AP Inter 2nd Year Economics Question Paper May 2019

Thoroughly analyzing AP Inter 2nd Year Economics Model Papers and AP Inter 2nd Year Economics Question Paper May 2019 helps students identify their strengths and weaknesses.

AP Inter 2nd Year Economics Question Paper May 2019

Time: 3 Hours
Maximum Marks: 100


Note : Read the following instructions carefully :

  1. Answer all the questions as per the choice specified. Draw suitable diagrams wherever necessary.
  2. Questions from Serial Nos. 1 to 5 in Section – ‘A’ are of Long Answer Type. Each question carries ten marks. Any three questions may be answered out of five given questions. Every answer may be limited to 40 lines.
  3. Questions from Serial Nos. 6 to 17 in Section – ‘B’ are of Short Answer Type. Each question carries five marks. Any eight questions may be answered out of twelve given questions. Every answer may be limited to 20 lines.
  4. Questions from Serial Nos. 18 to 37 in Section – ‘C’ are of Very Short Answer Type. Each question carries two marks. Any fifteen questions may be answered out of twenty given questions. Every answer may be limited to 5 lines.

Section – A (3 × 10 = 30)

Note : Answer any three out of the following five questions :

Question 1.
India is developing country. Discuss.
Developing economies are distinguished from developed economies on the basis of their per capita income. Most of the economies are agrarian in nature and their present rate of capital formation is low and inadequate to meet the requirements of their development.

According to United Nations “The countries which have real per capita income less than a quarter of the percapita income of the United States are developing countries”.

The following are the characteristic features of developing countries with special reference to India.
1) Low percapita income : One of the basic features of deve-loping countries is low per capita income. The low income and middle income countries combined together are called developing countries.

The per capita G.N.I. of India has increased from $ 1,070 to $ 1,530 (2011) entered into the group of lower middle income countries.

2) Scarcity of capital: The rate of capital formation is low in most of the developing countries. In the most of developing countries the saving rates range between 15 to 20%.

According to C.S.O estimates the growth of gross domestic saving was 27.9% and capital formation was 24% in the year 2011 – ’12.

3) Unemployment : Wide spread unemployment is one of the important features of developing countries. In India unemployment is due to the deficiency of capital. There is disguised unemployment in rural areas. Around 60% of the population is depending on agriculture for employment. The planning commission estimated that there was a hack log of 37 million unemployed at the beginning of 11th plan and it was expected that 82 million by the end of the plan.

4) Demographic characteristics : The developing countries are facing the problem of heavy population. They are successfully reducing the’mortality rates by improving the medical facilities but failed to control the birth rates, this led to population explosion. India is also facing the problem of heavy population. It’s population was 1210 million in 2011 and it increased to 1278 million in 2015.

5) Predominance of agriculture : One of the basic features of developing countries is that they are predominantly agrarian economies. The share of agriculture in G.D.P is between 20 to 30%.

According to Indian economic survey 2013 – ’14, 54.6% of the working population is engaged in the agriculture sector and it contributes 13.9% of the G.D.P.

6) High incidence of poverty : The another important feature of developing countries is the prevalence of mass poverty. The people in these countries suffer from low level of income, malnutrition, ill health and illiteracy.

India is also facing the problem of poverty. As per Tendulkar committee reports, the planning commission has updated the poverty line. Based on this; The percentage of population living below the poverty line was 29.8% in 2009 – ’10.

7) Income inequalities : The most important feature of developing economies is the disparities in income and wealth. Compared to the developed countries, the income inequalities are larger in the developing countries.

According to 68th round of NSSO for the year 2011 – ’12 the monthly per capita consumption expenditure of the poorest 10% of the rural population rise by 11.5% in 2011 – ’12 compared with the 66th round for the year 2009 – 10. In urban areas, the growth was 17.2% and 30.2% respectively over the same period.

