतरां निपुणः। लोकज्ञानसमपन्नः, सकलशास्रपारङ्गतः, छात्राणां कृते नैतिकांशानां बोधने असमानप्रतिभाशाली, सामाजिकसम्बन्ध विश्लेषकश्च । जन्तूनां मुखतः मानवस्वभावानां निरूपकः अयम्, जन्तूनां, मानवानां च मनस्तत्त्ववेत्ता महान् राजनीतिकुशलश्चासीत्।
Vishnusarman was the creator of moral story literature in Sanskrit. He belonged to 5th century AD. Information regarding his parents or native place is not available. He was a master in telling tales. He was endowed with a good knowledge of the worldly affairs, well versed in all sciences, an expert in teaching topics related to ethics to the students and an analyst of social matters. Bringing out the human nature through the characters of animals, he was a psychologist who understood well the human and animal behaviours. He was also a scholar of polity.
King Amarasakti ruled the city Mahilaropya that was in the southern region. He had three stupid sons named Vasu sakti, Ugrasakti and Anekasakti. Because of his sons who were averse to studies, even such a big kingdom could not make the king happy. On seeing the plight of the king, . the ministers advised him to appoint the famous Vishnusarman, who was well versed in all branches of learning to teach his sons. The king invited Vishnusarman, and sent his sons to him for studies. For their sake Vishnusarman composed five books namely Mitrabheda, Mitrasamprapti, Kakolukiya, Labdhapranasa and Aparikshitakaraka, and taught them. They also studied them, and became scholars in six months. From then onwards this work named Pancha tantra spread everywhere in the world as a means of moral education for children. That Panchatantra has been translated in to all major languages of the world is a pointer to its popularity.
Kakolukiya was the third book in the Panchatantra. The nature and behaviour of natural enemies were described here through the crow and the owl.
शशक-कपिञ्जल कथा Summary
Once a crow lived in a tree. At the foot of that tree, a sparrow lived in a hollow. Both of them spent time happily discussing the good things, and narrating the curious things, they observed while wandering. Once the sparrow went along with other sparrows in search of food, and did not return for days. The crow was worried as to what happened to him. As days passed, he lost hope of his friend.
Then a hare came to that tree and occupied the hollow. The crow did not object him. After some days, the sparrow who enjoyed ripened grains and became fat returned. He demanded the hare to vacate his residence. But the hare replied that in case of animals, he who took possession of the abode would become the master of the house. Then the sparrow suggested that they should go to some preacher of dharma, and let him decide the matter. The crow also followed them.
At that time, a wild cat named Tikshnadamshtra, who heard their argument, went to the river bank and standing with one hand stretched facing the sun delivered a religious discourse. He said that life and wealth are impermanent, and dharma alone is permanent. In brief, dharma is doing good to others. Sin is to harm others. One should not do to others what he would feel unfavourable for himself.
On hearing that the hare said there was a preacher of dharma at the river bank. But when the sparrow pointed out that he was their natural enemy, they stood at distance, and asked him to resolve their dispute. The one who spoke untruth could be eaten by him.
The cat said that he turned away from violent deeds that would lead to hell. One would go to hell even by killing a carnivorous animal. Even those who killed beasts in sacrificial rites were stupid as they did not understand the real meaning of the Veda. He would not eat them, but decide the winner and the loser.
The cat then said that as he was old, and could not hear from a distance, they should go near him, and speak. The hare and the sparrow, who believed him, went near him. The cat caught both of them at once, one with his paws, and the other with his jaws, and devoured them.
