TS Inter 1st Year Political Science Model Paper Set 3 with Solutions

Thoroughly analyzing TS Inter 1st Year Political Science Model Papers Set 3 with Solutions helps students identify their strengths and weaknesses.

TS Inter 1st Year Political Science Model Paper Set 3 with Solutions

Time: 3 Hours
Max. Marks:100

Section – A
3 x 10 = 30 Marks

Note: Answer any THREE of the following questions in not exceeding 40 lines each. Each question carries 10 Marks.

Question 1.
Discuss the relationship of Political Science with History and Economics.
Political Science has intimate relation with other social sciences like History and Economics. Such inter-relation between political science and History as well as relation between political science and Economics can be detailed as below.
a. Political Science – History
b. Political Science – Economics.

a. Political Science – History: History describes the past. The development of man-kind and society can be known through History. History being the story of man, functions as a treasure house of human experiences. It is like a laboratory to all social sciences. The political, economic, social, cultural, religious and literary activity of man can be known only through History. It describes different associations of man from earliest times. History conveys information to the present society, the developments in the past in the areas like state, civilization, culture, religion and economic activity. History is a written record of different events, movements, their causes and interrelations. History provides information to study the political activity in the past. The birth and development of political ideas and institutions is known through history.

“History without Political Science has no fruit.
Political Science without History has no root’’

There has been continuous transformation and development of political institutions since the earliest period of History. The evolution of different political institutions through the ages is recorded in History.

History is the foundation of Political Science. A comparative study of the previous political institutions and the contemporary political activity provides a scope to find ideal and state political institutions in future. The knowledge of political activity is very much essential to understanding the events like founding of the Indian National Congress, the French Revolution, the Russian Revolution and the theories like the two Nation Theory of the Muslim League and also to estimate their impact.

In the same way it is possible to study the concepts proposed by Plato. Aristotle and other Philosophers in the light of the knowledge of history of Ancient Europe. Different political thinkers like Machiavelli, Montesquieu and Lord Bryce developed their respective theories basing on the information found in history. As Robbon opined, ills essential for a student to know about the history of his own race to study the constitution and foreign policy of his race.

The knowledge of Political Science is essential to history, in the same way as the knowledge of History to Political Science. History and Political Science can contribute for the development of any civilised society in the spirit of mutual co-operation.

b. Political Science – Economics: Economics studies the aspects like wealth, production, distribution and exchange of goods. It studies about various methods to accumulate wealth. Economics is a sociological study of the aspects like wealth, production and distribution. All the social institutions and political theories place the human life on a right track. A clearly defined political system is very essential for a man to become a good and ideal citizen. Economics helps in different ways to study the human welfare.

Economics tries to co-ordinate the methods of satisfying unlimited wants with limited resources. Lack of peace and dissatisfaction preiai1 in a society when the economic needs are not satisfied.

The Primary needs like food, clothing, shelter, education and medical aid are to be satisfied. Otherwise, life becomes sorrowful. If the basic needs are not satisfied, the individual has to spend all high energy for that purpose only. A poverty-stricken society gives scope for the prevalence of immorality and anti-social elements. An individual suffering from hunger, ignorance, ill-health cannot be in a position to assess his political aims and responsibilities. He resorts to many crimes to satisfy his hunger. Such an individual entertains a spirit to adopt illegal means for his progress. He cannot use his rights properly and discharge his duties. A citizen without basic needs cannot understand the value of right to vote. The communists feel that democracy cannot be successful without a socialist economy. Aristotle warned that economic inequalities lead to social revolutions.

Even though Political Science and Economics are two different disciplines, their common aim is the welfare of people. The policies related to the production, consumption, proper use of exchange units, removing inflation, contributing for the accumulation of national wealth, promotion of industrial development are very much a part of the activities of a modern State. The impact of economic policies is very much considerable on all the above policies. It is quite possible to solve many economic problems through a political system only.

TS Inter 1st Year Political Science Model Paper Set 3 with Solutions

Question 2.
What is sovereignty and explain its characteristic features.
Introduction: Sovereignty is the most important characteristic of the modern state. Today all the modern states are the nation states. Sovereignty is their main element. The state is distinguished from other associations or institutions only by sovereign power. The state is qualified to exercise its power on account of sovereignty alone.