8) High density of population : The density of population is very high in the developing countries due to the large size of population. The density of population of the world was 50 per sq.km in 2011. It is in India was 382 per sq.km in 2011, where it was 3 in Australia, 33 in USA, 145 in China etc.

9) Low quality of life : The quality of life in the developing countries is very low in comparison with developed countries. These countries people suffer from malnutrition, high population, safe drinking water and lack of sanitation etc. The life expectancy at birth is below 65 years.

10) Technical backwardness : In the developing countries the production techniques are backward due to lack of research and development. These countries use labour intensive technique because high population and capital deficiency.

Indian economy is also technically backward. Modem and traditional techniques are used side by side in different sectors of the economy. It has affected the productivity in the economy.

11) Dual economy : Economists talk of various types of dualism existing in developing economies.
They are
(a) Social dualism
(b) Technological dualism
(c) Financial dualism.

Indian economy also characterised by the dualism, the product and factor markets in India are divided with different degree of imperfections. Technological dualism is existed in India. There prevailed two kinds of economic sectors i.e., organised and unorganised sectors. The industrial sector uses the modern technology and agriculture sector still follows old method of production.

12) Price instability : The price instability is also basic feature of the developing countries. In India there is continuous price instability because of shortage of essential commodities and gap between consumption and production.

AP Inter 2nd Year Economics Question Paper May 2019

Question 2.
What are the causes for inequalities in the distribution of income and wealth ?
Inequality in the distribution of National Income is one of the major problems which our planning process and economic policies have attempted to tackle.

1) Inequalities in land ownership: There was concentration of landed property in India during the British period on account of Zamindari system. Minhas, Dandekar and Rath and Bardhan have clearly stated that all agricultural, workers and marginal and small farmers with less than 2 hectare holdings are poor. Big and large farmers not only have capacity to save, they also have an access to institutional finance. Naturally, they are attempting to improve the farm techniques. This causes income inequalities.

2) Inflation : Since the mid – 1950’s prices have been rising continuously eroding the real income of the working class, while the industrialists, traders and farmers with large marketable surplus have benefited a great deal from this inflationary process. In India, very little has been done to offset this redistributive effect of inflation and as a result, it has greatly accentuated income inequalities.

3) Inequality in credit facilities : In India, there is inequity in credit facilities which accentuates the inequalities arising from an unequal distribution of wealth. Business firms and individuals having an access to the formal capital markets manage to obtain finance on very favourable terms, while vast mass of small and marginal farmer agricultural labourers and artisans depend heavily on money lenders who charge an exorbitant rate of interest and also exploit these poor people in a number of ways.

4) Urban Bias in Private Investment : While 70 percent of the population in India lives in rural areas, about 70 percent of the private investment goes to industries in urban areas. Therefore, there is a distinct “urban bias” in the pattern of Private investment.

This urban bias taken the form of highly mechanized projects in which the share of wages in value added is relatively low. This naturally leads to inequality in income distribution.

5) The Role of the Government: The public investment essentially plays a supportive role to private investment. The Government is no longer serious about reducing income inequalities.

Question 3.
Explain the present conditions of agricultural labour and suggest the measures to improve the conditions of agricultural labour.
The number of people living in agriculture sector in developing country like India is very high. Unfortunately agriculture labour belong to economically depressed and socially backward sectors of rural economy.

The people who work on agriculture sector for their survival can be treated as agricultural labour.