शशक-कपिञ्जल कथा Translation in English
कस्मिंश्चित् वृक्षे पुरा अहम् अवसम् । तत्राधस्तात्कोटरे कपिजलो नाम चटकः प्रतिवसति स्म । अथ सदैवास्त मनवेलायाम् आगतयोर्द्वयोः अनेकसुभाषितगोष्ट्या देवर्षि ब्रह्मार्षि-राजर्षि-पुराणचरितकीर्तनेन च पर्यटनदृष्टान् अनेककौतूहलप्रकथनेन च परमसुखम् अनुभवतोः कालो व्रजति । अथ कदाचित् कपिञ्जलः प्राणयात्रार्थम् अन्यैः चटकैः सह अन्यं पक्वशालिप्रायं देशं गतः । ततो यावत् निशासमयेऽपि नायातः
तावदहं सोद्वेगमनाः तद्विप्रयोगदुः खितः चिन्तितवान् –
Once I stayed in a tree. A sparrow named Kapinjala used to stay in the hollow at the foot of that tree. When we returned at sunset, we spent time enjoying great happiness in discussing good things, the epic stories of the divine sages, great sages and royal sages, and narrating the interesting things observed during our wanderings. Once Kapinjala went in search of food, along with other sparrows to some other place full of ripe crop. When he did not return even at night, feeling anxious and sad at his separation, I reflected thus :
अहो किमद्य कपिजलो नायातः । किं केनापि पाशेन बद्धः? अहोस्वित् केनापि व्यापादितः? सर्वथा यदि कुशली भवति, तन्मां विना न तिष्ठति। एवं मे चिन्तयतो बहूनि अहानि व्यतिक्रान्तानि। ततश्च तत्र कोटरे कदाचित् शीघ्रगो नाम शशकः अस्तमनवेलायाम् आगत्य प्रविष्ट:। मयापि कपिजलनिराशत्वेन न निवारितः। अथ आन्यस्मिन् अहनि कपिञ्जलः शालिभक्षणात् अतीव पीवरतनुः स्वमाश्रयं स्मृत्वा भूयोऽपि अत्रैव समायातः। अथवा साध्विदमुच्यते।
न तादृग्जायते सौख्यमपि स्वर्गे शरीरिणाम्।
दारिद्रयेऽपि हि यादृक्रयात्स्वदेशे स्वपुरे गृहे ||
“Why have not Kapinjala returned today? Has been caught in a snare by some one? Or has he been killed? If he is safe, he will never stay without me.” While I thought so, many days passed. Later a hare named Sighraga arrived and entered that hollow. I’also did not stop him, as I lost hope for Kapinjala. Then on another day, Kapinjala, having become very fat by eating grains, remembered his abode, and returned there. Or it was well said :
“Beings do not find happiness even in heaven as they find even in poverty in their own country, city and house.”
अथासौ कोटरान्तर्गतं शशकं दृष्ट्वा साक्षेपमाहभोः शशक! न। त्वया सुन्दरं कृतं, यन्ममावसथस्थाने प्रविष्टोऽसि। तच्छीघ्रं निष्क्रम्यताम्।
On finding the hare in the hollow, he said sarcastically, “O hare, you haven’t done well by entering my abode. Leave quickly”.
शशक आह – न तवेदं गृहम्, किन्तु ममैव। तत्किं मिथ्या परुषाणि जल्पसि? अक्तं च –
उत्सर्गात्परतः स्वाम्यमपि कर्तुं न शक्यते ||
तथा च –
प्रत्यक्षं यस्य यद्भुक्तं क्षेत्राद्यं दश वत्सरान्।
तत्र भुक्तिः प्रमाणं स्याद् न साक्षी नाक्षराणि वा||
मानुषाणामयं न्यायो मुनिभिः परिकीर्तितः।
तिरश्चां च विहङ्गानां यावदेव समाश्रयः||
तन्ममैतद्गृहम्, न तवेति।
The hare said: “This is not your house, but mine. Then why do you unnecessarily speak harsh words?
It was said –
One cannot claim ownership of a pond, well, tank, temple and tree once they have abandoned them.
If land etc. are enjoyed for ten years directly, then that enjoyment will be evidence, and not witness or document. This is the law for men ordained by the seers. But for the animals and the birds, as long as there is possession.
Hence, this is my house, and not yours.”
कपिञ्जल आह –
“भोः ! यदि स्मृति प्रमाणीकरोषि, तदागच्छ मया सह येन स्मृतिपाठकं पृष्ट्वा स यस्य ददाति स गृह्वातु”|
“If you consider Smriti as the authority, then come along with me, let’s ask a reciter of Smriti, and accept what he says.”
