AP State Syllabus SSC 10th Class Social Studies Solutions 20th Lesson Post – War World and India
10th Class Social Studies 20th Lesson Post – War World and India Textbook Questions and Answers
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Choose the correct answer: Which among the following statements about the Cold War is wrong?
a) Rivalry between the US and the USSR,
b) The USA and the USSR engaged in direct war,
c) Triggering off an arms race,
d) An ideological war between the two super powers.
b) The USA and the USSR engaged in direct war.
Who amongst the following is not involved in The West Asian crisis?
What was the nature of shift in power in the world after the Second World War?
- The Second World War had been fought on the principles of peace, democracy and freedom of nations in contrast to the Nazi ideas of dictatorship and imperialism.
- After the war colonial powers like Britain and France could no longer justify their old colonial powers exclusive access to the colonies.
- In fact, Second World War helped the USA grow out of its economic misery caused by the great depression.
- Far from War theatres, the industries and agriculture of the USA prospered.
- The USSR coming out of its destruction was emerging as a Champion of anticolonial struggle.
- In the post-war period the USA and the USSR have emerged as super powers.
- The USA is the leader of the capitalist nations and the USSR is the leader of the communist nations.
After the Second World War, the major shift in power is observed between two power blocs of USA and USSR.
- The USA led an Anti – communist bloc based on capitalistic principles. It tried to prevent other countries from adopting communism.
- The USSR led a communist bloc. It tried to bring other countries into its communist influence.
- Both USA and USSR tried to expand their ideologies and check each other, resulted in the situation of cold war.
- Newly independent countries formed an alliance called NAM that stood independently in international aspects away from both military blocs.
What are the different roles done by United Nations in order to build peace in the world?
- The UN started with a twin objectives of ensuring peace ever lasting and human development.
- Charter emphasised on the need to preserve peace and prevent wars.
- It recognised the autonomy of states and promised not to interfere in any internal affairs of country.
- In cases of serious human rights violation or threat to world peace, the UN interferes.
- Decisions relating to war and peace are taken in Security Council.
- UN has forced great powers to exercise moderation and self-control.
- The special powers to great powers is a special role and responsibility in preserving world peace.
- UN has been less successful in preventing wars.
Given the idea of democracy do you think a few countries should have special powers in making the decisions?
- Given the idea of democracy, also, I think a few countries should have special powers in making decisions.
- The very existence of forums like UN has forced great powers to exercise moderation and self-control.
- The special powers also have given the great powers a special role and responsibility in preserving world peace.
- At times, these powers may be used to block any action against them.
- Sometimes these powers save many countries and territories of theirs. As all four permanent members intended to annex Kashmir to Pakistan. Russia used veto power to stop it and did the favour to India.
Given the idea of democracy, I think a few countries should have special powers in making the decisions is not correct. This is opposite to concept of democracy.
How were the super powers benefited by military alliances?
- Super powers strengthened themselves by creating military alliances.
- They maintained a constrained relationship acting as a deterrent on each other.
- With alliances they expanded their influence.
- They gained the access to the vital resources like oil and minerals.
- They have markets for their products and places to invest safely their capital.
- They got military bases to launch their troops and weapons.
- They could spread their ideology.
- They gain economic support to pay huge military expenses.
How did Cold War produce arms race as well as arms control?
- Both the USSR and the USA spent huge amounts of money to conduct research into weapons.
- They build arsenals of devastating nuclear arms and missiles.
- They could strike across the continents.
- They had enough nuclear arms to destroy the entire earth many times over.
- Gradually their allies like Britain, France and China too built nuclear arsenals.
- People of all countries lived in constant fear of war.
- Many times war looked imminent but got defused somehow through diplomacy.
- There were many flash points which made everyone believe of the triggering off another world war.
- But when both ultimately realised the implication of a nuclear war both started working for arms control and many arms control treaties were signed like CTBT, NPT, etc.
- Both decided to follow the logic of deterrence which meant that both have the capacity to attack and cause so much destruction to threaten the existence of the other. But neither is willing to start the war due to the amount of destruction.
Why did West Asia become a center of tensions in the world?
- West Asia became a center of tensions in the world.
- The conflicts that developed between Arabs and Jews are the main cause for it.
- In Palestine is situated Jerusalem which is a holy city for Jews, Christians and Muslims alike.