Conditions of Agricultural Labourers :

  • Low Social Status : Most of the agricultural labourers are belonged to the depressed classes. They have been neglected for ages. In case of such farm labourers, exploitation has become common and they have not fought for their rights.
  • Unorganised : Agricultural labourers are living in scattered villages. Moreover, they are illiterates. Hence, they cannot easily to be organized. As a results it is difficult for farm labourers to bargain with the land owners for good wages.
  • Seasonal Employment : Agricultural labourers have to face the problems of unemployment and under employment. They are employed while sowing and harvesting season, of the year they remain unemployed.
  • Low Wages and Income : Agricultural wages and family incomes of agricultural labourer are very low. The wages of farm labourers vary from state to state. In case of attached labourers these wages are pathetic. However, as prices also increased considerably, the real wage rates did not increase much.
  • Rural Indebtedness : Because of the low level of income agricultural labour generally seek debts. Infact the debt of agricultural labourers passes from generation to generation and become bonded labour.
  • Femanisation of Agricultural labour : Female agricultural workers are generally forced to work harder. They ar,e paid less wages comparatively to male workers.
  • High Incidence of Child labour : It is estimated that one – third of child labourers in Asia are in India. The largest number of child workers are engaged in agriculture. Wages paid to child labourers are too low which adversely affect the incomes of their households.
  • Lack of subsidiary professions : Another serious problem that is being faced by farm labourers is lack of non- agricultural occupations in the villages. As there is no work on the fields, agricultural labour has no other means to earn for subsistence. Thus, they are disguised and are burden on land.

Measures to Improves the Conditions of Agricultural Labour :
1) Minimum Wages Act : It was passed in 1948. According to this act every State Government was asked to fix minimum wages for agricultural labour within three years. According to this law while fixing the minimum wages, the total costs and standards of living in various states of the country or in different parts within the states are to be kept in view.

2) Providing Land to Landless Labourers : The Government has distributed land to landless labourers with a view to improve their economic position. The surplus and obtained by enforcing Land Ceiling Acts and those donated in Bhoodan and Gramdan were distributed among the landless labourers.

3) Provision of House sites and Houses : Mostly, agriculture labourers do not possess their own houses. Governments have taken several steps during the plans periods to provide free house live “Indira Avasa Yojana (LAY)”, “Minimum Needs Programme (MNP)” etc.

4) Organization of Labour co-operation : During the second five year plan efforts were made for the formation of labour co-operatives. They provide employment to farm labourers and also eliminate the exploitation.

5) Special schemes for Providing Employment : A number of schemes have been initiated in planning period to provide employment to agricultural workers. Some important schemes are Rural Works Programme (RWP), Crash Scheme for Rural Employment(CSRE), Employment Guarantee Scheme (EGS), Food for work Programme (FWP) etc.

6) Sanction of Loans and Subsidies : Loans should be provided to the farm labourers at low rate of interest in order to start their own business. Sometimes Governments resorts debt moratorium for immediate relief of debts of agricultural labour and marginal farmers.

7) Abolition of’Bonded Labour : Both exploitation and slavery are in human activities apd punishable offences.
The Government of India passed a legislation known as the Bonded Labour System Abolition Act, 1976.

8) Development of Cottageflndustries : In order to minimize the pressure of population on land and to improve the economic conditions of farm labour, the Government has been making efforts to start and cottage and small scale industries in the rural areas of the country.

AP Inter 2nd Year Economics Question Paper May 2019

Question 4.
Mention the various causes for industrial backwardness in India.
India could not achieve the desired growth rate in the industrial sector eventhough it is rich in natural resources and has huge working population. Even after completion of eleven Five Year Plans, there is wide gap between targets fixed targets achieved. Rakesh Mohan opines that there is a gap of 20 percent on an average between the targets fixed and targets realized in each plan annually. The reasons for this are as follows.
AP Inter 2nd Year Economics Question Paper May 2019 1
1) Under – utilisation of productive capacities : Many of the industrial units failed to utilize the existing productive capacities fully. There are many reasons for this. Among them is raw material scarcity, low technical know-how etc. For example during 2005 – 2006, out of 203 public sector enterprises, the capacity utilization was below 50 percent by nearly 67 piercent of the units.

2) Performance of public sector units : Prior to liberalization, there was a phenomenal growth of the public sector. Many of the public sector units were under losses. The number of loss making units decreased from 105 in 1999 – 00 to only 63 in 2011. However, the losses increased from ₹ 10,302 crores in 1999 – 00 to ₹ 27,602 crores in 2011 – 12.

