AP Inter 1st Year Botany Notes Chapter 2 Biological Classification

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AP Inter 1st Year Botany Notes 2nd Lesson Biological Classification

→ Two-Kingdom classification was given by Linnaeus.

→ It included Bacteria, algae, fungi, Bryophytes, Pteri-dophytes, Gymnosperms and Angiosperms under plants.

→ R.H.Whittaker proposed a Five Kingdom Classification, named. Monera, protista, Fungi, Plantae and Animaiia

→ Except Monera, remaining are Eukaryotic

→ Monera includes Archaebacteria Eubacteria.

→ Bacteria are grouped under four types based on their shape, the spherical (coccus) the rod shaped (Bacilli), the comma shaped.(vibrio) and the spiral (spirillum) shaped.

→ The cyanobacteria are unicellular, colonial or filamentous aquatic or terrestrial algae

→ Some of these organisms can fix atmospheric Nitrogen in specialised cells called Heterocysts.
Ex-Nostoc and Anabaena.

AP Inter 1st Year Botany Notes Chapter 2 Biological Classification

→ The red colour of red sea is due to Trichodesmium erythrium present in it.

→ The majority of heterotrophic Bacteria are sapro phytes or decomposers.

→ Bacteria reproduce mainly by fission.

→ Mycoplasmas are organisms that completely lack of cell wall and are pleomorphic. They cause witches broom in plants, pleuropneumonia in cattle and mycoplasmal urethritis in humans.

→ Actinomycetes are branched filamentous Bacteria, contains Mycolic acid in their cellwalls.

→ Kingdom Protista includes chrysophytes, Dinoflagellates Euglenoids, Slime moulds and Protozoans.

→ The fungi kingdom constitute a unique kingdom of heterotrophic organisms.

→ Most fungi are heterotrophic and absorb soluble organic matter from dead substrates and hence are called saprophytes.

→ Vegetative Reproduction is by fragmentation, fission and Budding. Asexual Reproduction is by conidia or zoospores and sexual Reproduction is by oospores, ascospores and basidiospores.

→ Fungi Includes Phycomycetes (Mucor), Ascomycetes (Aspergillus), Basidiomycetes (Puccinia), Deuteromycetes (Alternaria).

AP Inter 1st Year Botany Notes Chapter 2 Biological Classification

→ Kingolem plantae includes all Eukaryotic chlorophyll containing organisms called plants.

→ Plantae Includes algae, bryophytes, pteridophytes, Gymnosperms and angiosperms.

→ Kingdom Animalia includes heterotropic Eukaryotic organisms that are multicellular and their cells lack cell walls.

→ ‘Carl Woese’ proposed six kingdom classification, includes Bacteria, Archaebacteria, Protista, Fungi, plantae and Animalia.

→ Viruses are obligate parsites, contains nucleic acid and protein.

→ T.O. Diener discovered a new Infections agent, lacks protein coat and contains RNA called viroid.

→ Some Infectious agents possess only protein but not Nucleic acid are called prions.

→ Lichens are symbiotic associations of algae and fungi. Algal component is called phycobiont and fungal component is called mycobiont.

→ Antibiotics : These are the chemical substances produced by microorganisms which inhibit or kill other microbes.

→ Aplanospore : A non-motile, thin-walled spore.

→ Ascocarp : It is the fruiting body of ascomycetous fungi.

AP Inter 1st Year Botany Notes Chapter 2 Biological Classification

→ Ascospore : A spore produced by an ascus (of an ascocarp)

→ Autotrophs : They are the organisms which synthesize their own food from inorganic substrates.

→ Basidiocarp : It is the fruiting body of basidiomycetous fungi.

→ Basidiospore : A spore produced by a basidium (of a basidiocarp).

→ Biogas : It is produced by the anaerobic fermentation of biomass like dung of the animals. It consists of 50-70 percent methane, 30-40 percent carbon dioxide and traces of hydrogen, nitrogen and hydrogen sulphide.

→ Bioluminiscence : It is the emission of light from living organisms.

→ Chemoautotrophs : They synthesize their food by utilizing the energy released by oxidation of various inorganic substances.

→ Eukaryotes : Organisms that have “true” nucleus containing genetic material (DNA) organized in the form of chromatin and also have several membrane-bound organelles in their cells.

→ Habitat: It is the natural area or locality where an organism is commonly found.

→ Haplontic : A life cycle in which the haploid phase predominates and the diploid stage is limited to the zygote.

→ Herb: It is a small delicate plant without any woody part.

→ Heterotrophs : They do not synthesize their own food but depend on other organisms or on dead organic matter for food.

→ Holophytic nutrition : Autotrophic nutrition is also called holophytic nutrition.

→ Holozoic nutrition : It is obtaining nourishment by the ingestion of solid organic food matter.

→ Karyogamy : Fusion of two nuclei.

→ Mycorrhizae : They are formed by an association between fungal members and roots of vascular plants. They increase phosphate absorption by roots. Hence they are used as biofertilizers.

AP Inter 1st Year Botany Notes Chapter 2 Biological Classification

→ Nitrogen fixation : It is the process through which the dinitrogen from the atmosphere is converted into fixed form like ammonia or nitrate.

→ Obligate parasite : A parasite that cannot lead an independent non-parasitic existence, in contrast to facultative parasite.

→ Oospore : A fertilised female cell or zygote, especially one with thick chitinous walls.

→ Palmella stage : A colonial aggregate of immobile non-flagellated individual cells occurring in the life cycle of some flagellated green algae or plantlike flagellates.

→ Parasites : They depend on other organisms for food.

→ Photoautotrophs : They synthesize their food from simpler substrates by utilizing sunlight energy.

→ Planktons : These are small organisms which float passively in water currents.

→ Plasmodium : The multinucleate mass of protoplasm of slime moulds with plasmamembrane is called plasmodium.

→ Plasmogamy : “Fusion of protoplasms between two motile or non-motile gametes.

→ Pleomorphic : When an organism occurs in more than one independent form in the life history, it is said to be pleomorphic.

→ Predator : The animal which kills another animal for food.

→ Prions : Infections agents which possess only proteins but not Nucleic acid.

→ Sporozoans : Organisms which have an infections. Spore like stage

→ Prokaryotes : Organisms that lack a nucleus or any other membranebound organelles in their cells. Their genetic material is not organized in the form of chromatin.

AP Inter 1st Year Botany Notes Chapter 2 Biological Classification

→ Saprophytes : They depend on dead organic matter for food.

→ Sporozoans : Organisms which have an infectiones. Spore like stage in their life cycle.
Ex : Plasmodium.

→ Shrub : It is a woody perennial plant with bushy appearance.

→ Spore : It is a reproductive structure that is adapated for dispersal and surviving for extended periods of time in unfavorable conditions.

→ Symbionts : An association between two dissimilar organisms where both the partners are mutually benefited is called symbiosis and the organisms are called symbionts.

→ Tree : It is a large woody perennial plant.

→ Zoospre : An asexual spore produced by certain algae and some fungi, capale of moving about by means of flagella.