AP State Syllabus 8th Class Social Studies Solutions 21st Lesson Performing Arts and Artistes in Modern Times
8th Class Social Studies 21st Lesson Performing Arts and Artistes in Modern Times Textbook Questions and Answers
Correct the false statements:
a. All dance forms emerged as part of devotion.
b. Historically artistes were supported by big Zamindars.
c. Burrakatha was adopted to mobilise people.
d. Today Bharatanatyam is largely taught by nattuvanars.
Correction of false statements:
b) Historically artistes were supported by the emperors, kings and big zamindars.
d) Today Bharatanatyam is largely taught by dancers.
Discuss the changes that have come about in the lives of folk artistes during the last 50 years.
With the coming of modern means of information and entertainment like films and television people are turning away from traditional forms of performing arts. Also landlords and head-men no longer patronise artistes like in the past. As a result the folk artistes are facing a decline and crises of livelihood. Since they have been travelling artists, they also lack modern school education and the only other profession they can adopt is one of unskilled workers.
The government has stepped in to use some of these art forms for propagation of government programmes. Many traditional troupes are now performing plays on themes like sanitation, healthcare, girl’s education, family planning and environment. Such scripts are generally provided by the government that sponsors the shows.
Do you think folk arts are declining? What loss do you think it will cause to our culture?
Yes, the folk arts are declining. Due to this we lose our culture and traditions. The forth coming generations may not know these traditions. Cultural heritage is the backbone of a nation. If it is lost, everything is lost.
Is it possible to orient folk arts to new requirements of modern life and revive them?
I think it is impossible. Today the life style is very fast. The people who are stuck to the TVs and computers, may not be interested in these arts which are expensive.
What are the major changes that have taken place in Bharatanatyam dance since the days of Sadir?
- Sadir was a traditional dance of Tamil Nadu.
- These were performed by devadasis in temples.
- Nattuvanars were their gurus.
- Under British rule, propaganda prevailed against Indian art, misrepresenting it as crude, immoral and inferior to the concepts of western civilization.
- Later social reformers launched Anti-Nautch and anti-devadasi campaign to eradicate not only the prostitution that had come to be associated with devadasis.
- E.Krishna Iyer, Rukmini Devi tried to gain respect to this dance.
- The four sons of Tanjavur Nattuvanar Subbarayan and Muthu Swamy Dikshitar changed this dance form Sadir to Bharatanatyam.
Who among the following were the supporters of devadasi system and those who opposed it and those who wanted to reform it:
Balasaraswati, Rukmini Devi, Veeresalingam, Bhagya Reddy Varma, Krishna Iyer, Bangalore Nagaratnamma.
- Bangalore Nagaratnamma
- Bhagya Reddy Varma
Those who wanted to reform it:
- Rukmini Devi
- E. Krishna Iyer
Why has it always been difficult for artists to earn their livelihood by practising their art? How can artistes be supported to stand on their own feet?
- Usually they are travelling artists.
- They have to meet more expenses.
- They have less income due to the lack of programmes.
So it has always been difficult for artists to earn their livelihood by practising art. They should be arranged some minimum common facilities by the government. The government should encourage and arrange their programmes frequently. The scheme Food for Work also should be implemented.
Do you think institutions like Kalakshetra can help to revive folk arts too?
Yes, they can help to revive folk arts too.
But they encourage the rich and the interested people only. They cannot render services to the real hires of the arts. Thus there are mixed results with this type of institutions.
Collect and prepare a table with the information of arts and dramas performed by the artistes of your area.
Information of arts and dramas performed by the artistes of our area.
|Arts & Dramas||Artists|
|1. Mimicry||Silvester Stalin|
|2. Burrakatha||Tirungari Ramanjaneyulu|
|3. Dasavathara Nrutyam||Sobha Naidu|
|4. Vara vikrayam||Kuchimanchi Kutumba Rao|
8th Class Social Studies 21st Lesson Performing Arts and Artistes in Modern Times InText Questions and Answers
What changes do you see the position of the artistes and the subject of their performances since the time of the national movement? (Textbook Page No. 233)
After the national movement, their condition became worse. Nobody is there to encourage them. As a result the folk artists are facing a decline and crisis of livelihood.