Definitions: The word sovereignty has been defined by different writers in different ways. Some definitions are mentioned as follows:
Willoughby: “Sovereignty is the supreme will of the state”.
Blackstone: “Sovereignty is the irresistible, absolute, uncontrolled and authority in which the supreme legal power. resides.”
Jean Bodi: “Sovereignty is the supreme power of the state over citizens and subjects unrestrained by law”. Characteristics of sovereignty:

The following are the main characteristics of sovereignty:

  1. Absoluteness
  2. Universality
  3. Permanence
  4. Inalienability
  5.  Indivisibility
  6. Exclusiveness

1. Absoluteness: Sovereignty is the absolute power of the state within the sphere of the state, there is no other power over and above sovereignty. It is subject to no legal limitations within or without. No other state can control the policies and actions of a particular state. If there are certain boundaries or limitations to the sovereignty of state, they are only self-imposed. But, the absolute sovereign power of the state is questioned by writers like Maitland raised some objections over this characteristic feature of sovereignty. They stated that the various customs and traditions of the people within the state and international obligations outside of the state will act as limitation on the sovereignty of the state.

2. Universality: The sovereignty is universal in character. It is applicable to all persons and organizations within the geographical boundaries of a state. The sovereign power makes no exception, and grants, no exemption to any individual or group. However, the state may provide certain safeguards or exemptions to the diplomats because of the need for promoting peace, friendship and goodwill among the nations on reciprocal basis.

Further, the foreign diplomats are subject to the laws of their own state, therefore, the diplomatic personnel, the foreign tourists, and the foreign heads of the states are given certain immunities. We must also note that the state is free to withdraw the privileges extended to these foreign dignitaries.

3. Permanence: Sovereignty is a permanent feature of a state. Sovereignty continues as long as the state continues in existence. Government may change periodically or frequently. but state will not change because state is permanent and the government is temporary.

To quote Garner, it does not cease with the ‘death or temporary dispossession of a particular bearer or the re organization of the state, but shifts from one point of a physical body to another, when it undergoes external change “According to Grilchrist, It is only a personal change in the government not a break in the continuity of the state”.

This is the reason why people in England used to say ‘The King is dead, long live the Kings’. It means the Kingship is immortal and the king is mortal.

4. Inalienability: Sovereignty is inalienable. It cannot be transferred to another state or organization. The obvious reason is that if the sovereign transfers its supreme power, it no longer remains the sovereign. It can be said that state and sovereignty go hand in hand, no state can claim to remain a state if it has parted and alienated its sovereignty. It is like a ‘soul’ that cannot be separated from body and vice-versa.

5. Indivisibility: Sovereignty cannot be divided. It is indivisible. Division of sovereignty amounts to the destruction of sovereignty. Each state can have only one supreme will. The concept of divided sovereignty is against to the notion of sovereignty. There will be only one sovereign authority in a state. All other organizations and institutions remain subordinate to the state.

Question 3.
Define the term equality? Write about different kinds of equality.
Meaning and explanation of Equality: The concept of Equality is of great significance in the study of political science. The term ‘Equality became an important slogan and inspired the people of France, America, Russia and India during their struggle for freedom and independence.

The term Equality’ implies absolute equality of treatment. In Political science, the term ‘Equality’ refers to a state which grants its citizens equality before the law and equal opportunities to develop their personality. But it may be noted that individuals are not equal in many respects. While some of them are strong, some others may be weak. Similarly, some are more intelligent than others. In this way, men differ in many respects. [lence, equality of treatment is not possible. In other words, it implies that state should grant to its citizens equality before law and equal protection by law.


  1. “Equality means first of all the absence of special privilege. In the second place “It means that adequate opportunities are laid open to all”. ‘ – H.J. Laski
  2. “Equality implies equal rights for all the people and abolition of special rights and privileges”. – Barker
    Types of Equality: There are many types of equality. They may be analysed in the following.

1. Social Equality: Social equality stands for equality of status and absence of class distinctions and discrimination. It exists when no individual is made to suffer on account of his caste, class, colour,creed, race etc. For instance, the constitution of India does not recognize caste or class distinctions. In fact it has opposed the practice of untouchability When all citizens enjoy social equality, there will be no discrimination against anyone on the grounds of caste, class, colour, creed, race and place of birth and legal rights. Social equality cannot be achieved only through laws.

There must prevail a sentiment of equality among individuals. The following elements help in achieving and maintaining social equality.

  1. Special privileges should not be allowed by the state to any citizen.
  2. The government shall adopt and implement a uniform policy in the fields of education, employment, administration and legislation.
  3. People must have a broad outlook with the qualities of tolerance, sacrifice, honesty etc., in social and religious affairs.
  4. Citizens of a state should maintain harmonious relations with their fellow citizens.
  5. People should not use their name of the caste, sect or religion at the time of forwarding petitions.
  6. Inter-caste marriages should be encouraged.

2. Economic equality: This kind of equality is a precondition for the enjoyment of social and political equalities. Its absence leads to several social and political problems. Economic equality does not mean equal distribution of social wealth among all the people. It only means the elimination of inequities in wealth, income and property.