तथानुष्ठिते मयापि चिन्तितं किमत्रं भविष्यति? मया द्रष्टव्योऽयं न्यायः। ततः कौतुकादहमपि तावनुप्रस्थितः। अत्रान्तरे तीक्ष्णदंष्ट्रो नाम अरण्यमार्जारः तयोः विवादं श्रुत्वा मार्गासन्नं नदीतटम् आसाद्य कृतकुशोपग्रहो निमीलितैकनयनः ऊर्ध्वबाहुः अर्धपादस्पृष्टभूमिः श्रीसूर्याभिमुख इमां धर्मोपदेशनम् अकरोत् –
As they did so, I also thought :
‘What will happen here? I shall witness the judgment.’ Because of curiosity, I followed them. Meanwhile, a wild cat named Tikshnadamshtra heard their argument, and having gone to the river on the way side, having taken kusa grass in his hand, closing his eyes, stretching his hand, touching the ground with half foot, turned to face the sun, and offered this religious discourse.
अहो ! असारोऽयं संसारः । क्षणभङ् गुराः प्राणाः । स्वप्नसदृशः प्रियसमागमः । इन्द्रजालवत् कुटुम्बपरिग्रहोऽयम् । तद्धर्मं मुक्त्वा नान्या गतिरस्ति ।
Alas, this world is without substance. Life is momentary. Companionship of the dear ones is like a dream. Acquisition of family is like jugglery. Hence, there is no course other than dharma.
उक्तं च –
अनित्यानि शरीराणि विभवो नैव शाश्वतः।
नित्यं संन्निहितो मृत्युः कर्तव्यो धर्मसंग्रहः।
यस्य धर्मविहीनानि दिनान्यायान्ति यान्ति च।
स लोहकारभस्त्रेव श्वसनपि न जीवति।।
It was said –
Bodies are impermanent. Prosperity is not everlasting. Death is near by every day. Acquisition of merit should be done.
He, for whom days devoid of dharma come and go, is not considered living even though breathing like the blacksmith’s bellows.
पुलाका इव धान्येषु पूतिका इव पक्षिषु।
मशका इव मर्येषु येषां धर्मो न कारणम्।
श्रेयः पुष्पफलं वृक्षाद्दनः श्रेयो घृतं स्मृतम्।
श्रेयस्तैलं च पुण्याकाच्छ्रेयान् धर्मस्तु मानुषात् ।।
सक्षेपात्कथ्यते धर्मो जनाः किं विस्तरेण वः।
परोपकारः पुण्याय पापाय परपीडनम् ||
श्रूयतां धर्मसर्वस्वं श्रुत्वा चैवावधार्यताम्।
आत्मनः प्रतिकूलानि परेषां न समाचरेत् ||
And also –
For whom dharma is not the cause, they are like the rotten grain in the rice, bat among the birds and a gnat among men.
Flowers and fruits are better than a tree. Ghee is better than curd. Oil is better than oilcake. Dharma is greater than human being.
O men, dharma is being told in brief. Why in detail? Helping others is merit. Harassing others is sinful.
Listen to the whole of dharma. After listening, follow it. Never do to others that what is unfavourable to you.
अथ तस्य तां धर्मोपदेशनां श्रुत्वा शशक आह
‘भोः भोः कपिजल ! एष नदीतीरे तपस्वी धर्मवादी तिष्ठति। तदेनं पृच्छावः’।
On hearing his religious discourse, the hare said –
‘O Kapinjala, On this river bank is a saint and a preacher of dharma. Let’s ask him.’
कपिञ्जल आह –
‘ननु स्वभावतोऽयम् अस्माकं शत्रुभूतः। तद्दूरे स्थित्वा पृच्छावः। कदाचिदस्य व्रतवैकल्यं सम्पद्येत’।
Kapinjala answered –
“Isn’t he a natural enemy to us? So, let’s ask him standing at a distance. Or his vow Liay be disturbed.
ततो दूरस्थो तावूचतुः –
भोः तपस्विन् ! धर्मोपदेशक ! आवयोः विवादो वर्तते। तद्धर्मशास्त्र द्वारेणास्माकं निर्णयं कुरु। यो हीनवादी स ते भक्ष्य इति।
Later, from a distance they asked :
“O saint ! preacher of dharma ! There is a dispute between us Please give verdict based on the scriptures. He who speaks falsely is to be eaten by you.”
स आह –
भद्रौ ! मा मैवं वदतम्। निवृत्तोऽहं नरकमार्गात् हिंसाकर्मणः। अहिंसैव धर्ममार्गः।
He said –
“O good one, don’t speak like that. I turned away from violent actions that lead to hell. Non-violence alone is the way to dharma.
