AP State Syllabus SSC 10th Class Social Studies Solutions 19th Lesson Emerging Political Trends 1977 to 2000
10th Class Social Studies 19th Lesson Emerging Political Trends 1977 to 2000 Textbook Questions and Answers
Improve your learning
i) Economic liberalisation A) restriction in foreign import tax
ii) Arbitrary dismissal B) of state governments by central government
iii) Ethnic cleansing C) towards people who are different from themselves
iv) Federal principle D) greater autonomy for state governments
Identify the major changes in party system during the second phase of Independence.
- The second phase of Independence is from 1977 to 2000.
- There were many major changes in party system during the second phase of independence.
- It prevented India from sliding into a single party democracy.
- A new system of coalition governments are introduced at the central level.
- Coalition succumbed to fractional struggles.
- Parties acted in a manner which weakened federal principles.
- From a time when the term regional party was considered not a very respectable one, now they are much sought after. The state parties also entered into national politics.
- They form common front to resist the misuse of powers of Governor and arbitrary imposition of President’s rule.
- They also demanded greater say in national-level decision making, greater financial autonomy and low interference in state matters.
What are the major economic policies discussed in this (chapter) and the previous chapters of various governments at the centre and the state? How are they similar or different?
- Green Revolution was implemented with the co-operation of state governments to increase food grain production.
- Reservations which are announced by V.P. Singh government to OBC’s are already Implemented in South Indian States.
|Central Level Economic Policies||State Level Economic Policies|
|Nehru’s governmnet policies:||Jyothi Basu:|
|1. Implementation of Five Year Plans.||1. In West Bengal Jyothi Basu government
launched operation Barga.
|2. Land reforms, agricultural co-operatives and localself government etc.||2. As a result of operation Barga, the landlords were largely prevented from forcibly throwing the bargadars off the land.|
|3. Abolition of Zamindari system, tenancy reform and land ceilings etc.||3. The Bargadar rights were made hereditary and thus perpetual.|
|4. Green Revolution for increasings of Food-grain production.||In Andhra Pradesh N.T.R. Governments policies|
|Indira Gandhi’s policies:||1. Sale of rice at Rs. 2 per kg to poor.|
|1. Nationalisation of Private Banks and abolishing princely pensions.||2. Liquor prohibition.|
|V.P. Singh’s policies: OBC reservations.||3. Mid-day meal scheme in government schools.|
|P.V. Narasimha Rao policies:
Liberalisation of Economic policies.
|4. Provide the loans to the poor farmers through the banks.|
How did regional aspirations lead to the formation of regional parties? Compare the similarities and differences between the two different phases.
Regional aspirations have a major role in the formation of regional parties. We can show the following reasons to prove this.
The history of so many states like Andhra Pradesh, Assom shows that the emergence of new regional parties was mainly due to regional aspirations.
- The frequent change of Chief Ministers by the central congress leadership and imposition of leaders from above created a bad taste.
- There was a feeling that the Andhra Pradesh leadership was not getting respect from the national congress leadership.
- This was perceived as an insult to the pride of the Telugu people.
- From the British time, Bengalis occupied the lower and middle rungs of the administration in the state.
- The Assamese speaking people felt that Bengali officialdom did not treat them as equals but as second class citizens.
- Not only this, Bangladesh people also migrated to Assom.
- The local people felt that they would lose their cultural roots and soon be out numbered by the ‘outsiders’.
- In Punjab the difference in language and religion of the dominant population became a point of mobilisation.
- They also believed that the state had received an unfair bargain when it was created.
- It laid claims to the new capital city of Chandigarh which remained a union territory directly administered by the centre.
- Punjab also claimed more water from Bhakra Nangal dam and greater recruitment of Sikhs in the Army.
In order to form governments, it becomes necessary for political parties to attract people from different sections of society. How did different political parties raise these objectives in the
second phase after Independence?
- At the end of emergency Indira Gandhi removed censorship on freedom of movement, campaigns and meetings.
- Janata Party promised freedom from authoritarian rule and restoration of democracy.
- Telugu Desam Party promised sale of rice at ₹ 2 per kg to the poor, mid-day meals in government schools and liquor prohibition.
- Assam Gana Parishad promised to remove the outsiders i.e., Bengalis and migrants from Bangladesh.
What were the developments that weakened the inclusive nature of Indian polity? How is the ability to accommodate different communities and regional aspirations changing?
- There were a few developments that weakened the inclusive nature of Indian polity.