3) Political factors : In many situations, political factors influence decision about location of projects not considering feasibility. This approach leads to a considerable wastage of capital resources.

4) Infrastructural constraints: One of the major constraints in industrial development is poor quality and high cost of infrastruc-ture particularly power and transport network. All such infrastruc-tural constraints not only showed adverse effect on industrial growth but also reduced the competitiveness of Indian industries that were, fast emerging in the new global economic environment.

5) Gaps between targets and achievements : In the earlier period of planning achievements were below the targets. Rakesh Mohan has observed. “The average industrial growth rate achieved over thirty – five to fourty years has been about 6.2 percent rate to the average of about 8 percent projected”.

6) Emergency challenges: As a founder member of the World Trade Organization, India has withdrawn all quantitative restrictions on imports. This resulted into the closure of a nuclear of industrial units. Thus, the industrial sector facing so many problems.

Question 5.
Explain the impact of globalization on Indian Economy.
Globalization is the process of integrating or synchronizing domestic economy with the world economy or in simple words it is the process of opening up of domestic economy doors to the rest of the world.

Impact of Globalisation of Indian Economy :
a) India’s share in the world exports raised from 0.53 percent in 1991 to 1.7 percent by 2013.

b) Foreign currency reserves which were as low as one billion U.S. dollars, grow up to 333 billion U.S. dollars by the end of February 2015.

c) Exports now finance more that 65 percent of imports.

d) Control over country’s current account deficit is observed.

e) The growing rate of external debt decreased drastically when compared to pre-reform period.

f) International confidence in India has been restored.

g) Indian consumers are now enjoying wide variety of quality goods at lower price’s.

h) Employment situation worsened in the era of globalization. The growth rate of employment actually declined from 2 percent to 0.98 percent after globalization.

i) The pressure of MNCs, IMF and World Bank force governments to take decisions regarding reforms actually leading to the closure of small and medium enterprises.

j) Globalization also widened the income inequalities among the people and even among regions too.

AP Inter 2nd Year Economics Question Paper May 2019

Section – B (8 × 5 = 40)

Note : Answer any eight out of the following twelve questions :

Question 6.
What is the role of education in rural development ?
The expenditure on education in India is not considered an investment. Most of the people and particularly the decision makers in government think that education is just a social service and is meant only to improve the quality of man’s life. The importance of education in production is rarely recognized.

Education and Rural Development : Education can contribute significantly to rural development in variety of ways. By widening the horizons of knowledge of the rural people, it can enable them to overcome ignorance and superstitions adoption of new agricultural techniques and new methods of production is rendered easier if the farmers are educated. Education can be oriented as to import skills such as health and nutrition, and improvement, family planning and childcare etc. In labour surplus economies like India, education can help rural people in acquiring skills to setup cottage industries on their own so that the disguised unemployed people can be faithfully employed in the villagers themselves.

Question 7.
What are the different concepts of poverty ?
Concepts of poverty :
1) Absolute poverty: The population whose level of income or expenditure is below the figure considered to be the absolute poverty or a person whose income or consumption expenditure is so meagre that he lives belows the minimum subsistance level is called absolute poverty.

2) Relative poverty : According to the relative standard, income distribution of the population in different fractile group is estimated and a comparison of the levels of living of the top 5 to 10 percent With the bottom 5 to 10 percent of the population is called relative poverty, or those who are in the lower income groups receive less than those in the higher income groups.

3) Poverty line : According to the planning commission a person who is not having monthly percapita total expenditure of ₹ 49.9 in rural area and ₹ 56.64 in urban area at 1973 – 74 prices is called as a person living below the poverty line.

Question 8.
What are the causes for low productivity ?
Agriculture plays a predominant role in Indian economy. The productivity in Indian Agriculture is too low when we compared to the agricultural productivity of other countries in the world.

