TS Inter 1st Year Political Science Model Paper Set 1 with Solutions

Thoroughly analyzing TS Inter 1st Year Political Science Model Papers Set 1 with Solutions helps students identify their strengths and weaknesses.

TS Inter 1st Year Political Science Model Paper Set 1 with Solutions

Time : 3 Hours
Max. Marks: 100

[Section – A]
3 x 10 = 30 Marks

Note: Answer any THREE of the following questions in not exceeding 40 lines each. Each question carries 10 Marks.

Question 1.
Define Political Science and explain its scope.
Introduction: Political Science is a premier social science. It is mainly concerned with the study of the state in its relation with Society, Citizens, Associations and the world at large. Aristotle is regarded as the Father of Political Science. He wrote famous book ‘THE POLITICS”.

Meaning: The word politics is derived from the ancient Greek word ‘POLIS” meaning city. State and polity from ‘Poletieia’ meaning government of constitution. Politics came to mean the study of state and government and the Institutions of the state.

Definitions: Political Scientists gave various definitions on Political Science.

They are as follows:

  1. J.W. GARNER: “Political Science Begins and Ends with the State”.
  2. KG. GETTLE: “Political Science is” The historical investigation of the state in the past, an analytical study of the state of present and what the state ought to be in the future”.
  3. ROBERT DAHL: ‘Political Science is the Scientific study of importance of power, Authority and influence.”

Scope of Political Science: The scope of Political Science means the subject matter covered by it Or the topics which are included in its study. It may be explained in the following ways:
i) Study of man in relation to the Society State and Government: Political science is concerned with the perennial and central issue of establishing proper relationships among state, society and government with individual. Aristotle stated that Man is a social and political animal as well.

ii) Study of State: Political science explains the origin, evolution and purpose of the state and its intimate, relationship between the state and the citizens. It explains the various theoties of the origin of the state and it also studies the nature, functions and various theories of the state.

iii) Study of the Government: Scope of political science in cludes the study of government Political science explains the relationship between state and government. The state realises it’s aims and objectives through the government. Government formulates vaneous policies, programs and their implementation for well being of the people. Political science also studies various forms and structures of the government and their merits and demerits.

iv) Study of Associations and Institutions: There are several associations and institutions which influence the life of the individual. Political science studies various associations, institutions and their relationship with the state. Political science explains structure, nature and functions of the various associations and institutions. It also studies voluntary organisations and their role in the political processes.

v) Study of Rights and Duties: Scope of Political Science includes the study or rights and duties of citizens. In recent times, issues relating to civil rights, human rights and civil society got significance in the study of political science.

vi) Studies of National and International Issues: The scope of Political science comprises the study of national and international affairs. The political science deals with the matters relating to nation-state, territorial integrity and its sovereignty. It also studies international aspects like armaments and disarmaments, balance of power, defense and security studies. It also covers international law, international organisations etc.,

vii) Study of Comparative Government and Polities: The importance of the comparative study of government and politics has been increased in recent times. Political science covers the study of various world governments, their structures and functions. It studies the relationship among the different political systems in the world.

viii) Study of Modern Political Analysis: The 20th century political science is regarded as a study of sharing and shaping of power. and it’s execution in a day-to-day political process. Political science studies the modern concepts like, political socialisation, political participation, political development, political culture, and political communication.

ix) Study of Public Policies: Modern political scientists like David Easton, Gabriel A. Almond, Charles Merriam argued that ‘political science is a policy science’. They considered political science as the study of formulation, execution, and evaluation of public policies.

They also emphasised the study of political parties, pressure groups, mass media and organs of the governments and their influence in the formulation of the public policies. It also studies major policies like Agriculture policy, Industrial policy, Environmental policy, Reservation policy and Education policy, etc.

Thus, the scope of political science has, in recent times, extended to the study of above concepts and theories and has become one of the most relevant social sciences.

TS Inter 1st Year Political Science Model Paper Set 1 with Solutions

Question 2.
What is State and explain its essential elements.
Introduction: State is an important political organisation. The study of political science begins and ends with the state. The term state for the first time, was used by an Italian political thinker, Machiavelli in his famous book ‘The Prince” in 16th century.

Meaning: The word state is derived from a Tuetonic word “status” which means political organisation.

  1. ‘State is a people organised for law thin a definite Terntory-Woodrow Wilson.
  2. ‘State is a politically organised people of a definite Terntory – Bluntschlli.
  3. ‘State is a territorial society divided into government and subjects claiming within its allotted physical area, a supremacy over all other institutions. – Harold. J. Laski.

Essential elements of state: State is the predominant and superior politico-social institution existing in the society. It consists of 4 essential elements. These elements of state may be explained in a detailed way in the following paragraphs.

  1. Population: Population is the fundamental and essential element of state. There can be no state without population. Plato, Aristotle, Rousseau and others considered this feature as an important one. The famous poet Sri. Gurajada Apparao also states that it is the people, rather than the land, that comprise the state. Political writers differ in their opinions regarding the exact size of population possessed by the state. While Plato fixed 5,040, Rousseau fixed 10,000 to be an ideal population for a state. But today we can find the countries like China and India which have more than 100 crores of population on one hand and the countries like Andora, San Marino are having small number of people, on the other hand, is the modern world.

2. Territory: Territory is another essential element of the state. It is necessary for the origin and existence of the state. There can be no state without territory. Every state must have more or less territory of its own. There is no unanimous opinion among the political writers regarding the size of territory of the state. Some preferred vast territory whereas others preferred small territory But today we can find the countries like America and Canada having large territory on one hand, and the countries like Vatican, Monaco having very less territory on the other hand in the modern world.

3. Government: Government is the third essential element of the state. There can be no state without government. State enforces its authority through the government Government consists of 3 organs namely
Legislature – which makes laws
Executive – which implements laws and
Judiciary – which interprets laws.
Government are of different kinds namely, Unitary; Federal, Parliamentary and Presidential governments. Governments are at different levels like Local, State level and National level.

4. Sovereignty: Sovereignty is the most essential element of the state. It is spirit and soul of the state. There can be no state without sovereignty; It distinguishes the state from other associations and institutions. Sovereignty is the supreme political power of the state over citizens and subjects.

5. International recognition: This is another and recent element of the state. In Modem times many nations bave grown and many International organizations have come into being. Therefore some scholars have argued that International Recognition has become an essential element of state.

It should also be recognized as a state by other states. Every state requires recognition of other sovereign states. Such recognition is rendered by some International organizations like the united Nations Organisation. The UNO membership is a means for recognising state’s sovereignty. Whenever a new state comes into existence, it’s recognition by other states and by UNO is considered as very essential.