- Jews and Arabs want it at any cost.
- Matters were also complicated by the discovery of massive oil reserves.
- Both the US and the USSR wanted to bring it under their sphere of influence.
- In 1947, UN created Jerusalem for Jews from Palestine.
- Arabs refused to recognize it as a legitimate state.
- Israel took policies that insulted Arabs.
- Arabs formed suicide squads for causing explosions in public places.
- The region has been constantly in a state of war and terrorist attacks.
By the end of the 20th century there is only one single power that dominates the world. In this context what do you think would be the role of NAM?
- In the current scenario the USA remains a major super-power and China is in the process of becoming the biggest threat to the US supremacy of world affairs. Russia is also slowly climbing back, for its joint policy of respecting anti-US policy in the security council, by the use of the veto along with China.
- The Nam has in recent years often criticised the USA while backing self-determination of Puerto Rico and Western Sahara. It can play a strong role in devising methods to foster co-operation among these nations.
- The Nam can also act as a guide and over seen of the condition of Human Rights in some of the member states who have rather poor human rights records.
- NAM is a great way to ensure that issues like Palestine and crises in Somalia and Sudan get a fair and long-lasting solution and that the super-powers don’t unduly interfere in these issues to meet their vested interest. Thus NAM exists and will continue to exist as a strong organisation to reckon with.
“Formation of NAM was not merely in the context of military alliances but also in the context of economic policies” Justify the statement.
- Non Alignment was established as an international organisation with an aim to promote cultural and economic cooperation among the newly independent countries of Asia, Africa and Latin America.
- NAM helped the newly independent nations assert their autonomy in international affairs in a world torn between the two super powers.
- NAM summit at Algiers in 1973 resolved to constitute 5 different trusts to strengthen the economic development of non aligned countries and assist in their reconstruction activities.
- In the Hawana summit conference in 1979 it also appealed to take measures to minimise the economic differences between the developed and under developed countries.
- Thus, it also worked for economical development of NAM countries.
- During 1970s and early 1980s, the NAM also sponsored campaigns for restructuring commercial relations between developed and developing nations, namely the NIEO.
- The Djakarta Summit 1992 allowed the movement to shift its focus in a direction that also enabled it to work a cross to grouping such as the G-7 and the EU.
Make a table to show relation between India and neighbouring countires with following items :
|Neighbouring Country||Issues of Conflicts||Events of War||Events of Help and Cooperation|
|China||Tibet to be a buffer zone but China annexed India gave an asylum to Dalai Lama Aksai-Chin area and much of Arunachal Pradesh – China claims it is its.||1962 October China invaded unilaterally Even declared unilateral ceasefire.||Strategic as well as economic advantages. Two are rising powers of Asia. Ambitious major world economic power. Peace and tranquility at borders.|
|Pakistan||Kashmir is the main bone of contention.||1947-48 regarding Kashmir.
1965 regarding Kashmir.
Dec. 1971 Liberation of East Pakistan 1999 Kargil War.
|Build bridges of friendship through trade, sports, films, tourism and cultural exchanges. Secularism, democracy and freedom will enable a greater understanding and cooperation between the people of two countries.|
|Bangladesh||Sharing of river waters of Ganga and Brahmaputra.Large scale illegal migration from Bangladesh to India. Bangladesh opposed fencing of border||No war||Cooperation in economic front. Indian look East policy makes Bangladesh integral part. Cooperation on disaster management. Bangladesh rewarded many Indians helped in war.|
|Sri Lanka||Treatment of Tamil speaking minorities by Sri Lanka.
Influx of Sri Lanka Tamils to India.
|No war||Cultural, ethnic and economic relations. Peace maintenance agreement between India & Sri Lanka.|
“The ethnic conflicts affected India’s relations with Sri Lanka.” Justify.
- Since times immemorial, India and Sri Lanka have cultural, ethnic and economic relations.
- A major irritant in the relation between the two countries has been the treatment of Tamil speaking minorities by the Sri Lankan government.
- The large scale influx of Sri Lankan Tamil refugees into India posed a special problem.
- India made an agreement with Sri Lanka and Tamil militants to maintain peace on the land.
- India sent its armies to keep peace in Sri Lanka and it caused the assassination of Rajiv Gandhi.
- Thus, ethnic conflicts affected India’s relations with Sri Lanka.