The causes for low level of agriculture productivity in India are manifold. They can be grouped into four broad categories :
1) General causes
2) Institutional causes
3) Technical causes
4) Environmental causes.

1) General causes:
i) Pressure of Population on Agriculture : Pressure of population on agriculture is heavy as a result of high growth rate of population and slow growth rate of other sectors of the economy. In 2011, about 263 million workers
out of 348 million rural working populations are employed in agriculture. Increasing pressure of population on agriculture results, in the subdivisions and fragmentation of holding. Consequently, the productivity in agriculture sectpr remains low in India.

ii) Social Environment : The social environment of villages is an obstacle in agricultural development. The farmers in rural are illiterate, superstitious, conservative and unresponsive to new agriculture techniques. The decline of joint family system and land hunger are also discourag-ing the rural atmosphere. Peasants are not able to take proper care of their agriculture. Unless this atmosphere is changed, it is too difficult to enhance the productivity of agriculture.

iii) Lack of Infrastructural Facilities : Infrastructural facilities like transport, storage, credit and marketing are inadequate in rural areas to the growing population, due to lack of these adequate infrastructure facilities, the agricultural productivity in rural areas is very low.

iv) Impact of the British Regime : During British rule in India, they have not shown any interest in developing agriculture sector but made our economy as colonial one. Moreover, their policies like land tenure system, collection of land cess gave a deadly blow to the Indian agriculture.

2) Institutional causes:
i) Uneconomic Land Holding: According to the National Sample Survey, 52 percent land holdings had a size of less than 2 hectares in 1961 – 62. In 2010 – 11, 85 percent of total land holdings are less than 2 hectares. As a result of laws of inheritance and other reasons there is a further divisions and fragmentation of land holdings. Hence, these small holdings are adversely affecting productivity of agriculture.

ii) Defects in Land Tenancy System : The Indian agriculture system was adversely affected before Independence because of defectives in Zamindari, Jagirdari, Mahalvari systems which exploited the farmers. In this system lack of certainty in rent, security of tenure and ownership right the tenants don’t show any attention to develop agriculture. Hence, India has become less productivity.

iii) Lack of credit and marketing facilities: The cultivators are not able to invest requisite sources, in agriculture due to lack of marketing facilities and required credit at fair rate of interest. Even support price policy and subsidies to inputs of agriculture fired by the Government are unsatisfactory. Hence, peasants follow traditional methods which results in low productivity.

3) Technical causes :
i) Outmoded Agricultural Techniques : T. W. Schultz of famous economist opined that the peasants in India are still using traditional or outmoded techniques. Indian farmers are still using wooden ploughs, bullock carts, sickles etc. Use of fertilizers and new high yielding varieties of seeds is also extremely limited. Hence, the productivity in agriculture is low.

ii) Inadequate Irrigation Facilities : Gross cropped area in India in 2010 – 11 was – 198.97 million hectares but only 89 – 36 million hectares of land had irrigation facilities. It implies that 55 percent of the gross cropped area continues to depend on rains. Rainfall is often insufficient, uncertain and irregular. In such atmosphere it is difficult to extend the new agricultural technology all over the country.

iii) Scarcity of Agricultural Inputs : The supply of modem agricultural inputs like fertilizers, pesticides, hybrid seeds, farm machinery etc., are inadequate to meet the requirements of our country. In order to achieve high production in agriculture requisite supply of inputs is essential.

4) Environmental causes’: Environment also plays a vital role in affecting the productivity of agriculture, increase in the temperature. Degradation of soil, changes in temperature, pollution of water and air etc., adversely affect the productivity of agriculture are :

  • Global warming.
  • Soil Degradation.
  • The intensive cultivation of high yielding variety crops.
  • The reckless use of fertilizers.
  • Shifting cultivation.
  • Displacement of the traditional practies of crops.

