TS Inter 1st Year Political Science Model Paper Set 2 with Solutions

Thoroughly analyzing TS Inter 1st Year Political Science Model Papers Set 2 with Solutions helps students identify their strengths and weaknesses.

TS Inter 1st Year Political Science Model Paper Set 2 with Solutions

Time: 3 Hours
Max. Marks: 100

Section – A
3 x 10 = 30 Marks

Note: Answer any THREE of the following questions In not exceeding 40 lines each. Each question carries 10 Marks.

Question 1.
Write about the importance of Political Science.
Introduction: Politiçal Science is a premièr social science. It is mainly concerned with the study of the state in its relation with Society, Citizens, Associations and the world at large. Arisot1e is regarded as the Father of olitica1 Science. He wrote famous book “THE POLITICS”.

Meaning: The word politics is derived from the ancient Greek word “POLIS” meaning city. State and polity from ‘Poletieia’ meaning government of constitution. Politics came to mean the study of state and government and the Institutions of the state.

Definitions: Political Scientists gave various definitions on Political Science. They are as follows:
1. J.W. GARNER: “Political Science begins and Ends with the State”.
2. R.G. GETTLE: “Political Science is” The historical investigation of the state in the past, an analytical study of the state of present and what the state ought to be in the future”.
3. ROBERT DAHL: “Political Science is the Scientific study of importance of power, Authority and influence.”

The political science helps to bring out certain changes in the political system and also suggests solutions for the political problems. It also helps to promote good citizenship and formation of responsible government susceptible to public opinion.

1. Political Science explains concepts and theories: Political Science studies the relations between the individual, society, and state. It helps to protect the liberty and freedom of the individuals. The study of Political Science aids to know the political theories, concepts, and ethical principles useful for the creation of a progressive society.

2. Political Science examines forms and organs of the government: The study of Political Science enhances the knowledge of the systems of government. It details about monarchy, aristocracy democracy, dictatorship and other forms of government. It speaks about the organs of the government like legislature, executive and judiciary, their functions, and inter-relations.

3. Political Science enlightens on rights and duties: Fundamental rights are essential for the people to lead a good life in a political society. The observations made in Political Science help to enlighten the citizens about their respective rights and duties all their pros and cons to contribute for a good citizenship.

4. Political Science provides knowledge of the political thinkers: The study of Political Science provides knowledge of the political thinkers and theories which had influenced the world in different times. There were many political theories, which became popular in different times. The philosophers like Rousseau and Voltaire laid the foundations for French Revolution through their works. In the same way, the writings of Karl Marx led to a revolution in Russia and the ideas of Mao led to a revolutionary trend in China. Mahatma Gandhi provided constructive political leadership to Indian freedom struggle. The study of political science educates about political thinkers.

5. Political science deals with International Relations: The significance of the Political Science gradually increased as many Sovereign independent countries joined the world political system. It speaks about the inevitable cooperation between different countries.

The international relations as a network became very important due to the Industrial Revolution, and its effects. Modernisation, technological development, and transport facilities led to formation of regional groups between neighboring countries resulting in growing importance of international relations. Study of Political Science enlightens about all these subjects in detail.

6. Political Science explains world organisations: The United Nations Organisation has been putting continuous efforts to promote peace, cooperation and friendship among nations of the world. Its agencies are spread throughout the world undertaking various activities for the development of humankind. Political Science acquaints us with all these matters.

TS Inter 1st Year Political Science Model Paper Set 2 with Solutions

Question 2.
Discuss Monistic theory of Sovereignty.
Introduction : John Austin was a great English jurist of eighteenth century. He published a famous book ‘Lectures on Jurisprudence’ in 1832. Austin was the chief exponent of the monistic theory or legal theory of sovereignty. He was influenced by the writings of Hobbes and Bentham.

Main features of John Austin’s Theory:
1. It is Determinate: Sovereignty is a determinate person or a body of persons. The sovereign need not be a single person alone. The state is legal order wherein there must be a determinate authority. This determinate authority acts as the final source of the power.

2. Sovereign receives habitual obedience: That the deterrninate human superior receives habitual obedience from the bulk of society. The obedience should come from the bulk of the society, where the habitual obedience from the bulk of the society is not for the coming there is no sovereign power.

3. Sovereign is indivisible: That the sovereign power is not divisible. it is a unified one and therefore cannot be divided. There is no limitation on his sovereignty and it cannot be divided.

4. Sovereignty is essential: Sovereign power is essential to every political society. A non-sovereign society is neither political nor independent:

5. Law is a command: Law is a command of the sovereign and whatever may be command is, Law. Since it is a command, failure to obey law is to be punished.

