Students can go through AP Inter 1st Year Zoology Notes 1st Lesson Diversity of Living World will help students in revising the entire concepts quickly.
AP Inter 1st Year Zoology Notes 1st Lesson Diversity of Living World
→ Biology is the science of life and living processes.
→ Biological systems are the most ‘complex chemical systems’ on earth.
→ The fundamental source of energy for all biological systems is the ‘SUN’.
→ Diversity in living organisms comes from their ability to change.
→ Evolution is the ‘Fundamental Organising Principle’ of the life.
→ The Biological Evolution is invistigated and explained by Charles Darwin, he published a book. ‘The origin of species”.
→ Molecular structure of DNA is carried out by Watson and Crick (1953). It was the major event of the twentieth century in the study of biology.
→ DNA is stored information and could serve as the ‘chemical basis of inheritance’.
→ The five kingdom classification of living organisms by Whittaker. They are Monera, Protista, Fungi, Plantae, and Animalia.
→ Continuity of life is based on ‘heritable’ genetic information in the DNA and RNA.
→ The ‘history of life’ on the earth to about 3.5 billion years.
→ ATP is described as the ‘Cellular Energy Currency’.
→ ‘Biology’ the term coined by Lamark-French biologist.
→ The term Ecology is coined by Haeckel.
→ The term Organic Evolution is coined by Herbert Spencer.
→ Toxonomy includes identification, nomenclature and classification.
→ Carolus Linnaeus (1707-1788), Father of Taxonomy and founder of modern systamatic classification of living organisms and proposed and popularised the bionominal nomencalture. He wrote the book “Systama Naturae”.
→ Batson coined the term ‘Genetics’ which deals with heridity and variations.
→ Species is the basic unit of the classification in the hierarchical taxonomic system.
→ John Ray in his book ‘Historia Generalis Plantarum’ used the term ‘species’.
→ Nutrition : The process by which an organism assimilates food and uses it for growth and maintenance.
→ Protein : Building blocks of life which are polymer chains made of amino acids linked together by peptide bonds.
→Prokaryotes : Single celled organisms that lack a membrane bound nucleus.
→Eukaryotes : Organisms whose cells contain a membrane bound nucleus and other complex membrane bound cell organelles.
→Glycogen : It is a polysaccharide that is the principal storage of glucose in animal cells analogous to starch in plants.
→ Chordata : A phylum which includes animals showing notochord at some stage in life cycle.
→ Phylogeny : The evolutionary history of an organism.
→ Analogous Characters : They denote similarity in function without necessary anatomical similarity (wings of birds and butterflies).
→ Assortative mating : It is a selective mating/non-random mating within their population.
→ Tissue : A group of cells of similar origin that perform a similar function.
→ Holozoic : It is a method of nutrition that involves ingestion of liquid or solid organic material.
→ Ctenophora : An invertebrate phylum of animals which are commonly called ‘comb jellies’.
→ Spiral cleavage : It is characteristic of the protostomes in which planes of cell division are diagonal to the vertical axis/polar axis of the embryo.