AP Inter 2nd Year Economics Question Paper May 2019

Question 9.
Role of regional rural banks in rural credit.
Regional Rural Banks : According to the recommendations of the working group on Rural Banks headed by prof. M. Narasimham, the Government of India issued an ordinance country establish Regional Rural Banks in our country on October 2, 1975. Five Regional Rural Banks were started. Later the number rose to 196. The Government of India amalgamated Regional Rural Banks in order to consolidating and strengthening them. As on March, 2013, the total mem-ber of branches of RRBs were 17,856 across 635 districts in 26 states and one Union Territory.

The Nationalized commercial banks are sponsoring the RRBs. Each Regional Rural Bank had an authorized capital of ₹ 1 crore and paidup capital ₹ 25 lakhs. The share capital has subscribed by the Central Government 50% the State Government concerned 15% and sponsoring commercial banks 35%.

The main objective of RRBs is to provide credit and other facilities to the small and marginal farmers, agricultural labourers, so as to develop commerce, agriculture and other productive activities.

10. Industrial Credit and Investment Corporation of India. Ans. It played a role in consolidation in various sectors of the Indian Industry, by financing, mergers and acquisitions. The ICICI, groups financing and banking operations both wholesale and retail.

Functions :

  1. Guaranteed loans from other private Government source.
  2. Provided financial services such as deffered credit, leasing credit, installment sale asset, credit and venture capital.
  3. It offered long term and medium – term loans, both indian currency and foreign currency loan.
  4. Participated in equity capital and in debentures and under wrote new issues of shares and debentures.

Question 11.
What is tourism ? Explain its importance in Indian Economy.
Tourism is the sub-sector of tertiary sector in general and services industry in particular.
WT.O. defined Tourism as “the activities of persons travelling and staying in places outside their usual environ-ment for not more than one consecutive year for leisure, business and other purposes”.

Importance :

  1. Tourism provides revenue to the government.
  2. Tourism creates employment facilities for women.
  3. It provides regional development.
  4. It is a source of foreign exchange earnings.
  5. Tourism sells indirectly the environmental resources.
  6. It can be used as a means of reducing poverty.
  7. It builds partnership with private sector.

Question 12.
What are the reasons for regional imbalances in India ?
Regional imbalances stand in the way of Nation’s Integrity, economic growth and development.

a) Geographical Reasons : Physical geography controls economic growth in developing countries than the developed countries. For example, Himachal Pradesh, Hill district of UP Northern Kashmir etc., remained backward mainly because of inaccessibility.

b) Climatic Conditions: Climate too plays an important role in the economic development of many region in India, region with adverse climatic conditions reflected in low agricultural output and absence of large – scale industries.

c) British Rule : Historically the existence of backward regions started from the British rule in India. The British helped the developed of only those regions which are endowed with conducive facilities to drain Indian wealth to their country like Calcutta, Bombay etc.

d) Concentration of Industries : New investment, in the private sector has attendance to concentrate in already well developed areas, thus reaping the benefits of external economic. Since, well developed area offers private investors certain basic advantages viz., skilled labour, infrastructure, transport etc.

e) Scarcity of Natural Resources : Certain regions are endowed with natural resources, where as same regions are not. Those regions with great natural resources endowment are developed faster.

f) Lack of Infrastructural Facilities : Those regions where there are no proper roads, electricity, telecommunication, drinking water, education, medical, technical training facility etc., tend to remain underdeveloped.

AP Inter 2nd Year Economics Question Paper May 2019

Question 13.
Functions of W.T.O.
a) W.T.O. facilitates the implementation, administration and operation of world trade agreements.
b) It provides the forum for trade negotiations among its member countries.
c) It shall handle trade disputes.
d) It shall monitor national trade policies of member countries.
e) It shall provide technical assistance and training to developing countries.
f) It maintains harmonious and co-operative relationship with IMF and IBRD and its affiliated agencies.