6. The subjects have no right against the state: Rights are those which are legally permitted by the sovereign and upheld by him.

Criticism: Austin’s monistic absolute theory of sovereignty has been criticized by many writers like A.V.Diecy, H.J.Laski, and J.C.Gray. Henry Maine, and Sidgwick are prominent. They criticized this theory on the following grounds. ,
1. It is Unhistorical: Henry Maine stated there was no historical evidence for Austin’s therory.

2. Opoose Democracy: Austin’s theory of sovereignty is against the spirit of democracy becasuse it supported the concept of absolute and relentless sovereignty.

3. Indivisibility not real: According to Austin indivisibility is an important attribute of sovereignty. This seems to be an unsustainable proposition. In every political society there is a division of functions- and without such division no government can be conducted successfully.

4. Sovereignty cannot be located: Sovereignty in the Austinian sense cannot be located in a modern democratic state.

5. State not supreme: Austin treated the state as the omnipotent and supreme organization32. But that is not real. Stae did not poses, such a characteristic feature. There are several agencies, institutions, and organizations in the state. State is one among them. The state is not the only organization in human society.

6. Customs and traditions ignored: Austin’s theory failed to recognize the influence and importance of customs and traditions of the people. It stands that the determinate human superior (having sovereignty) could not exercise the administrative affairs without recognizing the various customs and traditions. But it is a known fact that customs and traditions have been influencing The law making process since ancient period.

Conclusion: In spite of the above criticism Austin’s theory is recognized as significance in political science. It has acquired special place in political science and in jurisprudence in a short time.

Question 3.
Explain the relationship between liberty and law.
Law and Liberty are the two fundamental concepts in political science. These two concepts are interdependent. There is no unanimity of opinion among political philosophers in regard to the relation between Law and Liberty.

There are two different schools which gave contradictory opinions. One school of thought believed that Lãw and Liberty are antithetical to each other. The other school of thought believed that Law and Liberty are interrelated to each other. Let us explain the two versions.

i) Law and Liberty are Antithetical: Individualists like J.S.Mill, Herbert Spencer, David Ricardo, and Adam Smith believed that law always restricts the activities of human beings. The state is the principal agency which destroys individual’s liberties. It will not allow the citizens to take active part in the affairs of state and Government.

Similarly, it becomes a hurdle in performing the economic activities of the nation. The recent liberalised economic policies in many countries changed the pace, of their economies. These policies enabled the people to freely participate in economic activities. Therefore, individualists believed that state is a necessary evil institution. They stated that the government is the best which governs the least. Therefore, law and liberty are antithetical to each other.

ii) Law and Liberty are Complementary: The socialists and communists believed that Law and Liberty are complementary to each other. They regarded the state as ä welfare agency. Law imposes restrictions essential for the social welfare. ltjs a fact that the capitalist class exploited the working class. The state shall eradicate the evils of exploitation by making necessary laws.

The idealists believed that state is a Moral Agency. The state represents the general will of the community. Individuals will be free when they obey the laws of the state. Moussolini gave a slogan “Nothing against the State”. Law always protects the interests of the people. Therefore, both the concepts of Law and Liberty are complementary to each other.

Question 4.
What is Individualism? Explain it.
Meaning: Individualism means the state should leave the individual alone. This theory is also known as the laissez-faire theory. Laissez-faire is a French term which means leave alone. It regards the individual as the centre of social life. According to this theory, the individual freedom should be given maximum scope and the state interference should be reduced to the minimum.

Ethical Argument: According to J.S.Mill, state interference goes against the development of the individual personality and character. When government interferes and takes upon its shoulders the responsibility of doing what the individual should do, the individual loses the sense of responsibility and self-reliance and his personality is destroyed. He even advocated against the tyranny of the majority over the individual.

Economic Argument: Adam Smith put forth the economic argument in favour of individualism. Every individual tries to get the maximum and would do his work well in which he is personally interested. He spoke in terms of the enlightened self-interest of the individual. The state must not interfere in the economic activities of men like trade, commerce and industry etc. and with its interference, the individual loses all his incentive for economic activity. Free competition will lead to improvement in the quality of industrial output and will also result in lowering of prices.

Biological Argument: Herbert Spencer put forth the biological argument to support individualism. According to him, just as in the animal world the fittest survives, in society also, the individual should struggle for himself and survive or perish. Survival of the fittest is the law of nature and the progress of the society depends upon the elimination of the unfit by the fit. The duty of the state is simply to allow the fullest scope in the struggle for existence. The state has no business to come forward to help the poor, the aged and the sick.

Empirical Argument: Experience shows that wherever and whenever the state regulated and controlled industry the result has been unnecessary delay, waste and inefficiency. It was argued that whenever the state had tried to control and regulate the social or economic life of the community, it had miserably failed in its attempts. Moreover, state management means routine, red-tapism, unnecessary delay, bad economy and corruption.