The basic needs like food, shelter and clothing must be available to all. It the opinion of Laski, “Economic equality means the abolition of unfettered and irresponsible will in the industrial world’. In Barker’s view, ‘Economic equality is partly a matter of status and partly a matter of property and income”.

Question 4.
What is Democracy? Explain its merits and demerits.
Democracy is an important and most significant form of government. The term Democracy” is derived from two greek words namely ‘Demos’ and ‘Kratio’. In greek language Demos means the people and Kratio means power. Hence Democracy means power of the people.

Definitions of Democracy:
Abraham Lincoln: “Democracy is a government of the People, by the people and for the people’.
J.R. Seeley: ‘Democracy is a government in which everyone has a share.”

Merits of Democracy: In modern world almost every state has choose the Democracy because of its merits. So, here we mentioned the merits of the Democracy.
1. Efficient form of Government: In democracy, the representatives of the people will run the administration on efficient lines. As they are responsible and responsive to the people, they always make laws and implement them by consulting various administrative experts and eminent leaders. They also try to minimize the expenditure of the government by following simplicity and economy in administration.

The administrative and executive personnel will be recruited on the basis of merit, efficiency, experience and their service will be utilized in implementing various public welfare programmes.

2. Upholds Individual Liberties: It is only in democracy that the liberties of individuals can be guaranteed to a great extent. Citizens living in democracy enjoy a great amount of liberty. Their rights, liberties and freedoms are incorporated in and guaranteed by a written constitution. Any attempt made to take away or confiscate one’s liberties are forbidden. The various courts preserve, protect and promote individual liberties through their interpretation and analysis of different provisions of the Constitution.

3. Importance to Equality: Democracy gives preference to equality. Democracy próvides equal rights and liberties to all citizens alike in political, economic and social matters. It opposes the practice of untouchability, bonded labour and discrimination on the grounds of religion, region, language, birth etc.

4. Political awareness: Democracy is a large-scale experiment in Public education or political awareness. Election campaigns give education to the masses. At the time of election, the canvassing through press and platform enlightens the mind of the electorate.

5. Promotes Patriotism: Democracy promotes patriotic feelings among the people. People get several opportunities in selecting and electing their representatives to various bodies. They feel conscious and proud in participating in the working of the democratic institutions in a perfect manner. They show enthusiasm by extending their cooperation and support to the nation at the times of crisis. This is evident in the case of Indians during the Chinese and Pakistani invasions at the borders on several occasions.

6. Democracy serves as a school of citizenship: One more advantage of democracy is that it serves as a training school of citizenship. In democracy right to vote, right to contest, right to criticize the government and other political rights make the citizens politically trained in citizenship and other matters.

7. Democracy inculcates moral values: Democracy promotes a better and higher standard of natural character than any other government whatever. It teaches cooperation. responsibility toleration and self-sacrifice. According to Lowell “the best government in the long run is the one that nurtures a people strong in moral fiber, in integrity, industry, self-reliance and courage”.

8. Democracy gives Preference to public opinion: In fact, Democracy is the real representative of the Public opinion. According to Hearen Shaw, “Democracy ties a nerve to every individual; it makes a connection between him and the centre”.

9. It reduces the danger of revolution: Democracy is a government by discussion and persuasion. Every other form of government rests on force. Democracy gives every individual and every group of people a chance to express their views on public matters, to demonstrate their dissatisfaction and resentment against governmental measures and to convert the masses to their own point of view. They have a right to change the government by their vote. So, there is no chance to people opt for revolutionary methods.

10. Symbol of progress and welfare programmes: Democracy is the only form of government which ensures always the progress and welfare of the people.

11. Support World Peace: Democracy promotes world peace and opposed to war and violence. It seeks the change through evolutionary process with the purview of Constitution. Democracy believes in peaceful co-existence and cooperation. According to Burns, ‘Democratic movements have always been movements for peace’.

Demerits of Democracy:
1. Expensive Government: Democracy is the most expensive type of government. A lot of money is spent on election propaganda. Millions of money is spent on the sessions of the national and provincial legislatures. Carlyle said the parliament as a Talking shop’. italian dictator, Mussolini could, therefore, correctly say that democracy is not suited to a poor country.

2. Weak and unstable Government: Democracy is a weak and unstable type of government. In those countries where there are multiple party systems, the coalitions faif frequently and bring instability in the government. For ex; In India 1977 to 79; 1989 to 1991; 1996 to 1999 coalition governments failed to rule the government with stability.

3. Government by the minority: In practical Democracy does not represent majority opinion. Actually, Democracy is said to be government by the majority. This claim on behalf of democracy is not sustainable. In every state a large number of people never exercise their vote.

Besides, in most democratic states the first-past-the-post electoral system prevails (majority vote system). Under this system it often happens that the party securing a minority vote is returned to power. The number of votes secured by the party in power is less than those obtained by the opposition. Democracy thus ceases to be government by the majority.