Burrakatha: During the independence movement Burrakatha was brought into main stream in Andhra Pradesh and was used for political purposes. It played an effective role in conveying message to people and awakening them.
But now these troupes are being patronised by the government for creating awareness on various social issues. These performances are broadcast over TV. But the traditional performers have left this art form as their place has been taken over by other forms of entertainment and have no more patrons in the villages.
Thus many changes took place in these arts.
What kind of changes do you think they would have made to the dance to make it respectable? (Textbook Page No. 236)
- The four sons of Tanjavur nattuvanars Subba Rayan, with Muthu Swamy Dikshitar were the main persons that changed the Sadir as Bharatanatyam.
- This was adopted by the educated and Brahmins also.
- The derogatory connotations would have been changed.
- Bhakti would have been made the main theme in the dance.
- Prostitution of devadasis would have been eradicated.
- And mainly the art gained respect due to its access on the Music Academy stage.
What was the special role of the nattuvanars? What impact do you think it will have on the dance if they are replaced by dancers themselves? (Textbook Page No. 237)
The nattuvanars are the dance masters of devadasis. They were usually male children of devadasis. They maintained these traditions from generation to generation. They also trained the new dancers from other castes. The renewed awareness of Bharatanatyam in Indian society allowed many nattuvanars to resume their training activities. A diversity of styles named after the villages from which the nattuvanars came, became recognised.
But today dancers, rather than nattuvanars, have become the custodians of the art form. The generation of nattuvanars that trained dancing during the revival period was the last generation of exclusive nattuvanars.
The role of the nattuvanars during performances is taken by dancers or musicians with special training. This affects the quality and the tradition in the dance.
In what way do you think the establishment of modern institutions like Kalakshetra influenced the art and artistes? (Textbook Page No. 237)
The establishment of modern institutions like Kalakshetra wiped out all the objections in this art and artistes. It attracted many artistes and musicians. It rose from entertainment to education.
It is a modern institution which employs artistes to teach and perform and conducts degree and certificate courses. Any student whether they were of dancers family or not can learn dance there.
In what way has the immense popularity of Bharatanatyam helped it? Has it also created some problems? (Textbook Page No. 237)
Dancers, rather than the nattuvanars, have become the custodians of the art form. The generation of nattuvanars that trained dancers during the revival period was the last generation of exclusive nattuvanars. Due to sheer numbers of aspiring dancers, nattuvanars no longer are the only trainers. In institutions like Kalakshetra, experienced dancers trained as teachers educate the next generation. But even more students now learn privately from individual dancers. The role of the nattuvanars during performances is taken by dancers or mu-sicians with special training.
Many are forced to use recorded music in dance performances to keep costs down. Danc¬ers today usually can’t make a living by performing. With a few exceptions, Bharatanatyam is today a secondary career, or a profession for those with family support. Few dancers can devote their entire lives to training and developing as dancers. To earn money, dancers start teaching early in their careers. This affects the quality of their dance and also their teaching.
Without nattuvanars, and with more and more dancers becoming teachers, the unbroken lineage of instruction that maintained the integrity of the dance form has been lost. In the hands of many dancers rather than a few trainers, Bharatanatyam is now subject to numer-ous innovations.
Above are some photos of performing arts. How many of them can you identify? Write down the names below each of the photos. (Textbook Page No. 227)
I can identify all the four photos. Names of them are given below of each photograph.