Criticism: Individualists regarded the state as a necessary evil, but actual experience has shown that it is not bad. The state has to interfere in the larger interest of society. It does exist for the sake of good life.

Individualists contend that laws restrict liberty. This is wrong contention. Laws do not curtail liberty, but maintain and promote it. The argument of the survival of the fittest is misleading, cruel, in human, dangerous and unethical. According to this principle, the weak, the Old and infirm have no right to live. Such view is observed. Hence, such a cruel philosophy is worth rejection.

TS Inter 1st Year Political Science Model Paper Set 2 with Solutions

Question 5.
Discuss Judiciary and its Functions.
The Judiciaiy is the third important organ of the government. Legislature enacts the laws. The executive implements them. But it is the judiciary which decides the constitutional validity of these laws both in theory and practice. The judiciary keeps the democratic government within the constitutional limits. The judiciary also has to protect the law abiding citizens and punish the criminals. It consists of the judges and magistrates éharged with the duty of administering justice.

In brief, it is the branch of the government which settles disputes and administers justice.

Functions of the Judiciary:
Dispensing Justice: It has to solve the disputes between the citizens, the citizens and the government and different governments. It punishes the criminals after due trial.

Protection of Civil rights’: The courts of law protect the fundamental rights given to the citizens by the Constitution. The citizens can approach the court of law when their fundamental rights are violated. The courts issue writs for enforcement of these rights. The citizens can obtain stay orders from courts in advance when they apprehend violation of their rights. In order to protect the rights of the individuals, the courts of law can issue writs like Habeas Corpus, Mandamus, Prohibition, etc.

Constitutional protection: The Judiciary safeguards the constitution in the democratic countries. The Judiciary annuls the unconstitutional decisions of the legislature and the executive. By interpreting the constitution and laws it reviews the laws of the legislature and the actions of the executive and strikes down unconstitutional measures. This authority of the judiciary is called as ‘Judicial Review’.

Protection of equilibrium in federal system: Judiciary plays a key role in the federal system. The courts of law solve the disputes between the provinces and the central government ‘.nd a1o between one province and another. It supervises to see that neither the disputes between the central and provincial governments that arise due to matters relating to the division and distribution of powers. Advisory functions: The highest court of justice provides advice to the head of the State on request. For instance in India, the President takes the advice of the Supreme Court on certain problems of constitutional applications. Appellate Jurisdiction: The highest court of justice has to provide justice on the appeals made against the judgements of the lower courts. At times, it ratifies the judgements given in the lower courts and some other times, such judgements are reversed.

Protection of records: The judiciary has to preserve all the cases along with their judgements. These records will help lawyers and judges in the trial of similar cases in future.

Providing service regulations: The courts of justice prescribe service regulations of employees working in courts of law.

Functioning as ‘the Head of State: In some countries and under certain conditions, as identified in India, the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court can function as acting Head of the State when there is no Vice-President in office.

Section – B
8 x 5 = 40 Marks

Note: Answer any EIGHT of the following questions in not exceeding 20 lines each. Each question carries 5 Marks.

Question 1.
Discuss the relationship of Political Science and Economics.
Political Science – Economics: Economics studies the aspects like wealth, production, distribution and exchange of goods. It studies about various methods to accumulate wealth. Economics is a sociological study of the aspects like wealth, production and distribution. All the social institutions and political theories place the human life on a right track. A clearly defined political system is very essential for a man to become a good and ideal citizen. Economics helps in different ways to study the human welfare.

Economics tries to coordinate the methods of satisfying unlimited wants with limited resources. Lack of peace and dissatisfaction prevail in a society when the economic needs are not satisfied. The Primary needs like food, clothing, shelter, education and medical aid are to be satisfied. Otherwise, life becomes sorrowful. If the basic needs are not satisfied, the individual has to spend all his energy for that purpose only.

A poverty-stricken society gives scope for the prevalence of immorality and anti-social elements. An individual suffering from hunger, ignorance, and ill-health cannot be in a position to assess his political aims and responsibilities. He resorts to many crimes to satisfy his hunger. Such individual entertains a spirit to adopt illegal means for his progress. He cannot use his rights properly and discharge hisduties. A citizen without basic needs cannot understand the value of right to vote. The communists feel that democracy cannot be successful without a socialist economy. Aristotle warned that economic in equalities lead to social revolutions.

Even though Political Science and Economics are two different disciplines, their common aim is the welfare of people. The policies related to the production, consumption, proper use of exchange units, removing inflation, contributing for the accumulation of national wealth, promotion of industrial development are very much a part of the activities of a modern State. The impact of economic policies is very much considerable on all the above policies. It is quite possible to solve many economic problems through a political system only.