Question 14.
Explain the effects of pollution on human health.
Environmental degradation has adverse effects on human health, which may lead to raise the labour absenteesism. Ill health causes to decrease the efficiency of labour which intum leads to low productivity,

i) Air Pollution : Air pollutants like carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, hydrocarbons, particulate matter etc., attack human health through respiratory system. Diseases like bronchitis, lung cancer, eye irritation and skin irritation etc. are caused by air pollution.

ii) Water Pollution : Water is significant vehicle in transmission of diseases. Various disease – producing organisms such as viruses, bacteria and protozoa are transmitted through water. These organisms cause . dysentery, typhoid, cholera and infectious hepatitis.

iii) Sound Pollution: Sound pollution affects human health – in many ways. Loud noise causes disturbances in sleep and lead to different side effects. It leads to damage of hearing, interference with work tasks and speech, diversion of concentration, hypertension, tachycardia (fast, heart beat) and irritation.

Question 15.
Occupational distribution’of labour in A.P.
Occupational distribution pattern in any country decides the level of economic growth. Any economy can be divided into :

  1. Agriculture sector.
  2. Industrial sector.
  3. Service sector.

Dividing the total population according to their occupation or work is known as occupational distribution of population or labour.

According to the statistical abstract of A.P. 2014, prepared on the basis of the 2011 census, the total number of workers is A.P. is 2,30,80,964. Among them, the total number of workers in industry sector in A.P. is 33,40,133 which is 14.47% of total work force. Total number of workers related to primary sector is 1,43,92,736. i.e., 62.36% and 34.77% of total work force based on service sector.

The number of people depending on agriculture sector is still very high. Tertiary sector is in the second place and providing livelihood to the larger percent of population after agriculture sector. In A.P. secondary sector’s contribution is steady and constant.

Question 16.
Environmental protection activities in Andhra Pradesh.
Andhra Pradesh having good environmental conditions. Its coastline is second in India and first in South Indian states. To protect this rich environment, steps have been taken by the State Government.

1) Environmental Protection Programmes : State is implementing programmes like Community Forest Management (CFM), National Afforestation Programme (NAP) etc.

2) Chettu – Neeru Programme : The state Government launched ‘neeru – chettu’ a programme aimed at conserving water and saving trees, in all districts in 2015.

3) Non-Conventional Energy : A.P. Department of Energy decided to make the State as a largest “Green Energy Corridor”,, by increasing the production of renewable energy through solar.

4) Vanamahotsava : Forest Department celebrated 64th Vanamahotsava in 2013 with view of “Two million tree plantation”.

5) Wildlife conservation : To protect the rich bio-diversity of Flora, Fauna and ecosystem. Government declared 66 protected areas which include 13 wildlife sanctuaries and 3 National Parks. Biodiversity conservation society of A.P. has been constituted to take care of the Conservation measures of wild life sanctuaries. The Seshachalaffi Biosphere Reserve has been notified and made functional.

Question 17.
What is correlation ? State its importance.
Correlation is an analysis of the co-variation between two or more variables.

  1. The correlation is a statistical device which help to analyzing the co-variation between two or more variables.
  2. If the value of a variable is given, we can know the value of another variable.
  3. With the help of correlation we can predict about the future.
  4. It helps us in knowing the important variables on which other depend.
  5. In the field of commerce and industry, the technique of correlation coefficient helps to make estimates like sales, price or costs.

AP Inter 2nd Year Economics Question Paper May 2019

Section – C (15 × 2 = 30)

Note : Write notes on any fifteen out of the following twenty questions :

Question 18.
Human capital.
Expenditure on education, training, skill formation research and improvement in health is called human capital.

Question 19.
Population explosion.
When the birth rate exceeds death rate during particular period of time. Population explosion appeared in India after 1921. Since this year the growth rate of population increasing.

Question 20.
Janani Suraksha Yojana.
The scheme has dual objectives of reducing maternal and infant mortality by promoting institial deliveries. JSY has started in the year 2005 – 2006.

