Students can go through AP Inter 1st Year Botany Notes 4th Lesson Plant Kingdom will help students in revising the entire concepts quickly.
AP Inter 1st Year Botany Notes 4th Lesson Plant Kingdom
→ Algae, Bryophytes and Pteridophytes are Nonflowering plants while Gymnosperms and Angiosperms are flowering plants.
→ Algae are chlorophyll bearing, simple thalloid, autotrophic and largely aquatic organisms.
→ At least a half of the total carbon dioxide oxidation on earth is carried out by algae through photo synthesis.
→ They Include chlorophyceea (Chlamydomonas, volvox, • spirogyra), phaeophyceae (Ectocarpus, Laminaria, Fucus), Rhodophyceae (Polysiphonia, Gracilaria)
→ Bryophytes are archegoniate, Embryophytic and atracheophytic cryptogams.
→ They are also called amphibians of plant kingdom and are primitive land plants.
→ They show heteromorphic allernation of generation and the life cycle is Haplo – diplontic.
→ They include Liver-worts, Hornworts and Mosses.
→ Pteridrophytes are embryophytic, archegoniate, vascular cryptogams.
→ They include four classes namely psilopsida lycopsida, sphenopsida and pteropsida.
→ Gymnosperms are embryophytic, trachaeophytic archegoniate, phanerogams.
→ They are divided into three classes, cycadopsida coniferopsida and Gnetopsida.
→ Angiosperms are embryophytic, non-archegoniate vascular, fruit bearing phanerogams.
→ They are divided into Dicotyledons and Monocotyledons based on the Number of cotyledons is seed.
→ Many algae such as Volvox, Spirogyra and some species of Chlamydomomas shows Haplontic life cycle.
→ Pteridophytes and all seed bearing plants show Diplo-haplontic life cycle.
→ Bryophytes, exhibit an Intermediate condition (Haplo-diplontic).
→ Anisogamy : It is the fusion of morphologically and physiologically dissimilar gametes in which both the gametes may be either motile or non-motile.
→ Archegoniates : These are Bryophytes, Pteridophytes and Gymnosperms where the female gametangium is archegonium.
→ Colonial form : In a colonial form the plant body is a colony or coenobium which is hollow at the centre and the cells are arranged in a single layer within the peripheral colonial matrix.
→ Cryptogams : These are flowerless and seedless spore plants.
→ Embryophytes : These are Bryophytes, Pteridophytes, Gymnosperms and Angiosperms consisting of embryo which develops from zygote by mitotic divisions.
→ Eusporangiate development : The sporangium develops from a group of superficial cells.
→ Gametophyte : It is the haploid, gamete producing stage or sexual stage in the life cycle of a plant.
→ Heterospory : It is the condition where different types of spores are produced by a species.
→ Homospory : It is the production of only one type of spores by a species.
→ Heterospory : It is the production of two types of spores by a species.
→ Isogamy : It is the fusion of morphologically and physiologically similar gametes.
→ Kelps : Large algal members of Phaeophyceae where the plant body is differentiated into a holdfast, stipe and lamina.
→ Leptosporangiate development : The sporangium develops from a single superficial cell.
→ Oogamy : It is the fusion of a small motile or non-motile male gamete (spermatozoid or sperm) with a large non-motile female gamete (egg or ovum).
→ Phanerogams : These are flower-bearing and seed producing tracheophytes.
→ Siphonogamy : The fusion of male gamete carried out by a pollen tube with an egg.
→ Spermatophytes : These are seed plants with or without fruits.
→ Sporophyte : It is the diploid spore producing stage or asexual stage in the life cycle of a plant.
→ Strobilus : It is a structure consisting closely packed sporophylls.
→ Syngamy : Fusion of one male gamete with the egg cell.
→ Thallus : It is a plant body which is not differentiated into roots, stem and leaves.
→ Triple fusion : Fusion of second male gamete with secondary nucleus.
→ Tracheophytes : These are Pteridophytes, Gymnosperms and Angiosperms which contain vascular tissues.
→ Zooidogamy : The fusion of motile male gamete with non-motile egg.
→ Zoospores : Flagellated motile spores.