TS Inter 1st Year Political Science Model Paper Set 2 with Solutions

Question 2.
Explain the difference between state and Government.

State Government
1. State is broader. It consists of all the people. 1. Government is narrower. It is a body of few citizens.
2. State is permanent. 2. But Government is transitory Government keeps on changing. For ex: In India NDA at the national level has been replaced by the UPA.
3. State – has sovereign power. 3. Government does not have sovereignty. But, Governments exercise the sovereign power in the name of state.
4. All states are universal and similar in nature and characteristics. 4. Government differs from state to state depending upon the wishes of the people or the constitutions of the respective States. For ex: Parliamentary, Presidential Govt, etc.
5. Loyalty of the citizens to their state is compulsory. 5. In a democracy, people have the right to control the acts of omission and commission of the Government.
6. State is a whole. It consists of four essential elements like population, territory, government and sovereignty. 6. Government is one of the four elements of the state. Hence, it is the part and parcel of the state.
7. The state is master; it can place and replace the governments according to their efficiency and popularity. 7. The status of the government in relation to the state is that of a master and servant. The survival of the Government depends on the pleasure of the state.
8. Membership of the State is Compulsory No one is exempted from its membership. 8. Membership of the Government is not compulsory ‘It depends upon the will of the person concerned to become the member of the Government or not.

Question 3.
Describe the merits of Nationalism.
The Nationalist charactor of the Modern State has the following merits.

  1. Nationalism removed ‘the mutual differences, personal animosities and internal feeds. It promoted unity integrity and solidarity among the people of a nation. It enabled them to understand the neighbour’s point of view. So, it promoted closer understanding among the people.
  2. Nationalism made the people obey the government.
  3. It helped in achieving the progress of a nation in a short period.
  4. It accelerated the pace of the development of the state. It provided a democratic bare to the government and those strengthened the administrative system.
  5. It is anti-imperialistic. So it does not allow economic exploitation.
  6. It secured political stability and peaceful social atmosphere.

Question 4.
Define Law and mention the features of Law.
Law is an mportant concept in the study of political science. it is an important feature of modern štate. Law regulates the external behaviour of individuals.

Meaning: The term Law’ is derived from the Teutonic word which means something fixed.

Features of Law: The following are some important features of law.

  1. Law comprises some rules and regulations which are approved by the sovereign.
  2. It is enforced by the state. it is valid because it is sanctioned by the State.
  3. It is definite, precise and universal.
  4. It reflects the will of the people.
  5. Any violation of law leads to punishment.
  6. Laws are compulsory and cohesive in nature.
  7. Law aims at securing and promoting the individual and general welfare.
  8. Law is dynamic as it goes on changing according to the needs of the people.

Question 5.
Explain the concept of Satyagraha.
Gandhi explained Satyagraha not as a philosophical doctrine but as a means to fight against the foreign rule and to achieve social and economic justice.

Gandhi formulated the word satyagraha when he was in South Africa. He called satyagraha as “Love Force” and “Soul Force”. Truth cannot tolerate violence. Even the guilty should not be punished with violence. A sin for one may not be to the other. At once, the search for truth must be only on non-violent means. We have to try to remove the holds on untruth and injustice from his ways by inflicting suffering upon himself. By satyagraha means, Gandhi said that inflicting suffering not on the evil-doer but upon himself;

Political faith of Satyagraha:
Politically, Satyagraha depends upon three principles of faith:

  1. Absolute faith in non-violence
  2. The basis of any Government is the consent of the people.
  3. No country can develop without self-suffering, self-sacrifice, trials and tribulations. This is like the labour pains a mother suffers to deliver a child.

Principle of a satyagraha:
A true, satyagraha has to follow the following principle alone:

  1. Truth means not to lie. It is divine. The evil laws are to be disobeyed through non-violent means.
  2. Non-violence means not to kill. The dynamic factor in it is “Love. Its essence is to love the entire life on earth.
  3. A satyagraha has to observe complete celibacy (Brahma charya) should not look any man or women with amorous looks.
  4. Should not eat more than necessary
  5. Should not steal. It does not mean stealing the things of others.
  6. One has to live on his labour (Bread Labour).
  7. Should not purchase or possess foreign goods. He has to purchase and use only swadesh.
  8. He should tread fearlessly. To love and to search for truth fear lessness is an essential.
  9. Should not observe untouchability is not sufficient he has to fight against it.
  10. Observe religious tolerance.