Question 21.
Sarva Siksha Abhiyan
Sarva Siksha Abhiyan has been introduced during 2001 – 2002. With an aim to provide universal elementary education for all children in the 6 to 14 age group by 2010 SSA has new been renamed as Rajiv Vidya Mission in Andhra Pradesh.

Question 22.
Disguised unemployment.
A person whose margined productivity is zero or when more people are engaged in a job than actually required.
It is a feature of Indian agriculture. An excess labourers are employed than the revised laboures is known as disguised by unemployed labourers.

Question 23.
Food security.
Food security is such a security which enables the people to have all time enough food for an active and healthy life.

Question 24.
Economic holding.
Economic holdings is the size of holdings which provides a decept standard of giving of the members of the family.

AP Inter 2nd Year Economics Question Paper May 2019

Question 25.
Green revolution.
Viliam S. Gand is the first economist who used the term green revolution. It was also called a “new strategy of agriculture development”. It is the result of the technological break through composed of improved irrigation facilities, better agricultural practices and mechanisation of agricultural operations.

Question 26.
The Government of India in July 1991 initiated the disinvestment process in India. The new industrial policy provides that in order to raise resources and encourage wide public participation, apart of the government share, holding in the public sector would be offered to mutual funds financial institutions, general public and employees.

Question 27.
Life Insurance Corporation of India was setup in 1956. LIC has its central office at Mumbai with 7 Zonal offices, 101 divisional offices and 2,048 branch offices. It mobilise savings of the public to invest in the industrial securities.

Question 28.
Performance of Software Industry.
The software industry is the main component of the information technology in India. India’s pool of young aged man power is the key behind this success story. Presently there are more than 500 software forms in the country. Global software gaints like Microsoft, Oracle etc.

Question 29.
Investment in a foreign country where the investor remains control over the investment. FDI means foreign direct investment.

Question 30.
Green house effect
It is a phenomenon in which are atmosphere of a planet traps radiation emitted by the sun caused by gases such as CO2, water vapour and methane, that allow incoming sunlight to pass through but retain heat radiated back from the planet’s surface. It leads radiation climate changes etc.

Question 31.
Sustainable development.
The process of development which sustains the human well being in future also.

Question 32.
The word biodiversity was coined by Walter Rosen in 1986. The variety and variability among living organisms is called as biodiversity or totality of genes species and ecosystems in a region.

AP Inter 2nd Year Economics Question Paper May 2019

Question 33.
Swachh Bharat Abhiyan.
Mahatma Gandhi communicated a quintessential message to the ration through his efforts, to educate people around him about cleanliness. He Wished to see a ‘Clean India’. To work seriously towards this vision of Gandhiji, RM. Shri Narendra Modi – External website that opens Swachh Bharat in October 2,2014. This mission seeks to achieve the goal of clean India 150th birth anniversary of Bapu.

Question 34.
The State Gross Domestic Product is defined as the total – value of the final goods and services produced within the geographical boundaries of the state during a year.

Question 35.
Seaports in A.P.
Ports are a gateway to trade and commerce. A.P. has the second longest coastline of 972 km after Gujarat in India.
Ports provide development and growth of maritime activities. Visakha is the largest port in the State and also one of the largest port in terms of handling cargo in Country.

Question 36.
Range is the simplest method of studying dispersion. It is defined as the difference between the value of the smallest item and the value of the largest item included in the distribu¬tion.
Range = L – S
Where L Largest item; S Smallest item.

Question 37.
Fisher’s Price Index Formula.
P01 = \(\sqrt{\mathrm{L} \times \mathrm{P}}\)
= \(\sqrt{\frac{\Sigma \mathrm{P}_1 \mathrm{Q}_0}{\Sigma \mathrm{P}_0 \mathrm{Q}_0} \times \frac{\Sigma \mathrm{P}_1 \mathrm{Q}_1}{\Sigma \mathrm{P}_0 \mathrm{Q}_0}}\) = 100

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