Question 3.
What is Liberty and elucidate its safeguards?
Introduction: The concept of Liberty is of great significance in the study of political science. Liberty is an essential condition without which man cannot develop his personality. It became a source of inspiration to the millions of the people living all over the world.

Meaning: The term liberty is derived from the Latin word ‘ LIBER which means free from restrictions.

  1. “Liberty means the absence of restraints”. – J.R. Seeley
  2. “Liberty means the positive power of doing or enjoying

something worth doing or enjoying”. – T.H. Green Safeguards of liberty: Liberty’s the most cherished ideal of human beings. Hence, it must be safeguarded in the larger interest of the society and state. In this context, the following safeguards of liberty are worth mentioning.

1. Democratic rule: Democratic rule is considered as a heaven to liberty. Liberty flourishes only in a democratic state. The reason is that democratic state extends protection to individual’s liberties through various laws. It creates a conducive atmosphere for the individuals to enjoy their liberties freely and impartially. It makes the people to participate in the government process directly or indirectly.

It makes the people to participate in the governmental process directly or indirectly. It makes the government answerable to the people. It allows the people the right to change the government through public opinion or ballot when the government acts improperly.

2. Written and rigid constitution: A written and rigid constitution is considered the most important safeguard of individual liberty. Such a constitution incorporates the various freedoms of individuals in several provisions. It acts as a custodian of peoples rights and liberties. It demarcates the spheres of governmental activity.

It mentions about the various measures to be taken in case of people’s freedoms are infringed or confiscated by others including governmental authorities. It also .imposes restraints on the political parties by not allowing them to amend the constitutional provisions for furthering their partisan interests.

3. Independent judiciary: An independent and impartial judiciary is another safeguard of individual liberty. The judiciary will uphold the constitution and keeps the government accountable to the people. It prescribes various safeguards for protecting the fundamental rights of citizens. The judges in higher courts will deliver justice to the people on. fair, free, and impartial manner. Prof. Laski, while recognizing this safeguard, stated that good governance depends upon the effective functioning of judiciary.

4. Rule of law: Rule of law is another safeguard of liberty. It is prevalent in many states like Britan, India, United States etc. Rule of law safeguards individual liberties in three ways. Firstly, it treats all individuals as equal. Secondly, it makes arrangement for the application and enforcement of uniform laws throughout the state. Thirdly, it exercises restraints on the executive against the use of arbitrary powers.

5. Fundamental rights: Provision of fundamental rights will safeguard rights to a great extent. Citizens enjoy their liberties without restraints when these rights are enshrined in the constitution. Fundamental rights enable the citizens to develop their talents and realise their personality in various walks of life.

6. Economic equality: Economic equality too acts as an important safeguard of individual liberties. It implies provision of adequate conditions for the people to come out of the evil effects of hunger poverty and unemployment etc. Liberty becomes real when there exists economic equality Economic equality presupposes economic justice. It is guaranteed by the state. Absence of glaring inequalities is a precondition of safeguarding liberty.

7. Decentralization of powers: Liberty will be better safeguard through decentralisation of powers. lidividuals could enjoy their liberties when the country is free from the centralization of governmental powers and authority. When the powers of the government are allocated among the union, state, and local governments, there arises no scope for despotism and infringement of individual liberties.

8. Freedom of press: Some regarded freedom of press as a safeguard of individual liberty. Individuals could enjoy their liberties when the various agencies of press and other media have autonomy in their functioning. The press will be able to serve as an important agent for creating, consolidating, and expressing public opinion. It, through its impartial editorials and honest presentation of news and views, will be able to safeguard individual liberties.

9. Strong opposition: A strong opposition is a necessary condition for promoting individual liberty The opposition will act as a watchdog of individual liberty. Whenever the party in power or persons at higher levels of government try to subvert or circumscribe the freedoms of individuals by their oppressive and despotic acts and activities through legislation and execution, the opposition will strongly resist such attempts. It, by moving a no-confidence motion in the last resort, will uphold the liberties of the individuals.

10. Eternal vigilance: The best safeguard to liberty is the spirit of the people. It is rightly said, “Eternal vigi]ance is the price of liberty’. People must be ready to fight for their liberty They should have the courage even to rebel against the government whenever their liberty is curbed by it. In the words of Laski, “It is the proud spirit of the citizens, that is their most real safeguard”.

Question 4.
What is Socialism? Discuss its main principles.
Socialism is considered as the most important theory in political science. It was advocated and popularised to oppose, the defects in individualism and capitalism.The term socialism is derived from the worked ‘Socio’ which means society It was used for the first time In 1833. It was first enunciated by Robert Owen and Saint Simon Later on it was developed by Reyband, Louis Blanc, and Proudhon. It was explained on scientific basis by Karl Max in 1848.

Definitions: The term socialism is defined by many writers in many ways. Some of them are as follows.

  1. Robert Bland: ‘Socialism is a system which keeps all the factors of production and exchange in social control and sees that they belong to all equally’.
  2. Bertr and Russel: “Socialism is the adovcacy of common ownership of land and property”.
  3. George Bernard Shah: “Socialism means equality of incomes and nothing else”.

Main Principles: The following are some of the main principles of socialism.
1. Importance to Society: Socialism assigns greater importance to society rather than the individual. It emphasised that individuals interests are subordinate to those of society. It, also gave importance to the production of those commodities which are essential for common people. It is not guided by the profit motive of a few wealthy persons. It considers the production of luxurious commodities as waste and superfluous. Lastly, it assigns importance to cooperative services motto than profit motive in productive operations.

2. Organic unity of Society: Socialism regards that labourers in capitalist society do not enjoy liberties and freedom. It suggests adequate opportunities to common men for encouraging them to involve in the process of productoin. It points out that only a few persons enjoyed more liberty in a society dominated by inequalities. It is not proper to keep the majority of the poor people without liberties and freedoms. Socialism stands for a society where there prevails no inhabitations on individuals and where everyone is granted basic facilities.

3. Abolition of capitalism: Socialism desires for the abolition of capitalism. The socialists felt that the labours are exploited in the capitalist society. The capitalists aim at acquiring, more profits and more acquisition of capital. They do not favour the provision of salaries, allowances, and other facilities as determined by law to the labourers.

The state shows favour to the capitalist sections. This makes the position of the labourers miserable. Hence the socialists strongly believed that it is through the abolition of capitalism that the interests of labourers will be safeguarded. They pointed out that capitalist system should be dissolved for regulating the unproductive expenditure, for just distribution of the wealth, and for promoting the interests of the labourers.

