Students can go through AP Inter 1st Year Botany Notes 1st Lesson The Living World will help students in revising the entire concepts quickly.
AP Inter 1st Year Botany Notes 1st Lesson The Living World
→ Growth, reproduction, ability to sense environment and mount a suitable response, metabolism, ability to self-replicate, self-organise, Interaction and emergence are i unique features of Jiving organisms.
→ In plants, growth by Cell – Division Occurs Continuously throughout their life span.
→ Unicellular organisms also grow in size until they divide by Cell Division.
→ In multicellular organisms, reproduction refers to the production of progeny possessing features more or less similar to those of parents.
→ Fungi multiply by spores and in lower organisms like yeast and hydra, Budding is seen.
→ The fungi, the filamentous algae, the protonema of mosses multiply by fragmentation.
→ All living organisms are made up of chemicals. The sum total of all the chemical reactions occuring in the body of a living organism is called metabolism.
→ All plants, animals, fungi and Microbes exhibit metabolism.
→ No non-living object exhibits metabolism.
→ The most complicated feature of all living organism is the ability to sense their surroundings and respond to these environmental stimuli called Irritability.
→ All organisms are aware of the surrounding factors and is called consciousness.
→ The number of species that are known and described ranges between 1.7 to 1.8 million, called Biodiversity or the number and types of organisms present on earth.
→ Identification is to determine whether a collected organism is entirely new or already known.
→ A particular organism is known by the same name all over the world called nomenclature.
→ For plants, Scientific names are based on agreed principles and criteria which are provided in International Code for Botanical Nomenclature (ICBN).
→ The system of providing a name with two components is called Binomial nomenclature, given by Carolus Linnaeus.
→ The study Of different kinds of organisms, their diversities and also the relationship among them is referred to as systematics.
→ All organisms. Including those in the plant and animal Kingdoms have species as the lowest category.
→ A group of individual organisms with fundamental similarities is called Species.
→ A group of related species which has more characters in common in comparison to species of other Genera is called Genus.
→ A group of related genera with still less number of similarities as compared to genus and species is called family.
→ Assemblage of families which exhibit a few similar characters is called order.
→ Class indicates related orders.
→ Division includes related classes.
→ Kingdom includes various divisions
→ The collection of actual specimans of plant and animal species is essential and is the prime source of taxonomic studies.
→ Herbarium is a store house of collected plant specimens that are dried, pressed and preserved on sheets.
→ Royal Botanical garden at Kew, England has a largest Herbarium.
→ Indian Botanical garden (Howrah), National Botanical Research Institute of Lucknow are the other Botanical gardens in India.
→ Meseums have collections of preserved plant and animal specimens for study and reference.
→ Key is another taxonomical aid used for Identification of plants and animals.
→ Flora, manuals, Monographs and Catelogues are some other means of recording descriptions, help in correct Identification.
→ Budding : It is a method of asexual reproduction in unicellular organisms where new individuals develop from parent as an outgrowth of mature organism.
→ Consciousness : It is the ability of organisms to sense the surroundings.
→ Fission : It is a method of asexual reproduction in unicellular organisms, involving the division of nucleus and cytoplasm into two or more parts to form new individuals.
→ Flora : It contains the actual account of habitat, distribution and systematic listing of plants of a given area.
→ Fragmentation : It is a method of vegetative reproduction commonly found in filamentous forms where the plant body breaks up into smaller pieces or fragments and each fragment develops into a new plant.
→ Growth : It is a permanent and irreversible increase in the size of a living organism generally accompanied by a change in dry weight.
→ Herbarium : It is a store house of collected plant specimens that are dried, pressed and preserved on sheets.
→ ICBN : International Code for Botanical Nomenclature.
→ In vitro : Outside a living organism and in an artificial environment.
→ Key: It is a Taxonomical aid used for Identification of plants and animals based on the similarities and dissimilarities.
→ Manual : It is a small book specially designed for ready reference.
→ Metabolism : It refers to the sum total of all the chemical reactions occurring in the body of an organism. The constructive metabolic process in which complex molecules are formed from simpler molecules is called anabolism. The destructive metabolic process in which complex molecules are broken down into simpler molecules is called catabolism.
→ Photoperiodism : The influence of the relative duration of day and night on the flowering response of plants is called photoperiodism.
→ Reproduction : It is the production of progeny possessing features more or less similar to those of parents.
→ Spore : It is an asexual unicellular reproductive unit which directly develops in to a pew plant. In higher plants, spores develop following meiosis in spore mother cell and they are called meiospores. In Thallophytes, they may be formed following mitosis when they are called mitospores.
→ Systematics : The study of different kinds of organisms their diversities and also the relationship among them is referred to as systematics.
→ Taxon : Any unit or category in a taxonomic system is called a taxon.
→ Taxonomic hierarchy : It is the arrangement in which the organisms are grouped into an ascending series of successively large and broader categories so that the lower groups are always included in those that are higher in hierarchy.