10th Class Social Studies 20th Lesson Post – War World and India InText Questions and Answers
10th Class Social Textbook Page No. 283
What do you understand by the term ‘decolonisation’?
- During 18th and 19th centuries, some European countries set up colonies in Asia, Africa and Latin America.
- They used those colonies as cheap raw material suppliers and market for their finished goods.
- They waged World War keeping control over their colonies.
- After the Second World War, colonial powers like Britain and France could no longer justify their old colonial policies.
- Under these conditions old powers like Britain had no choice but to grant freedom to their old colonies.
- This granting of freedom to old colonies is called ‘decolonisation1.
How do you think the newly free countries would have been influenced by the competition between the two power blocs?
- After the Second World War, colonial states granted freedom to their colonies.
- As these countries became free they faced a world greatly torn between Capitalism and Communism.
- They were continuously under the pressure to choose between the two rather than follow their own paths of development.
- They also got an opportunity to negotiate by playing one power against the other.
- Thus, the newly free countries would have been influenced by the competition between two power blocs.
10th Class Social Textbook Page No. 284
Do you think wars are related to poverty, lack of equitable development and cultural exchanges between countries?
Yes, I think that wars are related to poverty, lack of equitable development and cultural exchange between countries.
- I don’t think wars are related to poverty, lack of equitable development and cultural exchanges between countries.
- Most of the wars are fought for ideological differences, colonial advantages and occupation of other territories as an achievement.
- Every country fought or allied with it has its own calculations and agenda.
- Though with the central groups, Italy fought against Germany in the 1st World War.
- Though made a peace treaty with Russia, Hitler invaded it during the second World War.
- Wars may to some extent help for the cultural exchanges between the countries.
According to some the special powers given to the five powers is undemocratic and should be abolished while some others feel that if these powers do not have special powers the UNO cannot function smoothly. Discuss.
- Decisions relating to war and peace are taken in Security Council and five nations have special status within it.
- Any decision taken by council can be vetoed by the intervention of even anyone of these countries.
- However, the very existence of UN, has forced great powers to exercise moderation and self control.
- The special powers also have given the great powers a special role and responsibility in preserving world peace.
- So, I support the view that if these powers do not have special powers the UNO cannot function smoothly.
10th Class Social Textbook Page No. 289
What was the main purpose of 1955 Bandung conference?
- The leaders of newly independent states felt the need for a change from the insecure and tense situation caused by power blocs.
- So in 1955 at Bandung in Indonesia a conference was held.
- It was the first Afro-Asian conference represented by 29 nations.
- Its aim was to promote cultural and economic cooperation among the newly independent countries of Asia, Africa and Latin America.
How did super powers react for the principles of Non-alignment?
- NAM helped the newly emerging countries to bargain for space and assistance from the super powers by playing one against the other.
- To some extent it also ease tensions amongst the NAM countries.
- Both the blocs looked at NAM with suspicion.
- The US regarded the NAM as being closer to the USSR on wider international issues.
- When Soviet invaded Afghanistan NAM could not stop it.
- Thus, the super powers reacted for the principles of Non Alignment Movement.
Why were Non-Aligned Nations called third world countries?
- After the Second World War the world divided into 2 power blocs under the USA and the USSR.
- So these two are considered two different worlds.
- Many countries were newly emerged as countries, which were before the colonies of colonial states.
- All of these countries joined Non-Alignment Movement.
- So these Non Aligned Nations were called ‘third world’.
10th Class Social Textbook Page No. 291
What were the reasons for the conflict between Arabs and Israelites?
- The conflict between Arabs and Jews is mainly related to the occupation of Palestine.
- In it is situated Jerusalem which is a holy city for Jews, Christians and Muslims alike.
- The Jews considered Palestine as their Promised Land.
- In Europe they were the persecuted community as Christians considered them responsible for the crucifixion of Jesus.
- The Jews through ‘Zionist Movement’ trying to unite Jews over the world.
- The discovery of massive oil reserves made the US and the USSR to enter the dispute.
Why did Egypt support the Palestinians during the conflict?
- In 1947 UN divided Palestine and created Israel for Jews.
- The Arabs did not agree to giving up their homeland.
- The Arabs were forced to leave their homes and properties in Israel and refugees to Arab states.
- Egypt formed suicide squads to cause explosion in Israel.