4. Abolition of competition: Socialism advocates the abolition of competition in economic affairs that too especially in productive matters. It stands for co-operation in the place of competition. It states that competition leads to certain evils like corruption, monopolies, illegal acts, deterioration of values etc. It also results in excessive or underproduction thereby causing great sufferings to the common men.

That is why the socialists felt that co-operation, instead of competition, should be encouraged at local, provincial and national levels in the economy.

5. Belief in Equality: Socialism is based on the principle of equality. Even though it did not support absolute equality, it suggested for the prevalence of relative equality among individuals. It recognised the fact that certain elements like ment, outstanding efficiency, talent, skill etc. make differences among the individuals. It pointed out that the long standing excessive inequalities among men must be wiped out and a new society must be formed.

6. Opposition to private property: Socialism opposes individual ownership and control over lands, buildings, factories and other productive means. It suggested that productive means should not be utilised for selfish personal needs and benefits. It enunciated that no person created land and other things and all are the gifts of nature and no one can change their quantity The factors of production must’ be utlised for collective welfare. The socialists advocated for keeping all the factors of production under the control of the society.

7. Social ownership of material factors: Socialism believes that all materialist factors must be kept under the control of the society. For that purpose it suggests for their nationalisation. It treats private property as the possession by thieves. In order to avoid the irregularities and flow of private property, Socialism strongly desired for social ownership of factories, industries, mines etc.,

8. Centralised Planning System: Socialism considers that centralised planning system is essential for the progress ofthe nation. It suggests planning as the best means for achieving rapid economic development.

TS Inter 1st Year Political Science Model Paper Set 1 with Solutions

Question 5.
Explain in detail the powers and functions of the legislature.
Legislature may be Bicameral or Unicameral. In Bicameralism there are two houses, namely, lower and upper house or first chamber and second chamber. The lower house represents the will of the people. The upper house represents the interests of the states. Exs in India Rajyasabha is the upper house and Loksabha is the lower house.

The members of the upper house are elected from the component states. These members represent their respective states in the central government. The people directly elect the members of the lower house through universal adult franchise.

Functions of the legislature: The basic function of the legislature is to enact laws as per the will of the people. The legislature in modern times is discharging certain administrative and judicial duties besides forming the laws. The functions of the legislature also depend upon the form of the government. The role of the legislature is limited a presidential form of government. But, it has in extensive role in the parliamentary government. The functions fo the legislature can be analysed under different heads like: Legislative functions, Executive functions, Financial functions, JudiciaL functions, Constitutional functions and other functions.

1. Legislative functions: To frame the laws is the basic function of the legislature. It is the important duty of the legislature to pass laws as per the will of the people. The legislature has powers to frame new laws and also to change, revise or cancel the laws which are outdated. The legislature not only makes laws but also conducts detailed discussions and consultations on different subjects. The legislature discusses extensively every bill before it becomes law.

2. Functions to control executive: In the parliamentary government, the council of ministers is responsible to the legislature. The legislature exercises control on the council of ministers in dealing with the problems cropping up in the country, and their solutions through different resolutions and questions. It can also pull down the government through a no-confidence motion if such a need arises.

3. Financial functions: The financial functions of the legislature are of much importance in democratic countries. The legislature has to approve the income and expenditure under different heads shown in the budget. The legislatuie can decide the amount of expenditure under different heads. Levying new taxes or abolishing already existing taxes can be taken up with the consent of the legislature only.

4. Judicial functions: The Legislature, especially the upper house performs some judicial functions. The House of Lords in England functions as the highest court of justice. In U.S.A. and India, the legislature has to try impeachment cases against the president or the Justices of Supreme Court and High Courts. Sometimes the legislature conducts enquiry through separate committees on the allegations against the government. The legislature has the authority to punish anybody who commits breach of privileges of members and those who violate the rules of the house.

5. Constitutional functions: The legislature has the right to amend the constitution besides framing the laws. It can amend the constitution as per the needs and requirements of the country which change from time to time.

6. Other functions: Besides the above functions, the legislature has some more functions like, keeping or rejecting the ordinances declared by the government; electing the speaker, appointing necessary committees to enquire into the lapses of the government a – to formulate rules and procedures of the legislative business.

Section – B
8 x 5 = 40 Marks

Note: Answer any EIGHT of the following questions in not exceeding 20 lines each. Each question carries 5 Marks.

Question 1.
Discuss the relationship between Political Science and History.
Political Science has intimate relation with other social sciences like History and Economics. Such interrelation between political science and History as well as relation between political science and Economics can be detailed as below.

a. Political Science – History
b. Political Science – Economics.

a. Political Science – History: History describes the past. The development of man-kind and society can be known through History. History being the story of man, functions as a treasure house of human experiences. It is like a laboratory to all social sciences. The political, economic, social, cultural, religious and literary activity of man can be known only through History.

It describes different associations of man from earliest times. History conveys information to the present society, the developments in the past in the areas like state, civilization, culture, religion and economic activity. History is a written record of different events, movements, their causes and inter-relations. History provides information to study the political activity inthe past. The birth and development of political ideas and institutions is known through history.

“History without Political Science has no fruit.
Political Science without History has no root”

There has been continuous transformation and development of political institutions since the earliest period of History The evolution of different political institutions through the ages is recorded in History History is the foundation of Political Science. A comparative study of the previous political institutions and the contemporary political activity provides a scope to find ideal and stable political institutions in future.

The knowledge of political activity is very much essential to understand the events like founding of the Indian National Congress. the French Revolution: the Russian Revolution and the theories like the Nation Theory of the Muslim League and also to estimate their impact.

In the same way it is possible to study the concepts proposed by Plato, Aristotle and other Philosophers in the light of the knowledge of history of Ancient Europe. Different pohtical thinkers like Machia velli, Montesquieu and Lord Bryce developed their respective theories basing on the informatión found in history. As Robbern opined, it is essential for a student to know about the history of his own race to study the constitution and foreign policy of his race. The knowledge of Political Science is essential to history in the same way as the knowledge of History to Political Science. History and Political Science can contribute for the development of any civilised society in the spirit of mutual co-operation.

Question 2.
What are the different kinds of Sovereignty?
Introduction: Sovereignty is the most important characteric of the modern state. The state is distinguished from other Associations or Institutions only by sovereign power.

