Students can go through AP Inter 1st Year Botany Notes 8th Lesson Taxonomy of Angiosperms will help students in revising the entire concepts quickly.
AP Inter 1st Year Botany Notes 8th Lesson Taxonomy of Angiosperms
→ The term, “Taxonomy” was coined by A.P. de Candolle in 1813.
→ Taxonomy includes four basic components viz. Characterisation, identification, nomenclature and classification.
→ Carl Linnaeus, hailed as ‘Father of Taxonomy. Taxonomy purely based on the description of mor-phological characteristics is called Alpha
→ Taxonomy. Taxonomy based on the morphological characteristics along with information from Embryology, Cytology, Palynology, Phytochemistry and Serology is called Omega Taxonomy.
→ Plants are classified in the basis of one or two mor-phological characters is called Artificial system.
→ Plants are classified on the basis of all possible mor-phological characters is called Natural System.
→ A comprehensive picture of all characters is taken into account in the classification is called Phylogenetic System.
→ Floral characters were given greater importance since they are more conserved and do not change due to the effect of Environment.
→ Numerical taxonomy uses mathematical methods to evaluate observable differences and similarities between taxonomic groups.
→ A branch of taxonomy that uses the cytological characters like chromosome number, structure in solving taxonomic problems is called Cytotaxonomy.
→ A branch of taxonomy that uses the phytochemical data to solve the problems of taxonomy is called Chemotaxonomy.
→ Theophrastus classified plants into 3 groups based on their habit as
- Shrubs and
- Trees in his book “Historia Plantarum1.
→ Bentham and Hooker’s sytem of classification is a Natural System of Classification.
→ The latest phylogenetic classification is APG system. (Angiospermic Phylogenetic Group).
→ Among Fabaceae, Pisum sativum (garden Pea) Solanaceae – Solanum nigrum, liliaceae, Allium cepa are taken as examples.
→ A floral diagram provides information about the number of parts of a flower, their arrangement and the relation they have with one another.
→ The floral formula is the numerical representation of various parts of a flower.
→ Alpha taxonomy : Taxonomy purely based on the description of morphological characters.
→ Artificial system : A system of classification based on a few easily comparable morphological characters.
→ Binomial nomenclature : Providing a name with two components, the generfc name and the specific epithet.
→ Classification : Arranging the plants to specific groups on the basis of their similarities and dissimilarities.
→ Complete flower : A flower with a μ four floral parts- calyx, corolla, androecium and gynoecium.
→ Diadelphous : It is a condition in which stamens are fused together and form two bundles.
→ Flora : The actual account of habitat, distribution and systematic listing of plants of a given area.
→ Floral diagram : A diagram representing the number of parts of flower, the structure, arrangement, aestivation, adhesion, cohesion and position with respect to the mother axis.
→ Genus : A group of closely related species.
→ Geocarpic : The development of fruit inside the soil.
→ Herbarium : A collection of plant specimens that are pressed dried and preserved on sheets with collection details and stored as per classification system.
→ In-complete flower : One of the floral parts of the flower is absent.
→ Natural system : A system of classification, in which plants are grouped on the basis of their natural relationships taking into consideration all possible morphological characters.
→ Numerical taxonomy : A branch of taxonomy that uses mathematical methods to evaluate observable differences and similarities between taxonomic groups.
→ Omega taxonomy : Taxonomy based on information from other branches such as Embryology, Cytology, Phytochemistry, Palynology etc., in addition to morphological characters.
→ Piston mechanism : The insects are attracted by the standard petal. As the insect alights on the flower, the wing and keel petals get pressed down-due to its weight there by exposing the stigma and stamens. The stigma which comes out first brushes against the abdomen of the insect and receives pollen already present there. As the insect leaves the flower, the essential organs return to their normal position.
→ Plant systematics : The study of the diversity and the history of plants and the evolutionary relationships among them.
→ Plant taxonomy : Deals with characterisation, identification, nomenclature and classification of plants.
→ Phylogenetic system : A system of classification based on genetic and evolutionary relationships among the taxa.
→ Taxon : Any unit used in classification. Taxa (pl) are arranged in hierarchy from kingdom to subspecies.