4. Discouragement to culture, civilization and intellectual development: Democracy is the government by masses and always have a conservative outlook. They show no interest in the development of literature, art and architecture. In Democracy, intellectuals always keeps distance from elections. So many examples are in history defeat of intellectüals in direct elections.

5. Slow decision-making: Democracy is slow decision-making government. Because it takes lot of time to take decision. It delays the work. Legislature process, party system, opposition parties, coalition politics plays key role in decision-making in Democratic governments.

TS Inter 1st Year Political Science Model Paper Set 3 with Solutions

Question 5.
What is Executive? What are its functions?
Of the three organs of government, the Executive occupies the most important place. Very often it is referred to as the government. It refers to that branch of government which executes or enforces the laws of the state those are framed by the legislature that is why the executive is identified with government in modern times. Broadly speaking, the executive has three parts:

  1. The Head of the state
  2. The Council of Ministers and
  3. The Employees.

Functions of the Executive:
Defence and Foreign Affairs: The executive takes suitable decisions and implements them in case of any threat to the national independence and sovereignty and protects the country from foreign aggression. The duties of the executive include establishing embassies in others countries, recognising newly formed states and concluding treaties and alliances with the foreign countries.

Administrative functions: The entire administration is carried on in the name of the executive. In this context, its functions include the appointment of the officers in highest ranks allotting their duties, providing training, giving directions to different administrative departments, changing the rules and regulations from time to time, to protect law and order, to appoint and advise the council of ministers in parliamentary system, to create new departments or reorganise the existing ones or abolish them altogether as deemed necessary.

Legislative functions: The executive prepares the draft bills to be presented to the legislature and gets them enacted. In the parliamentary government as the members are directly associated with the legislature the ministers present the draft bills to the legislature and get its acceptanœ. After acceptance by the legislature, the draft bills can become acts with the assent of the chief executive. In the presidential government, the president sends to the legislature for its acceptance certain messages embodying the various legislative measures considered necessary by him. All the bills passed by the legislature can become acts only with the assent of the president. When the legislature does not meet, the executive can issue ordinances.

Financial functions: It is the duty of the executive to prepare the annual budget containing income and expenditure of the government and gets the approval of the legislature. The legislature cannot levy new taxes without the consent of the executive. Levy or abolition of taxes, provision of capital funds, reduction of prices etc. come under the domain of executive responsibility.

Judicial functions: The executive has the certain functions like: To implement the judgements of the courts of law, to reduce or cancel the punishment, to appoint the Judges, to appoint special courts for the enquiry of certain special problems etc. In some of the democratic countries, the chief executive appoints judges of the highest courts of justice.

Welfare functions: It is the Prime duty of the executive in the modem times to undertake welfare measures. The executive has to work for the planned development and contribute for the improvement of the standards of living.

Section – B
8 × 5 = 40 Marks

Note: Answer any EIGHT of the following questions in not exceeding 20 lines each. Each question comes 5 Marks.

Question 1.
Write about the relationship of Political Science with sociology.
The knowledge of Sociology is essential to a political scientist. It is essential to study the sociological roots to understand the nature of the State. The Greeks never conceived any difference between society and State. In the opinion of Greek philosophers, State is not only a political system but also a social system of commendable value.

Social customs help to systematise social set up and social life. The political scientists give importance to the trends of socialisation to understand the behaviour of the citizen as an individual and part of a community.

Of late, political sociology developed as a special science. This very factor shows how much functional is the impact of social institutions on political life. Political parties, groups and public opinion are subjected to the influence of social factors. The political changes in a State cannot be understood without the knowledge of the social conditions and institutions. For instance, an indepth study of political activity in India needs a study of the social factors like caste, religion, area and language and also processes related to them.

As Political Science discusses the organised groups of people, Sociology studies both organised and unorganised groups. Political Science deals with all the political institutions in the past, present and future. Sociology discusses the rise and growth of all institutions in a society in the past and present.

Question 2.
What are the differences between State and Association?

State Associations
1. The state is permanent. 1. Associations are temporary.
2. The state has sovereign power. 2. Associations cannot have sovereignty.
3. The state has fixed boundaries. No state is universal or worldwide. 3. The associations cannot have fixed territorial boundaries. Some associations are international and universal in character. Ex: U.N.O. Red Cross Society.
4. The membership of state is compulsory. Every citizen naturally becomes the member of the state. 4. But the membership of an association is optical. It depends on the will and wish of the people.
5. A man can become a member of one state only at a time. 5. But they can be member of any number as associations as he desires.
6. The state has multifarious functions concerning almost the whole of man’s life. 6. The functions of an association are singular and common to its members only.
7. The state makes the laws, violation of which is visited by punishment. 7. The associations cannot make laws, but makes their own rules and regulations.