Willoughby: Sovereignty is the supreme will of the state’.
Jean Bodtn: ‘Sovereignty is the supreme power of the state over citizens and subjects unrestrained by law”.
Kinds of Sovereignty: Sovereignty Is classified into several kinds as mentioned below;

  1. Nominal sovereignty
  2. Real sovereignty
  3. Legal sovereignty
  4. Political sovereignty
  5. popular sovereignty
  6. Dejure sovereignty
  7. Defacto sovereignty

1. Nominal sovereignty: Nominal sovereignty is also known as titular sovereignty. Nomial sovereignty implies possession of sovereign powers only in name. The Queen in Britain, the Emperor of Japan, the President of India etc., are sorne examples of nominal sovereignty.

2. Real sovereignty: The real sovereign actually possesses the sovereign power. He discharges such authority on behalf of the nominal sovereign head. Accordingly the nominal sovetgn person exercises his powers only on the advice of the real sovereign persons or body of persons. The Prime Ministers of England and india etc., are some best examples of this kind of sovereignty

3. Legal sovereignty: Legal Sovereignty denotes the supremacy in terms of formal law. Only the legal sovereign is competent to issue the highest orders. It transcends even the divine law or the normal laws and the public opinion. The court of law recognizes only the legal sovereign and accepts its orders. The best example of legal sovereign is the king-in-parliament in England. The legal sovereignty is definite, deliberate, decisive and precisely known. The president of India is also an example of legal sovereignty.

4. Political sovereignty: Behind the legal sovereignty there is the political sovereignty. In a democratic state while the legal sovereign is the supreme law making power; there is behind it another sovereign whose will is the ultimate and final source of authority.

Garner observes: “Behind the legal sovereign, however, is another power, legally unknown, unorganized, and incapable of expressing the will of the state in the form of legal command, yet with a power to those mandates the legal sovereign will in practice bow and whose will must ultimately prevail in the state.

5. Popular sovereignty: The concept of popular sovereignty is different from that of political sovereignty It means that sovereignty ultimately resides in the people. The doctrine of popular sovereignty is the product of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. It emerged as an expression of resentment of the people against the despotic authority of the kings and their reliance on the theory of Divine Right.

Popular sovereignty attributes ultimate sovereignty to the people. This theory, first hinted by the John Locke, was later expounded by Rousseau and it becomes the slogan of the French Revolution.

6. Dejure sovereignty: The terni-De Jure’ denotes authority exercised according to law. De Jure sovereignty is the power possessed and exercised by a legally competent authority It issues orders and enjoys command overall persons, institutions and organizations in the state. The Queen in Britain and the President in India are some examples of the De Jure sovereignty.

7. De facto sovereignty: The French term De facto implies ‘real’. De facto sovereign is a person or a body of persons who exercise such authority in the last resort and at the final stage. De facto sovereign may not be a legal sovereign. His authority is based not on law but on physical force. De facto sovereign may be a king, dictator or religious priest.

Question 3.
Define Nationality. What are the essential elements of Nation ality?
Introduction: The concepts of Nation and Nationality have become important components in the domain of International Relations and political science respectively. Both inspired the people of several countries with patriotic feeling prior to the two world wars.

The Events that took place in the erstwhile Soviet Union, ethnic Riots between serbians and Croatians in the former Yugoslavia, the unification of East and west Germanies, the peace talks between Israel and Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) on West Asia etc., reflect the serious concern of the people for realising. Nationality and.

Nation States.
Meaning: The Word “Nation” is derived from a latin word NATTO” which means “BORN” (BIRTH) or “Common Descent”.


  1. R.G Gettle: “Nationality is a population having the common bonds of Race, Language, Religion, Traditions and History.
  2. J.H. Rose: ‘Nationality is a union of Hearts once made and never unmade”.
  3. J.W. Garner: “Nationality is a grout or pottion of population which is united by Racial and other bonds.

Essential Elements of Nationality:
1. Purity of Race: Racial purity helps in the formation and strengthening of the idea of Nationality. Race is a physical phenomenon. It depends on certain distinctions of skull, stature, hair, complexion etc. These distinctions serve as a cementing bond among the members of a group.

But we should remember that common race is not an indispensable factor in the growth of Nationality Modern races are so mixed that none of them can claim to be pure. Pura races have disappeared because of wars and migrations. Racial purity is now a myth only.

Ex: Canada and United states have transformed into single nations inspite of their racial diversities in their respective populations, Similarly, Australia and Britain are two distinct Nations although they belong to one racial stock.

2. Common Language: Language plays a key role in the promotion of nationality. The philosophers and scientists said that common language is essential for the development of nationality. Language is a medium to express all their feelings. It helps to express ones ourselves to have cordial relations and to share the miseries and happiness in a group languages also promotes common feelings and traditions. Common language promotes the feeling of oneness and keeps the entire race on single track.

3. Common Religion: Religion is one important factor to strengthen nationality. There are many instances when people of different nationalities with common religion remain citizens in the same state. For instance, the main reason for the partition of Indian subcontinent into India and Pakistan in 1947 lies in the religion.

4. Geographical Unity: Geographical unity is necessary for the emergence of nationality. Nationality sentiments prevail and develop among the people living in a single. geographipical area. The people residing in such an area love, worship their country and make sacrifices for the sake of their motherland. People, who belong to one religion, converse the same language, same race living in a geographical area inculcate and improve their nationality sentiments. The formation of Israel in 1946 was purely due to the feelings of the hitherto wandering Jewish people to live ina single geographical area. Hence their desire of live in a territory made them united. This ultimately transformed them as patriotic persons.

5. Common History: Common History is considered as an important element of Nationality. It invokes an inspiration among the people and binds them together. Some historical incidents may give a chance to the people to develop national sentiments. Ex: Indians have learnt the lessons of Nationalism from the British legacy.

6. Common Culture: Culture in its broad sense means a way of life. It is reflected through certain common elements like dress, customs, conventions, food habits, religious beliefs, ethical values etc. They easily develop into a single Nation. These elements bind the people together and hold together.

7. Common Political aspirations: Nationality sentiments prevail and develop among the people having common political aspirations. The political ideas, conventions and institutions which wereformed due to the single political rule will have a considerable I’m pact and influence òver the people. For instance, the Swiss people love very much their direct democratic devices in political matters.

Similarly the Americans express the feeling of worship towards their constitution. The British people also feel proud of their political and judicial institutions like rule of law, parliamentary democracy and judicial review etc.

8. Common Economicties .This element of nationality has been stressed by ‘Karl Marx Since then onwards the importance of this element has been increasing. The Russians have great regard for their economic system, even though there exist diversities. Their unflinching love for socialism inspired nationalism among them. They successfully repulsed the attacks of Germany during the Second World War. Thus the common economic ties made them united and integrated them into a nation.