Forms of Satyagraha:

  1. Civil disobedience.
  2. Non-co-operation.
  3. Hunger strike.
  4. Hartal.
  5. Hazrat.

These methods are to be used by a satyagraha according to the necessity to fight against foreign rule and all types of injustice. Satyagraha has many forms in practice. Non-co-operation to the evil-doer is a mild form of satyagraha. Civil disobedience is an intensive, potent and powerful weapon of influence. Civil disobedience may be of individual or of mass public.

Non-co-operation. Hartal, Hazrat are other forms of satyagraha. The methods of satyagraha are also different. Hunger strike is one form of satyagraha. One should use hunger strike (non-eating) against those who intimately associate and love us.

TS Inter 1st Year Political Science Model Paper Set 2 with Solutions

Question 6.
Explain Political Rights.
Political rights are those rights which enable the individuals to participate in the political affairs of the state.
The following are the important political rights:
1. Right to vote: Right to vote is the most important political right enjoyed by the citizens in modern democratic states. It serves as a powerful weapon for adult citizens in choosing their representatives to various legislative bodies. It makes them as real sovereign All the citizens are entitled to this right without any discrimination based on creed, colour, language, race, region, religion, sex etc. However, persons such as aliens and minors are deprived of this right.

2. Right to contest in elections: This right empowers the citizens to contest as candidates to various legislative bodies in the state. Especially this right enables those, who have political sagacity, enthusiasm and dynamic nature, to actively participate in the political dynamics of the state. As a result, it increases political enthusiasm among the citizens. Such an element is considered as a base of democratic polity.

3. Right to hold public offices: This right provides opportunities to the citizens to hold various public offices for a definite period. It gives no scope for exclusion of citizens or conferring special privileges to some at the cost of others. This helps the citizens to exercise authority in a dignified manner.

4. Right to petition: This right enables the citizens to forward petitions denoting their requirements or grievances. It is considered as a vital political right in the modem state. The citizens could be able to find solutions to their immediate or long pending issues by bringing them to the notice of the government through this right. It also helps the public authorities to know the grievances of the people and attend to them properly and promptly.

5. Right to criticism: This right gives opportunity to the citizens to criticize the various public policies and programmes. It also enables them to highlight the omissions and commissions of the leaders, and administrative personnel at various levels. It also gives scope for the citizens to render positive and constructive criticism about the on goings in the government from time to time. Ultimately it keeps the administrative authorities and policy makers to be vigilant in dis charging their obligations.

Question 7.
How citizenship is lost?
Citizens loose their citizenship under the following conditions:
1. Renunciation: A person is deprived of his citizenship, if he wishes to become the citizen of another state. One will lose the citizenship of one’s parent state and may become the citizen of a foreign state by naturalization. In India’ the Constitution prescribes that a person who voluntarily acquires citizenship of any other state will no longer be an Indian citizen.

2. Marriage: Generally a woman lose her citizenship when she marries an alien. However some states allow retention of citizenship. For instance in Britain, there is an option to retain British citizenship who marries an alien.

3. Accepting Foreign Service: A person lose his citizenship when he enters into the service of another state. If a person accepts a permanent job in the government of a foreign state, he foregoes the citizenship of his native state.

4. Obliging Foreign Decorations or Titles: When a citizen obliges to receive foreign decorations or titles,’it may lead to the forfeiture of his Citizenship.

5. Prolonged Absence: Prolonged absence in the native state beyond a certain period may lead to the loss of citizenship. In some states like France and Germany citizens who are absent themselves from their native country for more than ten years will loose their citizenship.’

6. Treason or Crime: Involvement of a citizen in a serious crime and subsequent proof of his action will also lead to the loss of citizenship. Especially those persons who directly or indirectly participate or extend assistance to anti-state, anti-social and anti-governmental activities, will loose their citizenship by a special notification to that effect.

7. Desertion from Army: Desertion from army thereby jeopardizing the security of a state leads to the forfeiture of citizenship.

Question 8.
Define Democracy and mention its merits.

  1. Abraham Lincoln: Democracy is a government of the people, by the people and for the people’.
  2. lord Bryce: ‘Democracy is that form of government in which the ruling power of the state is vested not in a particular class but in the members of the community as a whole’.
  3. JR. Seeley: ‘Democracy is a government in which everyone has a share”.

