AP Inter 1st Year Zoology Notes Chapter 1 Diversity of Living World

Students can go through AP Inter 1st Year Zoology Notes 1st Lesson Diversity of Living World will help students in revising the entire concepts quickly.

AP Inter 1st Year Zoology Notes 1st Lesson Diversity of Living World

→ Biology is the science of life and living processes.

→ Biological systems are the most ‘complex chemical systems’ on earth.

→ The fundamental source of energy for all biological systems is the ‘SUN’.

→ Diversity in living organisms comes from their ability to change.

→ Evolution is the ‘Fundamental Organising Principle’ of the life.

→ The Biological Evolution is invistigated and explained by Charles Darwin, he published a book. ‘The origin of species”.

→ Molecular structure of DNA is carried out by Watson and Crick (1953). It was the major event of the twentieth century in the study of biology.

AP Inter 1st Year Zoology Notes Chapter 1 Diversity of Living World

→ DNA is stored information and could serve as the ‘chemical basis of inheritance’.

→ The five kingdom classification of living organisms by Whittaker. They are Monera, Protista, Fungi, Plantae, and Animalia.

→ Continuity of life is based on ‘heritable’ genetic information in the DNA and RNA.

→ The ‘history of life’ on the earth to about 3.5 billion years.

→ ATP is described as the ‘Cellular Energy Currency’.

→ ‘Biology’ the term coined by Lamark-French biologist.

→ The term Ecology is coined by Haeckel.

→ The term Organic Evolution is coined by Herbert Spencer.

→ Toxonomy includes identification, nomenclature and classification.

→ Carolus Linnaeus (1707-1788), Father of Taxonomy and founder of modern systamatic classification of living organisms and proposed and popularised the bionominal nomencalture. He wrote the book “Systama Naturae”.

AP Inter 1st Year Zoology Notes Chapter 1 Diversity of Living World

→ Batson coined the term ‘Genetics’ which deals with heridity and variations.

→ Species is the basic unit of the classification in the hierarchical taxonomic system.

→ John Ray in his book ‘Historia Generalis Plantarum’ used the term ‘species’.

→ Nutrition : The process by which an organism assimilates food and uses it for growth and maintenance.

→ Protein : Building blocks of life which are polymer chains made of amino acids linked together by peptide bonds.

→Prokaryotes : Single celled organisms that lack a membrane bound nucleus.

→Eukaryotes : Organisms whose cells contain a membrane bound nucleus and other complex membrane bound cell organelles.

→Glycogen : It is a polysaccharide that is the principal storage of glucose in animal cells analogous to starch in plants.

→ Chordata : A phylum which includes animals showing notochord at some stage in life cycle.

→ Phylogeny : The evolutionary history of an organism.

→ Analogous Characters : They denote similarity in function without necessary anatomical similarity (wings of birds and butterflies).

AP Inter 1st Year Zoology Notes Chapter 1 Diversity of Living World

→ Assortative mating : It is a selective mating/non-random mating within their population.

→ Tissue : A group of cells of similar origin that perform a similar function.

→ Holozoic : It is a method of nutrition that involves ingestion of liquid or solid organic material.

→ Ctenophora : An invertebrate phylum of animals which are commonly called ‘comb jellies’.

→ Spiral cleavage : It is characteristic of the protostomes in which planes of cell division are diagonal to the vertical axis/polar axis of the embryo.

→ Zoology (Animal Science) deals with the study of various aspects of different kinds of Animals.

→ Diversity of Living World (Bio-diversity) refers to all the diverse plants, animals and micro-organisms present on the Earth.

→ Taxonomy deals with identification, nomenclature and classification of organisms.

→ ICZN stands for International Code of Zoological Nomenclature.

→ Classification is the grouping of similar organisms.

→ Hierarchy of classification:

  1. Kingdom
  2. Phylum
  3. Class
  4. Order
  5. Family
  6. Genus
  7. Species

→ Species is the basic unit of classification.

→ Trinomial nomenclature; Naming of an organism with three words, for genus, species and subspecies is called trinomial nomenclature. Ex: Homo sapiens sapiens [IPE]

AP Inter 1st Year Zoology Notes Chapter 1 Diversity of Living World

→ Tautonymy is the practice of naming the animals in which the generic name and specific name are the same. Ex: Naja naja- The Indian cobra. [IPE]

→ Histology: Histology is the study of microscopic structure of different tissues. [ IPE]

→ Biogenesis is a theory of evolution which says ‘life begets life’ . [IPE]

→ Protostomia are eumetazoans in which the blastopore develops into mouth. [IPE]
Ex: Annelida, Arthropoda, Mollusca

→ Deuterostomi: are eumetazoans in which anus is formed from or near the blastopore. |IPE]
Ex: Echinodermata, Hemichordata, Chordata

→ The ‘evil quartet’ refers to ‘four major threats’ of biodiversity. They are [IPE]

  1. Habitat loss and fragmentation
  2. Over exploitation.
  3. Invasion of Alien species
  4. Co-extintions

→ Biodiversity hot spot is a ‘Biogeographic region’ with a significant reservoir of [IPE] biodiversity that is under threat of extinction from humans.

AP Inter 1st Year Zoology Notes Chapter 1 Diversity of Living World

→ ‘Rivet Popper hypothesis’ explains the consequences that happen when some species are lost in an ecosystem. [IPE]

→ Phylogenetic system of classification is based on evolutionary relationships. [2009 PMTJ

→ An exclusive characteristic of living things is ‘Perception of events happening in the environment and their memory* [2011 PMT]

→ The Earth Summit held in Rio de Janiero in 1992 was called for conservation [NEET 2019] of biodiversity and sustainable utilisation of its benefits.

→ Housefly belongs to family Muscidae.

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