TS Inter 1st Year Political Science Model Paper Set 1 with Solutions

Question 4.
What is Justice and explain different types of Justice.
1. Natural Justice: Natural Justice is based on the notion that every person in the world possesses some rights for availing the natural resources. Natural resources provide support to the life of each and every creature on Earth. As the human beings are the only rational creatures, it is their responsibility to see that natural resources have to be judiciously exploited. Human beings must keep in mind the requirements of future generations in this regard.

2.’ Social Justice: Social Justice envisages a balance between rights of individuals and social control. It facilitates the fulfillment of the legitimate expectations of the individuals under the existing laws. It ensures several benefits and extends protection to the individuals against the interference or encroachment from others in society. It is consistent with the unity and the integrity of the nation. It fulfills the needs of the society.

Social Justice enforces the principle of equality before law. It also ensures eradication of social evils like poverty unemployment, starvation, disease etc. It also extends protection to the downtrodden and weaker sections of society. Ultimately it provides those conditions essential for the all round development of individuals.

3. Political Justice: Political Justice symbolises political equality. It implies provision of political rights to all the adult citizens in a state. It facilitates free and fair participation of the citizens in the governance of the country. It is manifested to the full extent in times of elections. It allows the citizens for their active participation in day to-day administration. It is based on the premise that everyone is counted as one and none for more than one. It may be noted that political justice prevails in the State when the following conditions are prevalent

  1. Rule of law
  2. Independent Judiciary
  3. Popular elections to the representative bodies.
  4. Political parties.
  5. Freedom of press and assembly
  6. Democratic rule etc.

Question 5.
Write a brief note on criticism of Marxism.
Criticism of Marxism:
Marxism has been severely criticized on account of several limitations as explained below.
1. In his historical materialism, Marx classified history under four periods. Such a classification of historical development was quite arbitrary. History is illustrative which could be traced to many distinctive stages differing from one another. So Marxian analysis of history is not acceptable to many.

2. Marx contended that progress of society is marked by dia lectical process comprising thesis, anti-thesis and synthesis. He developed his theory on the contention of establishing a classless society In which all contradictions disappear Critics argued that dialectical materialism is a never-ending phenomenon.

3. Marx contended that only the changes in the productive forces will bring in changes in religion, polity, judicature etc. Critics argued that such changes are not automatic.

4. Marx argued that changes take place both in societies and world history through dialectics. He underestimated the role of several eminent philosophers like Socrates, Plato, Aristotle, Locke, and Rousseau. He emphasized on materialism and material foundations in the production sphere. His proposition does not carry validity.

5. Marxism was largely based on the capitalist system and industrially advanced states. Though it has no relevance the the agricultural and under-developed economies, it- was established in underdeveloped Russia with many perversions and with much bloodshed.

6. Marx emphasized only the economic factors as the main sources of conflicts and contradictions in the society. On the contrary, critics pointed out that conflicts in a state or society are not always characterized by economic and material forces. They contended that revolutions also emerge due to the conflicts in religious, cultural, spiritual and material forces.

7. Theory of Surplus Value as envisaged by Marx laid more emphasis on the aspect of labour. Marx forgot the fact that production is the result of combined efforts of the owners of factors of production besides labour. Labóur is one of the factors and not the only one factor in the production sphere. Value of goods is influenced and determined by several factors like land, labour, capital and organization.

8. Marx advocated that proletariat dictatorship would be termporary phenomenon and would eventually lead to the establishment of classless society and withering away of the state. His thesis proved to be a myth.

Question 6.
What are the Fundamental Duties mentioned in the Indian Constitution?
There is a close relationship between Rights and Duties. The two are considered as the two sides of a same coin. Rights are incomplete in the absence of Duties. Rights imply Duties and Duties are entitled to rights. The two are inseparable. If the state gives the right to life to citizen it also imposes an obligation on him to not to expose his life to dangers, as well as to respect the life of others. A right is not just a law that allows individuals or governing bodies to door say anything they wish. The primary difference between rights and duties is that right is based on privilege granted to an individual, whereas duty is based on accountability of performing that duty by an Individual.

Definition: It is the responsibilities or obligations of an individual, that are required to be done by the said individual.

Law: The duties of a citizen cannot be challenged by the court.
Basis: It is based on accountability of performing duties by an individual.

Question 7.
What are the methods of acquiring Citizenship?
Introduction: Citizenship is a privilege of individual residing in democratic states. People fed that citizenship enables them to lead a happy, honourable and harmonious life in the state. Citizenship instills the feelings of patriotism, sacrifice, broad outlook etc., among the people.

Prof. Laski: “Citizenship is one’s contribution of instructed judgement to the public good”. EH. Marshall: “Citizenship is a status bestowed on those who are full members of a community. All who possess this status are equal with respect to the rights and duties with which the state is endowed’.

Methods of acquiring citizenship: There are two methods of acquiring citizenship.
They are :
i) Natural
ii) Naturalization.

The two methods may be studied as follows.
i) Natural Citizenship: Natural Citizenship is one which is acquired by the persons without specific application or request to the authorities.

It comprises three elements.
They are:

  • Blood relationship (Jus Sanguinis)
  • Soil (Jus Soli) and
  • Mixed principle.

i) Jus Sangulnis – (Kinship or Blood Relationship): This type of Citizenship. denotes acquiring citizenship by kinship or blood relationship. Under this method birth within the territory of a state entitles a person to have citizenship. Every person is treated as a citizen of the state where he is born. According to Jus Sanguinis, a child acquires the citizenship of the parents irrespective of its place of birth.

Here blood relationship alone determines the Citizenship. Ex: A child born to the Indian parents Will be treated as Indian citizen irrespective of its place of birth.

ii) Jus Soil (Land or Place of Birth): Jus Soil means acquisition of citizenship by the principle of place of birth. According to this method, citizenship is determined by the place of birth and not by parentage. It is the place of birth which determines citizenship.

However, this method is not more popular in modern times. It was popular in the Middle Ages when citizenship was associated with land. At present, however, this practice is observed exclusively in Argentina.

Mixed Principle: Under this method citizenship is granted by following either of the two principles bf Jus Sanguims and Jus Soil. Many states adopted both these principles. Ex: In Britain, France and United States, the above two principles are employed simultaneously. In this context there may arise duplication of citizenship. Ex: A child born to British parents in the United States becomes an american citizen according to the practice of Jus Soli. The same child becomes a citizen of Britain according to the principle of Jus Sanguinis. In such a case, the child is given option to choose one of its citizenship, after becoming a major.

ii) Naturalised Citizenship: Citizenship may also be acquired through naturalization. According to this method, an alien will become a citizen after fulfilling certain conditions. These conditions vary from state to state. Some of them may be summed up as follows.
1. Residence: An alien who resides in a state for a prescribed period automatically become its citizen. Residence in any part of the state is a must for an alien. The period of residence varies from state to state. For instance it is 5 years in Britain and United States and 10 years in France respectively.