Question 3.
In what way do ‘Nation’ and ‘State’ differ from each other?
Several Nation-States came into existence after the two world wars, on the basis of the principle of self-determination. The terms ‘Nation” and “State” were used synonymously. Even the political experts used both these words homogeneously and intermixingly as if both had same meaning. However, in practice both these terms are not same and identical.

Nation: “Nation is a nationality which has organized itself into a political body either Independent or desiring to be independent”.
State: “State is a people organized for law within definite term
Differences: The concepts of Nation and State differ from one another from the following points of view:

Nation State
1. Nation is an independent political community or an integral part of a multinational state. 1. State may consist people of the ‘same or many nations.
2. Nation preceeds the state. 2. State follows the nation. The final form of a nation is the accomplishment of statehood.
3. Nation is historical and cultural in its evolution. 3. State is political and legal structure.
4. Nation is the community of people who exist together for a common goal and who were united by psychological feeling of oneness. 4. State is a people organised by law in a definite territory.
5. Nation is the culmination of a long coexistence of the people. 5. State need not be evolutionary in nature. It may come into existence either by unification of the smaller independent political communities or by participation.

Question 4.
Explain about any three safeguards of Liberty.
Introduction: The concept of Liberty is of great significance in the study of political science. Lihetty is an essential condition without which man cannot develop his personality. It became a source of inspiration to the millions of the people living all over the world.

Meaning: The term liberty is derived from the Latin word” LIBER’ which means free from restrictions.


  1. ‘Liberty means the absence of restraints”. – J.R. Seely
  2. ‘Liberty means the positive power of doing or enjoying something worth doing or enjoying’. – T.H. Green

Safeguards of liberty: liberty is the most cherished ideal of human beings. Hence, it must be safeguarded in the larger interest of the society and state. In this context, the following safeguards of liberty, are worth mentioning.
1. Democratic rule: Democratic rule is considered as a heaven to liberty, liberty flourishes only in a democratic state. The reason is that democratic state extends protection to individual’s liberties through various laws. It creates a conducive atmosphere for the individuals to enjoy their liberties freely and impartially. It makes the people to participate in the government process directly or indirectly.

It makes the people to participate in the governmental process directly or indirectly. It makes the government answerable to the people. It allows the people the right to change the government through public opinion or ballot when the government acts improperly.

2. Written and rigid constitution: A written and rigid constitution is considered the most important safeguard of individual liberty. Such a constitution incorporates the various freedoms of individuals in several provisions. It acts as a custodian of peoples rights and liberties. It demarcates the spheres of govèrnmental activity.

It mentions about the various measures to be taken in case of peoples freedoms are infringed or confiscated by others including governmental authorities It also imposes restraints on the political parties by not allowing them to amend the constitutional provisions for furthering their partisan interests.

3. Independent judiciary: An independent and impartial judiciary is another safeguard of individual liberty. The judiciary will uphold the constitution and keeps the government accountable to the people. It prescribes various safeguards for protecting the fundamental rights of citizens. The judges in higher courts will deliver justice to the people on fair, free and impartial manner. Pro. Laski, while recognizing his safeguard, stated that good governance depends upon the effective functioning of judiciary.

TS Inter 1st Year Political Science Model Paper Set 3 with Solutions

Question 5.
Discuss Individualism.
Meaning: Individualism means the state should leave the individual alone. This theory is also known as the laissez-faire theory. Laissez-faire is a French term which means ‘leave alone’. It regards the individual as the centre of social life. According to this theory, the individual freedom should be given maximum Scope and the state interference should be reduced to the minimum.

The individualists regard state as a ‘necessary evil’. It is necessary because it has to protect the individual from violence and fraud. It is an evil because its existence is a threat to individual freedom. So it is desirable to have state’s interference as little as possible. Lesser the functions performed by the state, the more is the liberty enjoyed by the individual.

The state should perform the following limited functions:

  1. Protection of the individual and of the state from foreign aggression.
  2. Protection of the individual against one another.
  3. Protection of property from robbery and damage.
  4. Protection of individual from false contracts and breach of contracts.

Question 6.
What are the features of Rights?
Rights are the essential conditions for the development of the personality of individuals. They are upheld by the laws of the state. Individuals cannot achieve progress in the absence of rights.

Definition: Rights are those conditions of social life without which no man can seek in general to be himself at his best.

Features of Rights: Rights comprise the following features.

