AP Inter 1st Year Botany Notes Chapter 9 Cell: The Unit of Life

Students can go through AP Inter 1st Year Botany Notes 9th Lesson Cell: The Unit of Life will help students in revising the entire concepts quickly.

AP Inter 1st Year Botany Notes 9th Lesson Cell: The Unit of Life

→ Unicellular Organisms are capable of independent Existence and performing the essential functions of life.

→ Anton von Leeuwenhoek first saw and described a live cell. .

→ Schleiden and Schwann together formulated cell theory.

→ R.Virchow, defined cell theory as, All living organisms are composed of cells and products of cells. All cells arise from pre-existing cells.

→ Mycoplasmas, the smallest cells are only 0.3 /μm in length.

→ The largest Isolated single cell is the egg of an ostrich.

→ The Prokaryotic cells are represented by bacteria, blue-green algae, mycoplasma and PPLO.

→ The four basic shapes of Bacteria are coccus (spherical) Bacillus (rod shaped) Vibrio (comma) and spirillum (spiral).

→ There is no well defined nucleus in Prokaryotic cell.

AP Inter 1st Year Botany Notes Chapter 9 Cell: The Unit of Life

→ The genetic material is maked, not enveloped by nuclear membrane and is called nucleoid.

→ In Prokaryotic cells, In addition to genomic DNA, a small circular DNA is present called plasmids. ‘

→ Bacterial flagellum is composed of three parts namely filament, hook and basal body.

→ Pili and Fimbriae are surface structures of the Bacteria but do not play a role in motility.

→ 70s type of Ribosomes are present in. Prokaryotic cell.

→ Reserve food materials are in the form of phosphate granules, Cyanophycean granules and Glycogen granules.

→ Eukaryotic cells have a well defined nucleus.

→ Cell wall i a non-living rigid structure and forms an outer covering for the plasma membrane of fungi and plants.

→ Cell wall is made up of cellulose, hemicellulose, pectins and proteins.

→ Endoplasmic Reticulum, golgi complex, lysosomes and vacuoles together called endomembrane system.

→ The Endoplasmic reticulum with ribosomes is called Rough ER and without ribosomes is called smooth ER.

→ Cell organelle which involves in the synthesis of cell wall materials is golgi complex.

→ Cell organelles Causes autolysis of cells are lysosomes.

AP Inter 1st Year Botany Notes Chapter 9 Cell: The Unit of Life

→ Vacuoles play an Important role in osmoregulation.

→ Mitochondria are the sites of aerobic respiration.

→ Leucoplasts which store Carbohydrates are called Amyloplasts which store proteins are called aleuroplasts and which store fats are called Elaioplasts.

→ Chloroplasts are the organelles involved in photosynthesis.

→ 80 s type of ribosomes are present in Eukaryotic cells.

→ The centrioles forms spindle fibres during cell division.

→ Nucleus, dynamic centre of the cell or Master Cell organelle controls all metabolic activities of the cell.

→ Chromatic contains DNA and some basic proteins called Histones.

→ Peroxysomes and Glyoxisomes are called Microbodies.

→ Active transport : Transmembrane transport requiring energy mostly as ATP.

→ Antibiotics : Antimicrobial substances produced by some microbes.

AP Inter 1st Year Botany Notes Chapter 9 Cell: The Unit of Life

→ Axoneme : The core part of a cilium or flagellum that consists of microtubules in a typical 9 + 2 array.

→ Carotenoids : Terpenoid pigments abundant in chromoplasts that impart yellow, orange or red colour.

→ Chromatin : Thread like coloured material of the eukaryotic nucleus.

→ Cytoskeleton : Elaborate network of filamentous proteinaceous structures found in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells.

→ Glycocalyx : A layer outside bacterial cell wall usually made of polysaccharides.

→ Histones : Basic proteins associated with DNA.

→ Kinetochore : Disc shaped structures located in the centromeric part of the chromosome.

→ Mesosome : Membrane infolding in some bacteria that helps in cell wall formation and DNA- replication.

→ Passive transport : Transmembrane transport not requiring energy i.e., Movement down the concentration gradient.

→ Plasmids: Small circular DNA found outside genomic DNA in many bacteria.

→ Satellite : A round terminal part of the chromosome present beyond the secondary constriction in some chromosomes.

→ Endomembrane System : A group of cell organelles with coordinated functions (ER, Golgi, lysosomes and vacuoles).

→ Thylakoids : Flattened membranous sacs present inside chloroplasts.

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