2. Choice: The children of alien parents could receive citizenship of the state according to their option and choice.

3. Application: An alien in a state may apply for the citizenship of that state. Then the government of that state considers his application on its merits. It grants citizenship to him with or without some conditions. These prescribed conditions refer to a minimum period of residence, good moral character, financial capability and knowledge of one of the national languages. Besides, an alien must take an oath of allegiance before he assumes the citizenship of another state.

4. Fixed Assets: An alien who buys some portion of land or acquires some fixed property can acquire ëitizenship in a state.

5. Service (Public or Private): An alien who serves in the government of a state or in a private recognised enterprise could become the citizen of that state. He is entitled for such citizenship if. he serves in the public or private authorised departments. He may also be given Citizenship if the renders meritorious service in another state.

6. Marriage: An alien woman acquires citizenship of a state when she marries the citizen of that state. In some countries when a person marries an alien, Citizenship of either of the husband or wife is acquired. For instance, a British lady will acquire Indian citizenship if she marries an Indian citizen. Japanese womefl do not lose their citizenship even if they marry persons of alien states. The alien person on the other hand, acquires the citizenship of Japan if he mames a Japanese lady.

In this context it may be noted that an alien who receives the citizenship of the new state, he wifi have to forego his native citizenship. In other words, no one is allowed to have dual citizenships simultaneously.

Question 8.
Explain any four features of Democracy.
Democracy is an important and most significant form of government. The term “Democracy’ is derived from two Greek words namely Demos’ and “Kratio’. In greek language Demos means the people and Kratio means power. Hence Democracy means power of the people.

Definitions of Democracy:
Abraham Lincoln: “Democracy is a government of the people, by the people and for the people”.
J.R. Seeley: “Democracy is a government in which everyone has a share.’
Lord Bryce: ‘Democracy is that form of government in which the ruling power of the state is vested not in a particular class but in the members of the community as a whole”.

Features of Democracy:
1. Liberty: Democratic government aims at securing maximum liberty for its citizens. It is built on the foundations of liberty and Equality. Democracy is the only government which assures liberties to the people by incorporating them in the constitution.

2. Equality: In the words of Prof. Seeley, democracy is “a government in which everyone has a share”. A democracy government gives opportunities to all for making them to take part in political matters. Every citizen has the right to vote and to contest in the election.

3. Independent Judiciary: Independent Judiciary is important principle of Democracy The higher courts in democratic states act as watch dog of the peoples freedoms. They issue sevëral writs for preserving and upholding fundamental freedoms. They serve as the custodian of peoples rights.

4. Government of the people: Democracy is government by the representatives of the people and these are elected by the adults, who are free to vote as they please without being coerced or pressurized by anyone. Democracy is the government by ballot not by bullet.

5. Majority Rule: Democracy stands for a rule of the majority with adequate safeguards to the minorities. Every state has political parties. One of the political parties comes to power by capturing the majority of seats in the legislature. This means democracy is a system of government based on the principle of majority rule.

6. Follows constitution principles: A democratic government functions strictly according to the principles of a constitution. Whether written or unwritten, this has been accepted by the people.’

7. Against to violence and revolutions: Democracy provides for a change in government according to constitutional principles and it is against any change by violent or revolutionary means.

8. Against to coercive methods: Democracy opposed to coercive methods, even if they are for the social good. A government cannot be called democratic, if it uses illegitimate coercion in the name’ of social welfare.

9. Importance to Human Rights: Democracy upholds the dignity of the human personality and gives various kinds of rights to the individual. Actually, to providing constitutional rights to the people is the fundamental principle of the democracy The constitutions of India and U.S.A had provided several rights to their people.

10. Right to speak: Democracy allows all individuals the right to speak, criticize and disagree with others constructively.

11. Encouragement to ideas: Democracy allows plurality of ideas and ideologies and stands firmly on the principles of tolerance. In the legislature there is plenty of worth full discussions occurred among the public representatives related to public issues.

12. Against imperialism and war: Democracy in the international sphere stands for the principle of self-determination and for the regulation of interstate relation on the basis of equality, justice and reason. Democracy is against aggressive nationalism, imperialism and war. Besides the above, Democracy has some more principles like Rule of law, welfare mechanism, Decentralization of powers. Judicial review etc.

TS Inter 1st Year Political Science Model Paper Set 1 with Solutions

Question 9.
What is Secularism and mention its important features?
Secularism became a prominent philosophy in modern states in tackling the various social, economic and political issues. Secularism has been praised by many social scientists on several grounds It is viewed as a rational idea and ideal for analyzing various events that took place in and influence the modern states.

The following are some of the important merits of secularism.
1. Equality: It treats the people belonging to all religious de nominations as equal. It gives no recognition to the man made in equalities and discriminations based on caste, colour, community, region, religion, language, race etc.

2. Religious Freedom: Secularisrìi enables the individuals to enjoy their religious freedom to their full extent The state will not interface in the religious affairs of individuals. The Constitution and various laws in a secular state will provide individuals with complete freedom to embrance, profess, practice and propagate any religion as they like.

3. Law and Order: The maintenance of communal harmony became a challenging task for the state in specifying the feelings the people belonging to various religious denominations. Secularism prevents communal clashes and religious bigotry and animosities in the society. This is due to the fact that secularism ultimately promotes religious harmony among the people.

4. Rule of Law: Secularism accords recognition to the concept of Rule of Law. A state following secularism will enact laws and implements them keeping in view the interest of not a particular religious denomination but the people belonging to all religious denomiations. Similarly it makes no discrimination, between people on the gournds of religion.

5. Tolerance; Secularism preaches tolerance and kindness. It believes in universal brotherhood of man. It professes, propagates and practices the noble principles of charity, kindness, love, magnanimity non-violence etc. As a result, secularism is characterized by the preaceful co-existence of people and smooth working of the polity.

6. National Integration: Secularism serves as the best means for fostering national unity and integrity feelings among the people. It is also considered as the best cevice for achieving unity in diversity. It brings unity among the people of various religious beliefs and practices.