- After emergency the victorious Janata Party dismissed nine Congress governments in the states.
- In 1980, when Congress came to power, it dismissed nine Janata governments in the states.
- The actions of both these, weakened the inclusive nature of Indian polity.
- The people of many states felt alienated and wanted either greater autonomy or decision making.
- They demanded centre’s lower interfence in state matters, stopping the misuse of the powers of governor and imposition of President Rule arbitrarily.
How do different types of regional aspirations draw from cultural, and economic dimensions?
- In combined Andhra Pradesh, N.T.Ramarao set up Telugu Desam party and stood for the honour and self-respect of the Telugu speaking people.
- State could not be treated as a lower office of the Congress party.
- The Assamese speaking people felt that Bengali officialdom did not treat them as equal but as second class citizens.
- The local people felt that they would loose their cultural roots and soon be out numbered by the outsiders.
- Trade and other establishments were in the hands of non-Assamese communities.
- The major resources of state, including tea and oil were not benefitting the locals but people from Calcutta.
- In Punjab, people asked for greater recruitment of Sikhs in the army.
- They belive that the contribution of the state was ignored.
- They laid claim to the new capital city of Chandigarh, which remained a union territory.
In the early half of India after independence there was importance given to planned development. In the later part emphasis was given to liberalisation. Discuss and find out how does it reflect political ideals.
- In the early half of India after independence Prime Minister was Nehru.
- For Nehru planning was not only good economics but good politics as well.
- He hoped that planning development would dissolve the divisions of caste and religion, community and help India to emerge as a strong and modern nation.
- After that, Indira Gandhi gave the slogan ‘Garibi Hatao’ and decimated the opposition.
- She tried to achieve the goal of social and economic transformation.
- In 1992, when P.V. Narasimha Rao formed Government faced a dearth of reserves of foreign currency due to political instability.
- So he was forced to accept the policy of Economic liberalism.
- It demanded cuts in subsidies, reduction in restrictions and taxes on import and this period faced still competition to India from global foreign industries.
- Thus the above economic implications reflected the various political ideas discussed above.
Study newspapers and magazines to identify at least one example each of moderation in policies due to the coalition and how does different political parties in coalition emphasise their regional demands?
- United Progressive Alliance government, led by Congress brought Women Reservation Bill.
- It was unable to make it pass, as it got stern opposition from partners of a coalition like Samajwadi Party and Rashtriya Janata Dal.
- So under policy paralysis, though many times it was introduced, it had to be repeated.
- Another such bill was Lok Pal, which was primarily aimed to bring all the rulers of state and centre to be brought under it.
- But later due to the opposition from its coalition partners UPA let a number of dignatories outside its purview. The bill was passed.
- It is an example of moderation in principles.
10th Class Social Studies 19th Lesson Emerging Political Trends 1977 to 2000 InText Questions and Answers
10th Class Social Textbook Page No. 264
Write a brief summary of political events discussed about in the previous chapter on independent India.
- Congress party’s dominance in politics in first three general elections.
- Planning Commission introduced five year plans to bring socio-ecohomic change in the country.
- Land reforms, agriculture cooperatives and local self governments served the purpose.
- First challenge was demand for reorganisation of states on the basis of language.
- Have to face few wars with Pakistan and China.
- Green Revolution marked substantial growth in food production.
- There was a tendency of regional movements and regional parties.
- This phase ended with the imposition of emergency.
- Panchsheel Treaty was held between India and China.
- India followed Non-alignment policy.
- Meghalaya state was formed in 1969.
- Indo-Pak war was held in 1971 on the issue of liberation of Bangladesh.
- In 1973 Arab-lsraeli was raised oil prices, and increased inflation in India.
10th Class Social Textbook Page No. 265
Do you think ‘single party democracy’ would have been a better alternative to multi-party democracy ?
- I don’t think single party democracy would have been a better alternative to multi-party democracy.
- Single Party keeps on winning takes decisions which are arbitrary and not in compliance with Constitution.
- They may become authoritarian and over power the democracy system, itself.
- There was a greater threat for civil liberties and freedoms in single party democracies.
In what ways does a multi-party democracy create favourable conditions for social movements of protest and change ?
- A multi-party democracy creates favourable conditions for social movements of protest and change.
- JP movement supported the restoration of democracy and freedom from authoritarian rule got support from Janata Party.
- Anti-outsiders movement for change got support from Assam Gana Parishad.
- Movement for autonomy in Punjab was supported by Shiromani Akali Dal.