Did you see any of them being performed in your village? Share your experience in the class. (Textbook Page No. 227)
Once on the occassion of Dushera Festival one dancer ‘Bharathi’ performed, Bharathanatyam on the stage. It was a wonderful performance. Her facial expressions and make-up was excellent.
a) Find out from your parents and grandparents about the songs sung and dances performed by family members on special occasions. Make a chart listing them, the occasions and some sample songs. Have any changes come in these performances in recent years? Share your findings with rest of the class. (Textbook Page No. 227)
|1) Sankranthi, Gobbillu||Kolani dopariki Gobbillo- Yadukula samiki Gobillo-|
|2) Bathukamma festival||1) Bathukamma, Bathukamma Vuyyalo – Bargava Gowramma Vuyyalo –
2) Kalavari Kodalu – Kaliki Sundari Kadigindi pappu – Kadavaloposi Vachiri varannalu – Vanamulu dati
|3) Atla Tadde Undralla Tadde||1) Atla Taddoy Aratloy Mudda Pappoy – Mudatloy
2) Oppulakuppa – Oyyari Bhama Sannabiyyam – Saya pappu
|4) Aarathi songs||Gaikonave Harathi – Gowri Pathi Ammanadu Manavi – Alakinchavamma Arthanareswari Abhayamu Neeyave|
|5) Deepavali||1) Amma Sowbhagya Lakshmi Ravamma
2) Dubbu Dubbu Deepavali Malli Vache Nagula Chavithi
|6) Dussehra||Dandia Dance|
|7) Bhogimantalu||Clapping around the fire…………
“Gogulu Pooche – Govulu Kache 0 Lacha Gummadi,
Putthadi Velugu Chakkaga Virise 0 Lacha Gummadi”
In recent times people treat these odd and not practising. But we can say that these are still alive in our state.
b) If any of you know some of these songs and dances perform them in the class.
Imagine a debate between those defending the Devadasi system and those opposing it. Give arguments which would have been given by both the sides. Prepare a short skit of the debate. (Textbook Page No. 234)
“Ayyo! What is this? Why is this Veeresalingam Panthulu involving in all these issues? Hello Girisamji! This is a very bad time. Otherwise why are the devadasis treated as prostitutes ? They are sacrificing their lives for the God. Why do they feel this as inhuman? Campaigns to eradicate this is a great sin, isn’t it.”
Girisam: Arey Ramappa Panthuluji! I am also in the campaign of Anti-Nautch. Okay. Let us accept it as a pious deed. Then why shouldn’t all the parents sacrifice their daughters? I think this is misusing one caste and their girls in the name of the God.
Ramappa Panthulu: Then, Girisam what about Madhura Vani? You and she?
Madhura Vani: Ha – Ha — Ha —
Arey Panthulu bavagaru! Why you are bringing my name? What is the matter? Have you involved in any fight with Girisamgaru.
Ramappa Panthulu: Abbebbe — Ahahaha —
No, No , My dear Madhura Vani,
Girisam is saying about Anti-Nautch?
Madhura Vani: Yes — it is true —
Girisam bavagaru is participating in this campaign. He sent several memorandums to ban this system also.
To say truth, many women are suffering due to this system. So I also oppose this. What about you bavagaru?
Ramappa Panthulu: It is true but?
Girisam: Damn it – The story restarted. No but, Nothing. Shall I call constable?
Ramappa Panthulu: Ha — Ha — Areyrey.
Girisam: — I say that in some other mood. I also worried about these women. From tomorrow I also will be with you in Anti-Nautch
Madhura Vani: Very Good bavagaru live and think for the welfare of others.
Ramappa Panthulu: Please Madhura Vani, Don’t call me ‘bavagaru’ from now onwards. Madhura Vani: Okay – Okay.
Jai Kandukuri – Jai Jai Kandukuri.
Have you seen any such performances by travelling artistes? Tell your classmates about them, who they were, what they sang and how were they treated by the audience.
(Textbook Page No. 229)
In our village, we celebrate Sivaratri for nine days by performing Kalyanam. As a part of that celebration, ‘Tholubommalata’ was played druing the last year. Flying of Hanuman, Burning Sri Lanka, ten heads of Ravanasur, Sitamata under Ashoka tree they played it well. All the villagers enjoyed it well. The artists came to our village in group. In that group there were 7 elders and 3 children. They stayed here for 2 days. Our villagers welcomed and treated them well. Some gave them rice, pulses, vegetables etc. Some gave them old clothes, some gave them money. Later they went to our neighbouring village.