7. Protection to the minorities: Secularism treats all alike. It makes no discrimination between the people of majority and other sections of society At the same time it extends special facilities to the minority sections for preserving and promoting their interests against the dominance of majority religious group. It teaches the people about the significance of religious tolerance towards minority sections.

8. All-round progress: The greatest merit of secularism relates to the achievement of all round progress of the people. This is possible due to the prevalence of rule of law, religious tolerance, neufrai attitude of the government etc. Especially the government will make all efforts for the development of the people of all religious denominations in all spheres of welfare, social justice, protecting the interests of disadvantaged sectians etc.

Question 10.
What are the differences between Written and Unwritten constitutions?
Written Constitution: A written constitution is formulated and adopted by a Constituent Assembly or a Convention. It comprises several principles and rules of the Government in a written form or document. The Constitution of India is an example of written constitution. The American Constitution is the first written constitution in the world.

Unwritten Constitution: Unwritten constitution is one whose provisions are not written in a single document. It includes several customs and traditions which are manifested in the form of the laws. The Constitution of Britain is the best example of unwritten constitution.

Differences between Written and unwritten Constitutions

Written Constitution. Un Written Constitution
1. Written constitution implies a document or few documents in which the rules customs, regulating the main institutions of Government are written down. 1. Unwritten constitution de-notes a sum of conventions and usages which have not been systematically documented.
2. All the basic principles of the State are clearly written. 2. All the basic principles of the State exist in the form of customs and traditions.
3. Written constitution is framed by a special assembly convened at a particular point of time. 3. Unwritten constitution contains some written elements also in the form of enactments of fundamental charters made from time to time.
4. It is suitable to the educated and literate people. 4. It is suitable to the uneducated and illiterate people.
5. Courts of law protect the liberties of the citizens. 5. Courts of law cannot provide much protection.
6. It is formulated at a particular time. 6. It is evolutionary in nature.
7. It provides political stability. 7. It could not ensure political stability.
8. It cannot be easily amended. 8. It can easily be amended.
9. It is useful to federal states. 9. It is advantageous to the unitary states.

Question 11.
Write a brief note on Judicial Review.
Judicial Review means reviewing the laws made by the legislatures, The laws of the legislatures (parliament, assemblies, Councils, Parishades etc.,) must not be unconstitutional. The courts of law can nullify all laws which are unconstitutional. This is the Judicial Review.

The Judicial Review is not limited only to laws. It is applicable to all the activities of the executive at different levels of central, state and local government institutions. Every State will have a constitution. It is its basic law and all the laws must be within the limits of the constitution. The Constitution provides the courts of law with the right to see that all laws and activities conform to the Constitution. Judicial Review is not found in all the countries.

The Judicial Review first originated in United States of America in the context of the judgement given by the Supreme Court in the Marbury-Madison dispute in the beginning of the nineteenth century. The courts of law follow different theories, principles and views in reviewing the constitutional viability of the laws. The Judicial Review is based on the following theories which can be studied in detail in higher classes.

  1. Theory of the efficiency of law.
  2. Theory of separation of powers.
  3. Theory of constitutional dynamism.
  4. Theory of activity
  5. Theory of decision by experience.
  6. Theory of constitutional development.

Question 12.
What are the important features of Federal Government?
Features of Federal Government:
a) Written Constitution: For a federal government the constitution must almost necessarily be a written constitution which deter. mines the relation between the central and provincial/ regional governments.

b) Rigid Constitution: The natural,Gorollary of the supremacy of the constitution, and it being a written document, is that it should not be altered either by the central Legislatures or by Regional Legislatures under their ordinary law- making procedure.

c) Devision of powers: In a federal political system, there is an essential feature of distribution of powers between central and regional governments under the constitution. Major sectors are vested with unionl central and National and Provincial important things are vested with regional governments. For example, external affairs, exports and ports and education, agriculture health are exercised by union and state governments respectively.

d) Bicameralism Bicameralism is another important characteristic of the federal government. In federal governments there should be Two – Chambers, representing people and states such as House of people and House states respectively.

e) Dual citizenship: In a federal political system, constitution provides for dual citizenship to the citizens. Accordingly, the citizens have membership in both the centre and states simultaneously.

f) Independent Judiciary: In a federal political system, independence of judiciary and intensity of judicial system is another important feature. Independence of judiciary will safeguard the minimum rights of people against the acts of Legislature and administrative authorities.

Section – C
15 × 2 =30 Marks

Note: Answer any FIFTEEN of the following questions in not exceeding 5 lines each. Each question carries 2 Marks.

Question 1.
Sociology is the root of all social sciences. Sociology studies the changes in different social institutions. It discusses the social, ethical, economic and cultural systems in a society. It also studies the human relations, social conditions, origin, growth and development of different systems, their respective forms, the rules, customs and traditions.

Question 2.
It is a modern interdisciplinary approach in Political Science. It seeks to make political Science a real Science. It. originated in 1925 but became popular in the USA after the second World War. David Easton, Robert Dahi, Gabriel Almond are important supporters of this approach. It studies political behaviour of people by using Scientific methods of data collection. It is a protest against the Traditional Approach.

Question 3.
The differences between ‘State’ and ‘Society.

Sate Society
1. State is a political organization. 1. Society is a social organization.
2. Where as the state has its own fixed territory and limits. 2. Society does not have definite territorial boundaries.
3. The state has a definite government. 3. Society does not have any legal and prescribed organization.
4. State possesses the power of Compulsion. Disobedience to its laws is followed by punishment. 4. Society does not enjoy the power compulsion. Disobedience to its principles is not followed by any physical punishment.

Question 4.
Nationalism is an effective force in modern politics. In theoretical for Mulations and practical political movements, the fire of national Sentiment has been supported by writers and politicians. The purpose of national movement has however, remained the same every where. It has sought to concentrate human allegiance into a small and homogeneous unit- the nation-state.

Question 5.
Rule of law.
Rule of Law is an important type of adminitration of justice. It originated in England. It implies: .

  1. Legal Equality: All are equal before law.
  2. No Arbitrary Action: Punishment is given only when an existing law is violated.
  3. No Special Rights: No individual is above law and law does not recognise any special privileges.

Question 6.
Economic Equality.
Economic equality: This kind of equality is a precondition for the enjoyment of social and political equalities. Its absence leads to several social and political problems. Economic equality does not mean equal distribution of social wealth among all the people. It only means the elimination of inequalities in wealth, income and property. The basic needs like food, shelter and clothing must be available to all.

In the opinion of Laski, “Economic equality means the abolition of unfettered and irresponsible will in the industrial world’. In Barkers view, “Economic equality is partly a matter of status and partly a matter of property and income”.