- Political view points of Socialists, Hindu nationalists, Communists, as well as sectional interests like those of farmers, dalits, backward castes, and regions among others now came to the fore ‘ and asserted their claims.
- A number of non-political movements like environmental movements, feminist movement, civil liberties movement, literacy movements and so on also emerged and became powerful motors of social change.
- Protects against the constructions of dams, nuclear power projects, etc.
10th Class Social Textbook Page No. 267
There have been many instances in which governments at centre removed governments at the state, if they are from different political parties. Discuss how does it violate democratic principles.
- There have been many instances in which government at the centre removed governments at state, if they are from different political parties.
- It completely violates the democratic principles.
- When there is a majority government functioning in the state it is not fair to dismiss it.
- Government at the centre misuses the powers of governors and Article 356.
10th Class Social Textbook Page No. 268
Discuss the importance of the following factors in the politics of NTR:
i. Background of being a filgi hero.
ii. Fight for self-respect of the state.
iii. Popular welfare schemes for the poor.
iv. Alliance with other regional parties.
- NTR was a popular film actor with nearly 300 movies to his credit.
- He had vast following and fan base.
- Congress leadership at the centre frequently changing Chief Ministers of Andhra Pradesh, people believed not getting respect.
- He stood for the honour and self rgspect of Telugu speaking people and started Telugu Desam Party.
- He promised mid-day meal scheme in government schools, sale of rice at ₹ 2 per kg to the poor and liquor prohibition.
- In his struggle against arbitrary dismissal he was supported by CPI(M), DMK, SAD and National Conference.
10th Class Social Textbook Page No. 270
In what ways do you think the Assom movement is similar or different from the movement of NTR in Andhra Pradesh ?
- Both the movements are of regional nature.
- Both the movements set up political parties.
- Both of them secured political power.
- Movement of NTR stood for the honour and self respect of Telugu speaking people.
- Whereas movement in Assom is against Bengalis officialdom and outsiders influx.
- NTR promised welfare measures such as midday meal scheme in schools, sale of rice ₹ 2 per kg to the poor and liquor prohibition.
- In Assom,- the movement paved the way for many such movements and even to ethnic cleansing.
Organise a debate in your class on the following themes:
Only one community should live in a region and all posts and trade-business should be in the hands of the people of that specific community only. (OR) All people of India should be free to move from one part to another and settle and work in places of their choice.
- All people of India should be free to move from one part to another and settle and work in place of their choice.
- Constitution guarantees us the above right.
- There were nearly 6,748 castes in India.
- Organise only one community in a region is almost impossible.
- All posts and trade business cannot be taken up by same community.
- India fs a country which has unity in diversity and diversity in unity.
Will an open policy of free movement of people cause rich and powerful outsiders to buy up all land and resources and leave the original people of a locality poor and impoverished ?
- Open policy of free movement may cause some rich and powerful outsiders to buy land and own resources.
- Original people of a locality may also have some native people who are rich and powerful.
- So it does never happen that outsiders leave original people of a locality poor and impoverished.
10th Class Social Textbook Page No. 272
What was the role of anti-Sikh riots of Delhi in 1984 in fuelling Sikh separatism and extremism?
- 4 thousand Sikhs were killed and state government seemed to do little to stop the violence.
- To apprehend and punish the guilt also took many years.
- This created anguish and anger among the Sikhs.
- Militant Sikhs killed Longoyyal, who made agreement with centre.
- Akal Takht made declaration of Khalistan.
- Several groups engaged in terrorist activities for separate state.
- This anti-Sikh riots of Delhi in 1984 fuelled Sikh separation and extremism.
Compare the similarities and differences between Assam and Punjab movements. What kind of challenge did they pose to our political system ?
- Assam movement was first anti-outsiders movement then transformed into anti-Bengali, anti¬left and anti-non-Assamese movement and even anti-India stand.
- It did not subside, even led to ethnic cleansing.
- Punjab movement went into the hands of militant Sikhs.
- Anti-Sikh riots and after effected culminated the movement into extremist way.
- These two movements needed army to restore peace.
- Military powers were used and civil liberties and freedoms were suspended.
- They posed a great threat to our unity and integrity.
The way the government handled the two problems, did it strengthen our democratic polity or weaken it ?
- The way the government handled the two problems, it did not strengthen our democratic polity, it weakens it.
- Government used very harsh methods for the suppression of militancy in Punjab.
- There were thousands of suspected militants executed.
- Many were disappeared in police custody.
- In Assam also army was deployed to reduce tension and bring peace.