  1. Rights are possible only in society: Rights originate in society. They denote human social behaviour. They do not exist outside of the society.
  2. Rights are social in nature: Rights are the claims of individuals. These claims can be established only when the society or the state recognises and maintains them. So they are social in nature.
  3. Rights are inherent in nature: Rights are inherent in the social nature of men. The social contractualists stated that rights are inherent in nature. The in views are accepted to some extent in modern times.
  4. Rights are enforced and protected by the state: Rights are enforced and protected by the state. The various judicial organisations act as the custodians of the rights of individuals. In other words, rights are protected by the courts of law. Individuals enjoy several rights fully only in a democratic state.
  5. Rights are not absolute: Rights are not absolute. Society and state impose some restrictions on the enjoyment of rights by the individuals. These restrictions are meant for maintaining peace and other in the society Further, rights are meant for contributing social welfare and security.
  6. Every right has a corresponding responsibility: Rights and responsibilities are interdependent. Every right has a corresponding responsibility. It is the responsibility of every individual to see that his neighbours also enjoy the same rights. Rights without responsibilities or responsibilities without rights cannot exist. Both are essential for leading a peaceful social life.
  7. Rights are universal: Rights are universal in nature. They are applicable to all. They are given to all without any discrimination.
  8. Rights vary: Rights vary from time to time according to the needs of the people. They also grow with the changes in time and conditions. Some rights which were not found in the past may exist now. The socio-economic, political and cultural conditions will have an influence over the rights.
  9. Rights precede the state: Rights are the products of history. Rights originated in course of time. They were prevalent even before the origin of the state. However, they were guaranteed only after the origin of the state.
  10. Rights are meant for common good: Rights always exist and flourish as long as they are meant for common good. Only those rights which promote common good of the people are recognised by the society and the state. They are essential for leading a prosperous life by the individuals.

TS Inter 1st Year Political Science Model Paper Set 3 with Solutions

Question 7.
Explain any three conditions for securing naturalized citizenship.

  1. Residence: An alien who resides in a state for a prescribed period automatically becomes its citizen. Residence in any part of the state is a must for an alien. The period of residence varies from state to state. For instance, it is 5 years in Britain and United States and 10 years in France respectively.
  2. Choice: The children of alien parents could receive citizenship of the state according to their option and choice.
  3. Application: An alien in a state may apply for the citizenship of that state. Then the government of that state considers his application on its merits. It grants citizenship to him with or without some conditions.

These prescribed conditions refer to a minimum period of residence, good moral character, financial capability and knowledge of one of the national languages. Besides, an alien must take an oath of allegiance before he assumes the citizenship of another state.

Question 8.
What is the role of public opinion in Democracy?
The term public opinion was coined by philosopher John Locke in the 17th century. In the middle ages, the saying ‘Vox populi; Vox Dei which means voice of the people is the voice of God gained prominence.

Definitions of Public Opinion:

  1. Lord Biyce: “Public opinion is commonly used to denote the aggregate of the views men hold regarding the community’.
  2. R.G.Gettel: Public opinion is the opinion formed by a small group of leaders, which will be accepted by individuals as they have neither the knowledge nor the time nor the interest to enable them to form opinions of their own’.

Role of Public Opinion in Democracy: The term ‘public opinion was coined by philosopher John Locke in the 17th century However, the concept itself predates Locke. Vox Populi or voce of he people is’ a similar Latin concept. Today, public opinion is defined in the following way: collective evaluations expressed by people on political issues, policies, institutions and individuals.

Public opinion changes policy through passive observations that accumulate amongst citizens. Public opinion is important in a democracy because the people are the ultimate source of political power.

In theory, a government official has to take public opinion into account whilst deciding on a future course of action. Political parties must maintain a certain level of positive public opinion which is subject to a certain measure of manipulation through mass media and other sources and used to maintain the status quo. That is, however, not to say that public opinion, itself should be considered a ‘positive social function’.

it is important to understand •the factors that shape public opinion as a whole. These include social class, education, region, age, gender and ethnic, group. Society is not a homogeneous whole. It is made up of components. Each component faces different challenges in its functioning, therefore, members of each component view the world differently.

A state is built upon the consent of the members of society. A constitution is drafted by the collective will of the people. Just as the state and the constitution are vital organic constructs, so is the primary method of informing them: public opinion. Many governments, in one way or the other, try to influence the public by promoting its policies or actions through the mass media.

Question 9.
What are the features of Secular State?
Features of Secular State: Secular State comprises the following features:

  1. No place for religion: Secular States does not assign significance to any particular religion. It will not make laws or implement them on religious grounds.
  2. Equal status: Secular Stafe accords equal status to its people. It makes no differentiation between individuals on the grounds of their caste, colour, community; religion, race, region, language etc. As a result, people will have satisfaction and extend co-operation to the government in the implementation of various policies and programmes. They live together with the fellow members of other religious denominations.
  3. No state religion: Secular state does not recognize any particular religion as the state religion. It adopts neutral policy in religious matters.’ It implements various laws and social welfare measures without basing on the religious feelings of the people. It will not assign special role to any particular religion in public activities. All public places like educational institutions, government offices and judicial organizations will carry on their activities without aligning to a particular religion.