Merits: Democracy has the following merits.
a) Efflclent government: Prof Garner described democracy as an efficient and effective government. The government in democracy carries all its activities efficiently and effectively both in normal times and emergencies.

b) Upholds individual liberties: Democracy is the only government that upholds individual liberties. It guarantees certain civil rights to the people thereby providing an opportunity for them to become ideal and responsible citizens.

c) Assures equality: Democracy assures equality of individuals in political and economic spheres. The people living in demoratic nation enjoy all the political, civil, and economic rights and privileges equally without any discrimination.

d) Educates the masses: democracy is described as a laboratory for large-scale experiments in public education. The masses in democracy are educated and enlightened through public meetings, election campaigns, distribution of pamphlets, etc.

e) Promotes patriotism: The people in a democracy think that the country is their own property. When the country is in difficulties, they come forward to protect the interests of the nation. Therefore democracy develops patriotic spirit in the people.

f) Develops sense of responsibility: J.S. Mill says that “democracy promotes a better and higher form of national character than any other policy what ever Since it is a rule by themselves, the people behave with a great sense of responsibility.

g) Training school for citizenship: De Tocqueville, a French writer said that democracy serves as a training school for citizenship. Democracy promotes intellectual and moral qualities among the people.

h) A rational government: Democracy is based on the principle that no man is infallible. It adopts a process of discussion and criticism which serves as necessary correctives to the abuse of power. Besides, they safeguard the rational nature of the political system.

Question 9.
Explain any four merits of Secularism.
Merits of Secularism: The following are some of the important merits of secularism.
1. Equality: Secularism forms as the basis of equalitarian society. It treats the people belonging to all religious denominations as equal. It gives no recognition to the man-made inequalities and discriminations based on caste, colour, community, region, religion, language, race etc. People will have a strong favourable impression towards the nation.

2. Religious freedom: Secularism enables the individuals to enjoy their religious freedom to their full extent. The state will not interfere in the Religious affairs of individuals. The Constitution and various laws in a Secular State will provide individuals with complete freedom to embrace, profess, practice, and propagate any religion as they like.

3. Law and order: Now a days one can observe unhappy, miserable and pro-religious movements that are organized by different sections of government, state and other departments. The maintenance of communal harmony became a challenging task for the state in Spacifying the feelings the people belonging to various religious denominations. Secularism avoids communal clashes and religious bigotry and animosities in the šociety, This is due to the fact that secularism ultimately promotes religious harmony among the people.

4. Rule of law: Secularism accords recognition to the concept of Rule of Law. A state following secularism will enact laws and implements them keeping in view the interest of not a particular religious denomination, the people belonging to all religious denominations. It will not take into account the religious dogmas while making laws. Similarly, it makes no discrimination between the people on the ground of religion.

TS Inter 1st Year Political Science Model Paper Set 2 with Solutions

Question 10.
Define Constitution. Explain its features.
Features of the Constitution:
1. Preamble: Every Constitution will have a preamble. The preamble denotes the aims and aspirations of the Constitution. It is like the soul of the Constitution. Hence, preamble is considered as an important feature of the Constitution.

2. Clarity: Clarity is another important feature of the Constitution. The Constitution clearly explains about the different policies and methods of governance. It is written in a simple and clear language.

3. Incorporation of Fundamental Rights: Every Constitution includes some fundamental rights. These fundamental rights are meant for safeguarding the freedoms of the citizens. They enable the citizens to realise their personality in various spheres. They help the citizens for leading a happy and honourable life in the state.

4. Brevity: Brevity is another feature of a Constitution. Brevity avoids confusion among the individuals in understanding and interpreting provisions. Unnecessary elements are not included in the Constitution. It should be precise. It must not contain large number of clauses.

5. flexibility: The Constitution must be flexible for adapting the wishes are aspirations of the people from time to time. There must be a scope of amending the provisions of the Constitution if necessary. Frequent changes in the Constitution tend to weaken the spirit of the Constitution. But, at the same time, the Constitution of a modern state should be adaptable to the progressive changes.

6. Permanence: Permanence is one more feature of the Constitution. The Constitution must have everlasting values for the welfare of the whole nation. It represents the actual structure of the state and its political institutions. It obliges the customs of the people.

Question 11.
Write brief note on Role of law.
Rule of law is a unique feature of Brtish constitution. It at first originated in England later many states like India and the United States have adopted this feature. Rule of law is purely based on the principle of common law. It denotes that law should be general in form. It should be uniformly applicable to all the citizens living in a state. There should not be different types of law for various sections of the community.

In other words the government must treat all the citizens equally as per the law. The governance and administration in a particular state should be carried on in accordance with the laws. A.V. Dicey in his “Law of the constitutions (1885) gave a precise explanation of the rule of law.

‘According to him, rule of law stands for equality before the law. This implies equal subjection of all classes including the officials or common man. Law makes no discrimination between individuals. A.V Dicey says that Every official from Prime Minister to the attender, all are equal before the law”.

Therefore, Rule of law is helpful to all the citizens in protecting their responsibilities in a more effective manner. The constitution of India too recognizes the Rule of law as a basic feature of India constitution, The Supreme Court of India time and again declared Rule of law as a basic structure of Indian Constitution. Articles 14 to 21 of the Indian Constitution have in corporated the spirit of this concept.