Question 7.
Power and Authority.
Power denotes the ability of a person to fulfill his desires or to achieve his objectives, power is a relationship in which one person or group is able to determine the actions of another in the direction of the former’s ends. H.V. Wiseman defined power as “the ability to get one’s wishes carried out despite resistance”.

The concept of authority is closely linked with the concept of power. Authority means legitimate power. Hamuel Arendt Portrays authority as power based on consent. Following are the definitions of authority.

  • ‘Authority is the capacity to justify by a process of reasoning what is desired from the point of view of man” – Fredrick
  • “Legitimate power is often called Authority”. – Robert.A.Dahl

Question 8.
Neo-liberalism or,libertarìanism stands for the contemporary version of classical liberalism which seeks to restore ‘Laissez Faire individualism. It denounces the welfare State; opposes state intervention and control of economic activities. Champions of neo-liberalism stand for rolling back’ the state which has immensely expanded its sphere of activities. The chief exponents of neo-liberalism include F.A. Fayek (1899 – 1992), an Australian thinker, Milton Freedman (1912 – 2006), an American economist, and Robert Nozick (1938 – 2002), an American philosopher.

Question 9.
The literal meaning of Non-violence is “Not doing Violence”. In a Nutshell, it means ‘Not to Kill”, “Not to do harm” is its wider meaning. Mahatma Gandhi used Non-violence as a potent weapon not only against the British colonialism but also in the movements waged against all types of deeply entrenched evils of the society. Truth and fearlessness are the essential conditions of Non-Violence Gandhi regarded and equated non-violence on par with self-torture of the soul, Mercy, Love, Fearlessness, Kindness, and non-indulgence

Question 10.
Surplus Value.
Surplus Value: Marx developed the theory of Surplus Value based on the Ricardos theory which states that the value of every commodity is proportional to the quantity of labour put into it. According to Marx the Surplus Value is the value that is created over and above what the labourer is paid for and he ragards it as the source of all profit. Marx felt that commodification of labour results in alienation of labourer from its product, price, fellow human being and him self due to mechanization and industrial production. Division of Labour makes man mechanical. Marx’s theory of Surplus Value is more of a theory of just price rather than a theory of price.

Question 11.
National Human Rights Commission.
The United Nations reaffirmed that the people and governments of every state must strive for respecting individual freedoms and human rights. The concerned authorities and agencies of the United Nations held several international conferences and invited inter-nationally acclaimed intellectuals, jurists and heads of states for eliciting the valuable opinions on extending human rights to every section of human communities throughout the world.

Question 12.
The Fundamental Rights mentioned in the Indian Constitution.
Indian Constitution and Human Rights: The Constitution of India incorporated many of the human rights, mentioned in the U.N. Declaration of Human Rights. Especially Articles 19 to 28 of Chapter III on Fundamental Rights are in consonance with the human rights of individuals. The relate to the life, liberty, equality and dignity of individuals. Article 19 of Indian Constitution guaranteed freedoms of speech, expression, association and assembly. It also conferred freedoms of occupation, settlement, movement etc. Article 20 provided protection to the personal life of individuals.

Question 13.
Mention any four qualities of Good citizenship.

  • Good Character: Good character is essential for a good citizen. A good citizen should be courageous, just, helpful, kind-hearted, sympathetic, truthful, and virtuous in letter and spirit.
  • Sound Health: A good citizen should have good health and strength. Healthy citizens make the nation healthy and wealthy.

Question 14.
Recall means To call back. The representatives will be called back by the people in case they are inefficient. Hence, this method helps the representatives in discharging their responsibilities properly for fear of being called back on the grounds of inefficiency.

Question 15.
Direct Democracy.
Abraham Lincoln: “Democracy is a government of the people, by the people, and for the people”. J.R. Seeley: “Democracy is a government in which everyone has a share.”
Lord Bryce: “Democracy is that form of government in which the ruling power of the state is vested not in a particular class but in the members of the community as a whole”.

Question 16.
Theocratic State.
The state having an official religion is called a theocratic state. In such state all other religions or religious activities are either prohibited or discouraged by the state all the official and important offices of the state are either appointed or elected only those from the official religion. State officially participates in the religious affairs and rituals.

Question 17.
Rigid Constitution.
Rigid Constitution is one whose provisions can be changed easily. In this system, the constitutional amendment methods are different from those of ordinary laws. There will be a special procedure for amending the provisions of the Rigid Constitution. The Rigid Constitution will have firmness due to its special procedures of amendment.

TS Inter 1st Year Political Science Model Paper Set 1 with Solutions

Question 18.
Judicial Activism.
According to the idea of judicial activism judges should use their powers to correct injustices, especially when the other branches a Government do not act to do so. The courts play an active role in shaping social policy on such issues as civil rights, political unfairness protection of individual rights and public morality.

Judicial activism is policy-making function of judiciary in competition with policy making by the legislative and executive. This element is associated with the doctrine of judicial review. The essence of true judicial activism lies in rendering decisions by the judiciary which are in tune with the temper and tempo of the times.

Behind every judicial decision, judicial activism and judicial restraint are the two aspects that describe the philosophy and motivation. The concept of judicial activism is the polar opposite of judicial restraint. Judicial activism refers to a theory of judgment that takes into account the spirit of the law and the changing times, whereas judicial restraint relies on a strict interpretation of the law and the importance legal precedent.

Judicial activism is a dynamic process of judicial outlook in a changing society Arthur Schlesinger Jr. Woduced the term Judicial activism’ in 1947. According to Black’s Law Dictionary, “Judicial activism is a judicial philosophy which motivates judges to depart from traditional precedents in favour of progressive and new social policies”.

Question 19.
Plural Executive.
Among various types of Executive, Plural Executive is one. If the executive powers are exercised by a body of persons having coequal authority, it is called “Plural Executive. The Swiss Federal Council and the President in the former U.S.S.R. are the examples of Plural Executives. This Plural Executive combines the merits of both the parliamentary and the presidential executives, avoiding their defects.

Question 20.
Prime Minister.
Parliamentary government is described as Prime Ministerial government. The Prime Minister in this system acts as the Real executive head of the government. He acts as the Leader of the Majority party or coalition Ministry in the lower house of the legislature. He remains as the main pillar to the structure of union cabinet and Union Council of Ministers. He is central to the formation, continuance and survival of the Ministry. He Presides over the meetings of the union cabinet and decides its agenda. He enforces the Principle of Collective Responsibility. All the Ministers take oath, of office, assume powers and discharge their Public and political obligations under his stewardship.

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