Question 10.
Explain the merits and demerits of Unwritten Constitution.
Unwritten Constitution: Unwritten constitution is one whose provisions are not written in a single document. It includes several customs and traditions which are manifested in the form of the laws. The Constitution of Britain is the best example of Unwritten constitution.

  1. An unwritten constitution paves the way for progressive legislation. It has development orientation.
  2. It always undergoes the process of evolution as it aims at ‘bettering the best’.
  3. It gives no scope for revolutions and such other agitations. It concedes to’the popular -demands.
  4. It can be amended according to the popular needs and aspirations.
  5. Its provisions are elastic in nature. So, changes in the constitution are easily made.


  1. An unwritten constitution may be changed frequently by the party in power for its political gains. This affects the political stability of the nation.
  2. It fails to protect the rights and freedom of people.
  3. It is more informal in nature.
  4. It is also not suitable for federal states.
  5. An unwritten constitution is considered as a play tool of judges. This may lead to judicial manipulations.
  6. It is prone to Frequent amendments.
  7. It is not suitable to democratic states.

Question 11.
What are the reasons for the decline of the significance of legislature?
The political thinkers opine that the legislature, which has wide powers theoretically, is losing its significance gradually in the democratic countries.

There are many reasons for this.

  1. The executive acquired a lot of constitutional and legal powers to achieve comprehensive Socio-economic development.
  2. The legislature has to depend on the executive as it does not possess even the fundamental capacity to understand the novel measures introduced in the administrative system due to the advancement of science and technology.
  3. Since the highest political offices are filled in through direct elections, the government gained importance by directly influencing the people. It could develop direct relations with the people lessening the importance of the legislature.
  4. Another reason for the reduction of the importance of the legislature is delegated legislation. The legislature, passes a law in a skeleton form and delegates power to the executive to fill in the details of it in the shape of rules and regulations. This is called delegated legislation. This power is used by the executive to implement plans and welfare schemes.
  5. Other reasons the political thinkers are worried about the fact that the significance of the legislature is further reduced due to certain reasons like lack of a powerful opposition, less duration of the sessions of the parliament, the irresponsible behaviour of the ruling party and also the misbehaviour of the legislators.

TS Inter 1st Year Political Science Model Paper Set 3 with Solutions

Question 12.
Write a note on modem classification of Governments.
In modern times, the Governments have been classified into various forms by different political scientists of a different point of time based on nature of exercise of power.
The modem classification of governments broadly consists of two types.

  1. Despotic Government,
  2. Democratic Governments.

Democratic governments are further divided into limited monarchical form of government and republican form of Government. The Governments are either in the form of unitary or federal based on territorial division of powers and presidential or parliamentary form of Government based on division of powers between the organs of Government.
TS Inter 1st Year Political Science Model Paper Set 3 with Solutions 1
Despotic Government: Despotism is a form of government in which a single entity rules with absolute power and its other connotations are tyranny and dictatorship. The despotic ruler rules at his will and pleasure without any concern for public opinion and welfare.

Democratic Government: Democratic government is a government in which all the people participate in the decision making and it is run as per the aspirations of all the groups. It aims and prdvided for equality.

Section – C
15 × 2 = 30 Marks

Note: Answer any FWfEEN of the following questions in not exceeding 5 lines each. Each question carries 2 Marks.

Question 1.
The Ancient Greek philosopher Aristotle is regarded as the Father of political Science because of his objective and scientific study of the affairs of the government and politics. Aristotle used the term Politics’ to designate the science of the state. He called politics a Master Science. He was the disciple of plato.

Question 2.
Mention any four points on significance of Political Science.

  1. Political Science explains concepts and theories.
  2. Political Science enlightens on Rights and Duties.
  3. Political Science provides knowledge of the political thinkers.
  4. Political Science deals with International Relations.

Question 3.
Internal Sovereignty.
Internally sovereign has supremacy over all other institutions and associations within the Territorial limits of that state. It also implies that sovereign power is above all laws in the state. All Liberties and Rights of Individuals in the state are only due to sovereignty.

Question 4.
Write any two differences between Nations and States.

Nation State
1. Nation is an independent political community or an integral part of a Multi-National state. 1. State may consist of the people of the same Nation or many nations.
2. Nation is Historical and cultural in its evolution. 2. State is a political and Legal structure.