उक्तं च –
अहिंसापूर्वको धर्मो यस्मात्सर्वहिते रतः।
यूकामत्कुणदंशादीन् तस्मात्तानपि रक्षयेत् ||
हिंसकान्यपि भूतानि यो हिंसति स निघृणः।
स याति नरकं घोरं किं पुनर्यः शुभानि च।।
It was said –
As the foremost dharma is non-violence, one should care for all beings. One should protect even a louse, bug, mosquito etc.
He who kills even the carnivorous animals goes to horrible hell. Then what about him who injures the innocent ones?
एतेऽपि ये याज्ञिका यज्ञकर्मणि पशून् व्यापादयन्ति, ते मूर्खाः। परमार्थं श्रुतेः न जानन्ति। तत्र किल एतदुक्तम् – यत् अजैः यष्टव्यम् । अजाः = व्रीहयः, तावत्सप्तवार्षिकाः कथ्यन्ते, न पुनः पशुविशेषः । उक्तं च –
The ritualists who kill beasts in the sacrifices are stupid. They do not comprehend the real essence of the Veda. But there it is said – ‘one should sacrifice with Aja (goat)’. Aja here means the seven-year-old grains, and not the animal goat.
उक्तं च –
वृक्षांश्छित्त्वा पशून् हत्वा कृत्वा रुधिरकर्दमम्।
यद्येवं गम्यते स्वर्ग नरकं केन गम्यते ||
It was said –
If one goes to heaven by cutting trees, killing animals and weating muddy pools of blood, then who goes to hell?
तन्नाहं भक्षयामि। परं जयपराजयनिर्णयं करिष्यामि। किन्तु अहं वृद्धो दूरान्न यथावच्छृणोमि। एवं ज्ञात्वा मम समीपवर्तिनो भूत्वा ममाग्रे न्यायं वदतं, येन विज्ञाय, विवादपरमार्थं वचो वदतो मे परलोकबाधा न भवति।
So, I don’t eat you. Still, I will decide who has won, and who has lost. But as I am old, I cannot hear from a distance. Understanding this, coming near to me explain to me the case. After knowing the essence of the dispute, by giving the judgement, I will not face suffering in the other world.
उक्तं च –
मानाद्वा यदि वा लोभात्क्रोधाद्वा यदि वा भयात्।
यो न्यायमन्यथा ब्रूते स याति नरकं नरः।।
It was said –
He, who gives a wrong judgement through pride, greed, anger or fear will go to hell.
तथा च –
एकमश्वानृते हन्ति दश हन्ति गवानृते।
शतं कन्यानृते हन्ति सहस्रं पुरुषानृते ||
उपविष्ट: सभामध्ये यो न वक्ति स्फुटं वचः।
तस्माद्दूरेण स त्याज्यो न यो वा कीर्तयेदृतम् ।।
By giving wrong decision regarding a horse, one gets the sin of killing one person. In case of a cow, the sin is killing ten. In case of a girl, the sin becomes killing hundred. In case of a man, the sin is equal to the killing of thousand.
Sitting in a court, if one does not speak distinctly, he should be avoided, or truth should be spoken.
तस्माद्विश्रब्धौ भूत्वा मम कर्णोपान्तिके स्फुटं निवेदयतम्। कि बहुना? तेन क्षुद्रेण तथा तो पूर्ण विश्वासितौ उभौ यथा तस्योत्सङ् गवर्तिनी जातौ। ततश्च तेनापि समकालमेवैकः पादान्तेनाक्रान्तोऽन्यो दंष्ट्राक्रकचेन च ततो गतप्राणौ भक्षिताविति।
Hence, confidently speak near the edge of my ear. What to say more? That evil one made them trust him in such a way that they went near him. He caught both of them at once, one with his paw, and another with the saw like Jaws, and devoured them who were dead.
अतोऽहं ब्रवीमि –
क्षुद्रमर्थपतिं प्राप्य न्यायान्वेषणतत्परौ।
उभावपि क्षयं प्रात्पौ पुरा शशकपिजलौ || इति।
Hence, I was saying –
A hare and a sparrow Kapinjala both were killed as they sought justice from an evil judge.