- Civil liberties and freedoms were suspended.
- Government resorted to undemocratic methods to survive democracy.
- It would strengthen undemocratic tendencies in the polity.
10th Class Social Textbook Page No. 273
Looking back from the present, what do you think were the lasting contributions of Rajiv Gandhi to the country ?
- There were many lasting contributions of Rajiv Gandhi to the country.
- He was instrumental in initiating peace process in Assam, Punjab and even in Sri Lanka.
- He was the best supporter of Panchayat Raj institutions.
- His government’s first budget moved towards more liberalised system.
- He invited telecom revolution in India.
- He believed poor are not successful in getting access to the fruits of development.
Discuss in your class why the poorest people often do not get to benefit from schemes intended for them. What long-term steps should be taken to ensure that such benefits really reach the poor ?
- The poorest people often do not get to benefit from schemes intended for them.
- Despite huge increases in development expenditure, the story of the poor remained the same.
- They have no access to the schemes or knowledge of them.
- There exists inbuilt corruption at higher level.
- Participation of mass in governance is very low.
- So Panchayat Raj Institutions were introduced.
- Right Information Act was made available.
- Whistle blowers were given complete protection.
Find out and list all the benefits students of your school are entitled to. Do they manage to get them properly? Discuss in both the class and outside the school in your homes or playground.
Benefits of our school:
- Free textbooks
- Free uniform
- Library facility
- Play ground facility
- Lab facilities
- Mid-day meals.
They do manage to get them properly.
10th Class Social Textbook Page No. 274
Read the following and answer the given questions.
The Prime Ministers Apology
Dr. Manmohan Singh’s statement in the Rajya Sabha
… Four thousand people were killed in this great national tragedy that took place in 1984. This should be an occasion for introspection, how working together as a united nation, we can find new pathways to ensure that such ghastly tragedies never again take place in our country. … / have no hesitation in apologising not only to the Sikh community but the whole Indian nation because what took place in 1984 is the negation of the concept of nationhood and what is enshrined in our Constitution. So, I am not standing on any false prestige. On behalf of our Government, on behalf of the entire people of this country, I bow my head in shame that such a thing took place. But, Sir, there are ebbs, there are tides in the affairs of nations. The past is with us. We cannot rewrite the past. But as human beings, we have the willpower and we have the ability to write better future for all of us….
a) What is the most important message in this speech?
Prime Minister apologises for what happened to Sikhs in 1984.
b) What signals does this speech send out?
The speech sends out the signals such tragedies could never repeat, we can make our future better by letting this behind us.
c) Why is it important that the Prime Minister made this speech?
What took place in 1984 is the negation of the concept of nationhood and what is enshrined in our constitution. So it is important that Prime Minister made this speech.
10th Class Social Textbook Page No. 276
While some people feel that coalition politics has weakened the government others feel that it has prevented any party from steamrolling its agenda on the country. Discuss this with examples.
- It became mere impossible for any single party to win a majority of the seats to form government on its own.
- No party could pursue its extreme agendas and tone down their approaches.
- Early coalitions were instable.
- Now coalitions are getting re-elected.
- So keeping ail in the view coalitions are must.
- They are preventing any party from steamrolling its agenda on the country.
10th Class Social Textbook Page No. 277
Compare the land reforms in West Bengal and the land reforms in Vietnam or China. In what ways were they similar or different ?
Land Reforms in China: The major steps in land reforms were a class identification of all village inhabitants, followed by the confiscation and redistribution of landlord land and other properties. Land Reforms in Vietnam : A reduction of 25% in land rents, the cancellation of all secondary rents and the cancellation of all areas in rent owed by tenants before August, 1945.
Land Reforms in West Bengal: Operation Barga was introduced. West Bengal Government recorded the names of the sharecroppers and secured their rights. All the legal documents were issued and distributed on the spot immediately. As a result the sharecroppers felt secured.
In all the three issues the governments created a security feeling in the winds of the tenants. They controlled the inhumane acts of the landlords.
Why do you think the protection of sharecroppers led to an increase in production?
As a result of Operation Barga, the landlords were largely prevented from forcibly throwing the bargadars off the land. In fact, the bargadar rights were made hereditary and thus perpetual. Secondly, the State guaranteed that the bargadars would receive a fair share of the crop (75 per cent if the bargadar provided the non-labour inputs and 50 per cent if the landlord provides those inputs). In all, approximately half of rural households in West Bengal have received land reform benefits.
As a result of these measures, agricultural production in West Bengal had increased.