Question 5.
Write any two sources of Law.
Professor T.E. Holland mentioned six sources of law.
They are:

  1. Customs
  2. Religion
  3. Judicial decisions
  4. Scientific commentaries
  5. Equity and
  6. Legislature.

Question 6.
What is positive Liberty?
It is understood as creating necessary conditions and removing all possible constraints for the development of human beings by the intervention of the state. It is called as positive liberty.

TS Inter 1st Year Political Science Model Paper Set 3 with Solutions

Question 7.
What is uni-polar world?
Unipolarity in international politics is a distribution of power in which one state exercises most of the cultural, economic and military influence unipolar systems possess only one great power and face no competition. The post-Cold war international system is unipolar The United States defence – spending is close to half of global military expenditures. The United States of America (USA) is playing a dominant role in the affairs of the United Nations Organisation (UNO) and even in the world affairs since the end of the Cold War in 1991.

Question 8.
Capitalism is an economic system based on the private ownership of the means of production and their operation for profit. Characteristics central to capitalism include private property, capital accumulation, wage labour, voluntary exchange, a price system and competitive markets. In a capitalist market economy, decision-making an Investments are determined by every owner of wealth, property or production in ability in financial and capital markets.

Question 9.
Laissez Faire is a French term which means leave alone It regards the Individual as the centre of social life. According to his theory, the Individual freedom Should be given maximum scope and the state interference should be reduced to the minimum.

Question 10.
What are Civil Rights?
Civil rights aim at providing basic conditions for individuals to lead a happy and dignified social life. These rights are considered vital for a civilized society. Civil rights are described as the gift of democracy. Democracy flourishes when the citizens are provided these rights. Civil rights are those rights which provide opportunity to each person to lead a civilized social life. These fulfil basic needs of human life in society. Right to life, liberty and equality are civil rights. Civil rights are protected by the state.

Question 11.
What does the terms Jus Soil mean?
Jus Soil means acquisition of citizenship by the principle of place of birth. According to this method, a child acquires the citizenship, of a State, where it borns. It is the place of birth which determines citizenship. This method is not more popular in modern times. At present, this method is observed exclusively in Argentina.

Question 12.
What is initiative?
An initiative is a request made by the people to the legislature in framing a law on certain national problem or policy as such. After make in the law, the same shall be presented for referendum: In this aspect at, people in a specified number present a petition in written form to the legislature proposing a legislation. It is also of two kinds. They are

  • Formulative initiative
  • Non-formulative initiative.

Question 13.
What is plebiscite? .
A plebiscite means ascertaining public opinion on certain important issues. This is not applicable to the laws and the Constitution. People’s verdict is sought on certain public problems and policies of the government. This method was first used in 1804 by Napoleon in France.

Question 14.
What is the meaning of Secular State?
The term ‘Secular’ in Latin language means “of this world”. It denotes the meaning “the opposite of religion”. The english word ‘Secular’ comes from the Latin ‘Saecbllum’ which means “An age” or ‘‘the spirit of an age”. According to E.S. Waterhouse, “Secularism is an Ideology which provides a theory of Life and conduct as against one provided in religion.

TS Inter 1st Year Political Science Model Paper Set 3 with Solutions

Question 15.
What is a Written Constitution?
A written constitution is formulated and adopted by a constituent Assembly. It comprises several principles and rules of the government in a written form or document. The constitution of India is an example of written constitution. The American Constitution is the first written constitution in the world.

Question 16.
Senate is the Upper House of United States Congress, which is a small group of elected people who decide the laws of the country. It consists of 100 members. Every U.S. state elects two people to represent them in the U.S. Senate. These people are called senators.

Question 17.
Independent Judiciary.
Independence of Judiciary implies an opportunity to the Judges to perform their duties without fear or favour and act impartially. The Judges should have no relation with the Legislature and the Executive. Both the organs should not interfere in the functioning of the Judiciary. It should be protected from political pressure and influence. Otherwise the very purpose of Judiciary stands defeated.

Question 18.
Parliamentary Executive.
A parliamentary government is one in which the executive ie., the council of Ministers headed by the Prime Ministër owes to the legislature for Its Formation. Continuation; and Survival in office. It is also known as Responsible government, cabinet government, Prime Ministerial government etc., Britain is a classical example of this form of government. Besides many states like Australia, Canada, india, Japan etc. have been following this system.

Question 19.
Unitary form of Government.
The word Unitary consists of two words, namely, ‘Uni’ and Tary’, uni means one and tary means ‘rule’. A unitary Government is a single integrated government with all executive powers. The Constitution vests all powers in the Central Government.

Question 20.
What is public opinion?
Public opinion occupies an important place in democratic states. People express their opinion in times of elections or through the legislatures. They obey and follow those laws which are formulated in accordance with the public opinion. If the government acts against the wishes of people it has to face the consequences. Public opinion keeps the government responsible and responsive. It keeps the government alert and vigilant in its functioning.

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