However, the scope of this concept is gradually shrinking owing to the overburdening of legislative work with enormous functions. On the whole, the cardinal virtue of Rule of law is that ‘All are equal before law and no one must arbitrarily be punished” constitutes the core value of any democratic system in the world.

Question 12.
Distinguish between Unitary and Federal form of Government.
Distinguish between Unitary and Federal Governments:

Unitary Government Federal Government
1. May or may not be written constitution. 1. There will be written constitution.
2. It has Flexible constitution. 2. It has rigid constitution.
3. There is only one Government for the entire country. 3. There will be two types of governments. i.e., union level and provincial level.
4. Centralization of powers. 4. Decentralization of powers between centre and state governments.
5. Government is not as much Democratic form of government. 5. It is purely Democratic government which all governments take their part in Decision-making.
6. There are uniform laws throughout the country. 6. There are central laws and state laws.
7. No need of independent Judiciary. 7. A special judiciary with wide powers.
8. Possibility of despotism. 8. Centre and state work according to constitution, so no chance for despotism.
9. Government machinery is simple and flexible. 9. Government machinery is complex and rigid.
10. Suitable for smaller states. 10. Suitable for larger states.
11. Legislature may be bicameral (Britain) or unicameral (China). 11. Legislature should, have two chambers.
12. Constitution may be supreme (Japan) / or may not be supreme (Britain). 12. Supremacy of the Constitution.
13. Scope for political stability and integrity. 13. Limited scope for political Stability and integrity.
14. The powers of regional governments are easily altered by the central government. 14. The powers of regional governments cannot be altered by the central government.

Section – C

15 × 2 = 30 Marks

Note: Answer any FIFTEEN of the following questions in not exceeding 5 lines each. Each question carries 2 Marks.

Question 1.
Define Political Science.
Political Scientists gave various definitions on Political Science.
They are as follows.

  1. J.W. GARNER: ‘Political Science begins and ends with the State”.
  2. R.G. GETTLE: “Political Science is ” The historical investigation of the state in the past, an analytical study of the state of present and what the state ought to be in the future”.
  3. ROBERT DAHL: “Political Science is the Scientific study of importance of power, Authority and influence.’

Question 2.
Post – Behaviourahsm is a reaction to Behaviouralism. It brought a change of perspective in political science. Post behaviouralism considered ethics and values as equally important along with the facts and methods.

Question 3.
Monistic theory of Sovereignty.
‘Monistic theory of sovereignty was advocated by John Austin, an eminent British Jurist in his famous book” Lectures on Juris Prudence in 1832. According to John Austin Sovereignty is a determinate person. This determinate Authority acts as the final source of the power.

The determinate humaa superior receives habitual obedience from the bulk of society. The sovereign power is not divisible. It is a unified one and therefore cannot be divided. There is no limitation on his sovereignty and it cannot be divided.

TS Inter 1st Year Political Science Model Paper Set 2 with Solutions

Question 4.
Define Nation.
Nation is derived from two Latin words – “Nates” and “Natio” which means birth, Lord Bryce defined it as “A Nation is a nationality which has organised itself into a political body, either independent or desiring to be independent. ‘It means That the people of country are called as a National if they are united by characteristics of nationality and have.a strong desire for political independence or if they are politically free.

Question 5.
What is Positive Law?
Positive Law: Positive law is created by the human agency. It is also known as political law. It is framed on the basis of the existing social and political conditions. it is sanctioned by the Sovereign Political Authority Violation of positive law leads to punishment.

Positive law is further classified into two categories.

  • National Law and
  • International Law.

Question 6.
What is legal equality?
Civil equality implies availability of civil rights without any discrimination on the basis of caste, colour, creed, place of birth, religion and sex. When all citizens are subject to the same law and when law neither confers special privileges on some nor makes any individual suffers owing to his social status, religious beliefs, political views, race or caste etc., there exists civil and legal equality. In a society civil equality is said to prevail when there is equality before law and equal protection of laws. This civil and legal equality emerged in modern times with adoption of democracy.

Question 7.
What is Legitimacy?
The word legitimacy has been derived from the Latin word Legitimas which means lawful. According to Max Weber legitimacy is based in belief and gets obedience from the people power is effective only if it is legitimate. Undoubtedly, power has the right to use coercion but that is not its chief element power should be based on legitimacy, otherwise it would invite trouble and may prove ineffective. J.C.Pleno and R.E.Riggs define legitimacy as the quality of being justified or willingly accepted by subordinates that convert the exercise of political power into rightful authority.