If any such artistes live nearby, meet them and find out about their lives and art. (Textbook Page No. 229)
Gangadharam’s family is residing near our family. In their family Gangadharam, his son and his brother in law are the Burrakatha artistes. Government invites them for its functions. These earnings are insufficient to them. So they work as agricultural labourers in others’ fields throughout the year. They tell the stories on literacy and family planning.
Imagine the plight of a young devadasi girl who does not want to live the life of a devadasi.
Describe her feelings in an imaginary letter written by her to her friend. (Textbook Page No. 234)
How are you? I am in totally confused state. You stayed with me till now. But now you are far away from me. So I am telling you my problems through this letter.
You know that I love my studies well. For the last few days my parents have been discussing about my studies. They don’t want to continue my education. They want to sacrifice me to the mother goddess ‘Yellamma’ as devadasi. According to our family tradition, I should learn our traditional dance and perform it in the temple. I should not marry anyone. I should share my life with every person who likes me.
Do you know the reason for this ? I have two sisters only and no brothers. After marriages we will go to our houses. Then there will be nobody to look after our parents in the old age. So they opted this.
I told them that I would look after them in their old age by getting a job. But they are not caring my words. They fixed the next month first Friday as muhurtham.
Meena, I don’t like all these things. I know that your uncle is a police constable. You come here with your uncle to save me. Otherwise please write a letter to me. I will escape from here and come to you. I will join in the orphans hostel and continue my education.
Please help me.
Do you think it is important to preserve the folk art traditions when TV and films are becoming the dominant forms of entertainment? Give your reasons. (Textbook Page No. 233)
I think it is important to preserve it. Our customs and traditions are gifts from our ancestors. Mainly folk arts – These are our traditional entertainment. We should preserve them. They are the soul of nation.
Why do you think the nationalists and communists tried to revive and renew folk arts? (Textbook Page No. 233)
Nationalists and communists encouraged these folk arts. They opposed the foreign arts and tried to revive and renew our folk arts.
Why do you think it became important for other caste to take over the dance in order to revive it? (Textbook Page No. 236)
- This dance belonged to Devadasis.
- There is some vulgarity in this dance form.
- In the later period this dance also was condemned with devadasi system.
- So these two were eradicated.
- (a) To keep away all these things,
(b) to treat it as an art,
(c) to perform it on the stage and
(d) to get the acceptance of all it became important for other caste to take over the dance in order to revive it.
On one hand the traditional custodians of the dance were not allowed to practise it and on the other hand other caste people took over the dance to make it respectable. Do you think there is something unjust about this development? (Textbook Page No. 236)
It is very sad to say that the devadasi system was banned officially in our country but it is in vogue unofficially.
I think that it would be better if the government bans the civil practices in this system and encourage the real art.
But the system is in practice, with no artistic views. So we can say that there is something unjust about this development.
Invite a local artist to your classroom and conduct an interview on their arts and their future.
Students: Good morning sir.
Artist: Good morning children.
Students: Sir, at what age you started the practice of Kuchipudi dance?
Artist: I started at the age of 4 years.
Students: Who is the inspiration about this?
Artist: My grandfather.
Students: Who is your teacher?
Artist: Vempati China Satyam Students: Did you give any stage shows?
Artist: Yes, I performed so many shows.
Students: Did you give shows in abroad?
Artist: Yes, I went America and gave four stage shows.
Students: What was the base of Kuchipudi dance?
Artist: Dance themes are based on Indian mythology.
Students: What is your aim?
Artist: To protect our ancient art.
Students: How do you protect it?
Artist: To establish so many practice centers and join number of students.
Students: What is your future plan?
Artist: To prepare more Kuchipudi dancers and perform more shows and give impor¬tance to our ancient art.
Students: Thankyou, Sir. And we also join to learn Kuchipudi dance.