Students can go through AP Inter 1st Year Botany Notes 13th Lesson Ecological Adaptation, Succession and Ecological Services will help students in revising the entire concepts quickly.
AP Inter 1st Year Botany Notes 13th Lesson Ecological Adaptation, Succession and Ecological Services
→ Ramdeo Misra is the Father of Ecology in India.
→ He was born on 26th August, 1908.
→ He was Honoured with the fellowship of the Indian National Science Academy and World Academy of Arts and Science and the Prestigious Sanjay Gandhi Award in Environment and Ecology.
→ Ecology is a subject which deals with the interactions among organism and between the organisms and its physical environment.
→ Eugen warming, a Danish Botanist classified plant communities into three Ecological groups. They are Hydrophytes Mesophytes and Xerophytes based on dependence and relation of plants to water.
→ Plants that grow in water or in wet places are called Hydrophytes. They are further divided into 5 types on their mode of living in water.
→ Mesophytes are plants that normally grow in Habitats where water is neither scarce nor not abundant.
→ Plants that grow in Habitats deficient in water supply are called xerophytes. They are classified into Ephemerals, Succulents and Non-succulents.
→ The gradual and fairly predictable change in the species composition of a given area is called Ecological Succession.
→ Succession that starts where no living organisms are found, say bare rock is called Primary succession.
→ Succession begins in areas where natural biotic communities have been destroyed such as in abandoned farm lands, burned or cut forests, lands that have been flooded is called secondary succession.
→ Succession that takes place in Wetter areas is called Hyclrarch Succession. Succession that takes place in dry areas is called xeric succession.
→ The species that invade a bare area are called pioneer species.
→ The Intraction between the biotic community and abiotic community is called Eco¬system.
→ The term Ecosystem was coined by A.G. Tansley.
→ The Earth is considered as the ‘Gaint Ecosystem1.
→ “The transfer of pollengrains to fertilize the ovaries of flowers” is an essential part of a healthy Ecosystem.
→ Pollinators play a significant role in the production of more food crops in the world.
→ The most important pollinator for agricultural purposes is the honeybee.
→ Over 1,00,000 invertebrate species – such as bees, moths butterflies, beetles and flies – serve as pollinators, worldwide.
→ Reducing the use of pesticides in and around your home protect pollinators.
→ “A mature leafy tree produces as much oxygen in a season as 10 people inhale in a year”.
→ A single mature tree can absorb carbondioxide at a rate of 48 lbs/year and release enough oxygen back into the atmosphere to support 2 human beings.
→ Microorganisms, especially Cyanobacteria release oxygen directly.
→ Use public transit, cycle or walk to conserve natural resources and to reduce pollution and enjoy the health benefits.
→ Use native plants in the garden and provide habitat for wildlife.
→ Adaptations : The dynamic process in which the behavior and physiological mechanisms of an individual continually change to adjust to variations in living conditions.
→ Biomes : A major ecological community, extending over a large area and usually characterized by a dominant vegetation.
→ Biosphere : The bilogically inhabited part of the earth consisting of all ecosystems of the world is called biosphere (or) ecosphere. The earth is considered as a ‘Giant Ecosystem1.
→ Communities : A community or biotic community is an assemblages of all the populations belonging to different species occurring in an area.
→ Ecosystem : A functional unit of nature, where living organisms interact among themselves and also with the surrounding physical environment. The term ‘ecosystem’ was coined by A.G. Tansley.
→ Ecological Succession : The process of change in the species structure of an ecological community over time.
→ Ecosystem/ecological services : The process by which the environment produces resources that we often take for granted such as clean water, timber, and habitat for fisheries, and pollination of native and agricultural plants.
→ Hydrarch succession : Succession that takes place in wetter areas.
→ Xerarch succession : Succession that takes palce in dry areas.
→ Population : A group of similar individuals belonging to the same species found an in area. It is also called “local population”.
→ Plant Ecology deals with the relationship between plants and their environment.
→ Ecological adaptation is a characteristic (Physiological, behavioural) adjustment of an organism that enables the organism to survive and reproduce in its habitat.
→ Ecological succession is a series of progressive changes in the species by which its climax structure evolves over time.
→ Ecological services include
- provisioning services like production of food and water
- regulating services like regulation of floods, drought, land degradation, diseases
- supporting services like soil formation nutrient cycling
- cultural services like recreational, spiritual benifits. Ex: Healthy forest ecosystem.
→ Division of Biotic components:
- Producers (Autotrophs) Ex: Plants
- Consumers (Heterotrophs) Ex: Animals
- Decomposers Ex: Bacteria, Fungi.
→ Population is a group of similar individuals, belonging to same species found in an area. [IPE]
→ Community is an assemblage of several populations belonging to different species occuring in an area. [IPE]
→ Hydrophytes: Plants that grow in water are called hydrophytes. In hydrophytes, all submerged organs are capable of absorbing water. So, their xylem is reduced. [IPE]
→ According to mode of living in water hydrophytes are five kinds: [IPE]
- Free floating hydrophytes: Ex: Pistia, Lemna, Salvinia.
- Rooted hydrophytes with floating leaves: Ex: Nymphaea and Victoria regia.
- Submerged suspended hydrophytes: Ex: Hydrilla and Utricularia.
- Submerged rooted hydrophytes: Ex: Vallisneria.
- Amphibious plants: Ex: Sagittaria, Typha and Limnophila.
→ Forest ecosystem has the maximum biomass. [NEET-2017]
→ The term ecosystem was coined by A.CLTansley. [NEET-2016]
→ Least genetic diversity is a characteristic features of cropland ecosystem. [NEET-2016]
→ Lichens would appear as the pioneer organisms on bare rocks. [NEET-2016]
→ Secondary succession takes place on/in degraded forest. [NEET-2015]
→ Most animals that live in deep oceanic waters are detritivores. [NEET-2015]
→ Most animals are tree dwellers in a tropical rainforest. [NEET-2015]