Question 8.
John Stuart Mill was the most prominent political thinker of 19th century. He was the most influential intellectual who propagated the Ideas of Liberty, Equality and Welfare State. He paved the way form the emergence and spread of individùalism against the hitherto.

Question 9.
Gandhi explained Satyagraha not as a philosophical doctrine but as a means to fight against the foreign rule and to achieve social and economic justice. Gandhi formulated the word satyagraha when he was in South Africa. He called satyagraha as love Force and ‘Soul Force. By satyagraha means, Gandhi said that inflicting suffering not on the evildoer but upon himself.

Question 10.
Significance of Human Rights.
The United Nations reaffirmed that the people and governments of every state must strive for respecting individual freedoms and human rights. The concerned authorities and agencies of the United Nations held several international conferences and invited internationally acclaimed intellectuals, jurists, and heads of states for eliciting their valuable opinions on extending human rights to every section of human communities throughout the world.

Question 11.
Moral rights.
Moral rights denote claims based on the moral code of the community. These rights are morally prescribed to men in the society. The ethical or moral principles in the society act as the basis of the moral rights. Customs, traditions, and usages are regarded as the basic source of these rights. Men enjoy these rights in a civil society. These rights are based on the moral conscience of the people. They don’t have legal support. However, they are backed by the society So violation of these rights is not considered as a crime. Individuals could be punished for their violation. Moral rights are indefinite and vague. But they are popular in nature. The State cannot ignore these rights for a long time.

Question 12.
What is dual citizenship?
Dual Citizenship means possession of two citizenships in two States. Ex: Children born to American citizens in other States acquire citizenship in both the States – one in their parent State and the other in the State, where there are born. Dual citizenship applies to the children until they attain adulthood. Later they have to choose citizenship of any one of the two states.

Question 13.
Define indirect Democracy.
Indirect Democracy: Indirect democracy is also known as representative democracy. In this type of democracy a clear distinction is made between the immediate sovereign and the ultimate sovereign. The legislature which consists of the elected representatives of the people formulates and expresses the will of the state. Hence, the legislature is the immediate sovereign authority.

In this type of democracy, the people elect their representatives periodically and review their activities during their full, term. If their activities are proven to be unsatisfactory; the people can with draw their trust in them and choose new representatives. Representative democracy thus combines efficient administration with popular sovereignty.

In representative democracy, the parties articulate and organize the will of the people and act as the transmission belt between the government and the governed. In a representative democracy, the ultimate source of authority remains the people.

Question 14.
What are Referendum?
Referendum means ‘Refer to’. This method is used to ascertain the public opinion on important legislation. In some regions, the public opinion is sought on the problems of constitutional law and ordinary law. This is called referendum. Referendums is of two types.
They are

  • Compulsory referendum
  •  Optional referendum.

Question 15.
Define Secular state.
D.E Smith defined Secular State as “None while guaranteeing individual and corporate freedom of religion, which deals with the individual as a citizen irrespective of his religion’.

TS Inter 1st Year Political Science Model Paper Set 2 with Solutions

Question 16.
What is a Flexible Constitution?
A flexible constitution is one whose provisions can be amended easily It requires no special procedure for changing its provisions. It can be amended by the authorities by adopting the same procedure of ordinary laws. So we do not find differences between ordinary and constitutional laws. Flexible constitutions were prevalent in the ancient period.
Ex: British Constitution.

Question 17.
What is preamble?
Every Constitution will have a preamble. The preamble denotes the aims and aspirations of the Constitution. It is the soul of the Constitution. Hence, preamble is considered as one of the important features of the Constitution.

Question 18.
What is independence of the Judiciary?
Independence of judiciary implies an opportunity to the judges to perform their duties without fear or favour and act impartially. The judgs should have no relation with the legislature and the executive. Both the organs should not interfere in the functioning of the judiciary. It should be protected from political pressure and influence. Otherwise, the very purpose of judiciary stands defeated.

Question 19.
House-of lords.
The House of Lords, also known as The House of peers, is the upper House of the parliament of the United Kingdom. Membership is granted by appointment or else by heredity. Like the House of common, it meets in the palace of West Minister. Currently, there are 300 members in the House of Lords members of whom 240 are Elected members and 60 appointed. Independent members up to 12 Church of England Bishops may sit in the House as ex officio Lords spiritual. Elected members will serve a single non-renewable term of 15 years.

Question 20.
Presidential government confers both the Nominal and Real executive powers in a single person namely the president. So the president is not only a nominal executive but also the Real ‘executive. He serves as both the head of the state and government. He enjoys all executive powers both in name and in practice. He makes Independent decisions keeping in view the popular wishes and national interests. He implements the policies and programmes of the government with the help of some secretaries who owe their existence, continuance and survival to him only.

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