- Egyptians are also Arabs, that’s why they are vengeful.
Why do you think some Palestinians adopted the path of terrorism? What was its outcome?
- Israelites forced Arabs out of their homes and properties.
- Egyptians caused explosions in public places in Israel to support Arabs.
- These were attacks and counter attacks between Israel and Egypt.
- Israel occupied the territories of Gaza, Golan Heights and the West Bank.
- Palestinian Liberation Organisation led by Yasser Arafat started in Jordan carried out plane hijacking holding hostage of Israeli Olympic squad and killing many of the sportspersons.
- The result is Israel used such attacks to mount further attacks on them and refused to implement the promises it had made.
Find out about the condition of Palestinians who are living in refugee camps and constantly facing warfare and poverty.
- The condition of Palestinians who are living in refuge camps are very pitiable.
- They are constantly facing warfare and poverty.
- Refugee camps are not providing them sufficient facilities to lead a happy life.
- Palestinians became the victims of world politics, especially of the super powers.
- The Palestinian are still fighting for their homeland and peace under very difficult conditions of exile and warfare.
- Though with the intervention of UN, the problems are not yet solved.
10th Class Social Textbook Page No. 292
What are the similarities and difference between Arab Socialist Nationalism and Religious Nationalism?
|Arab Socialist Nationalism||Religious Nationalism|
|1. In 1968 a coup took place in Iraq in which Saddam Hussein came to power.||1. In many cases the opposition to the US and the US backed regimes took religious colours.|
|2. They meant by socialism, the nationalization of oil resources and the use of revenues by the state to fund welfare measures for the citizens.||2. Nationalist forces fostered the idea of establishing religious orthodaxy in those countries.|
|3. These combined welfare measures with autocratic and dictatorial rule of a ruler or a smail group.||3. In 1979 in Iran a new joint government of Shia Islamic clerics and elected leaders started.|
|4. These regimes did not allow opposition or democratic protest against themselves.||4. Beginning of the 21st century witnessed growing discontent among the Arabs resulted in the growth of religious terrorism.|
Find out more about the developments in Iran and Afghanistan under the Taliban to understand how religious states work.
- The Taliban which took over Afghanistan after the withdrawal of Soviet troops established an extremist Islamic state.
- These states tried to force all people to strictly follow the rules laid down in religious texts.
- In many cases they meant the denial of basic freedom and equality of opportunity to women and to religious minorities.
- The beginning of the 21st century witnessed growing discontent among the Arabs which resulted in the growth of religious terrorism.
- Some Arab terrorists hijacked 2 aircrafts in the US and crashed into the World Trade Centre in New York killing thousands of people.
The offical religion of the Islamic Republic of Iran is “Shiaism”. Iran explicitly aims to support and lead the entire Muslim world. The Shariah provides all the laws needed for the Islamic state from Allah.
10th Class Social Textbook Page No. 293
Explain the terms bipolarity and unipolarity.
- The term polarity refers to the world that was divided between two power blocs.
- It was the period between 1945 and 1991.
- The two power blocs are Communist power block under USSR and democratic Capitalist power bloc under USA. This, situation is called as bipolarity.
- But in the year 1991 USSR was disintegrated and Russia was no more a super power.
- From 1991 the world became unipolar i.e., one super power, America.
- These are the different terms of bipolarity and unipolarity.
10th Class Social Textbook Page No. 294
15. Read the passage on Page 293 (During the colonial resolved till today.) and answer the following questions.
a. Do you think it was correct for India to give refuge to the Dalai Lama and his Tibetan followers?
- I think it is correct for India to give refuge to Dalai Lama and his Tibetan followers.
- China overpowered the Tibet and eschewed its sovereignty.
- Dalai Lama and his Tibetan followers are fighting for their autonomy.
- According to Panchsheel, China agreed to not interfere into the sovereignty of other countries.
- It violated the agreement and annexed Tibet.
b. Do you think China was justified in wanting to control Tibet?
- I don’t think China was justified in wanting to control Tibet.
- It may believe that a small sovereign country in the neighborhood may be a threat.
- Opponents may bring it in their control or under their sphere of influence.
- So it might have overpowered it and annexed.
- Its action, anyway, was not justified.
To what extent do you think both the countries can forget about their past conflicts over the boundaries and develop meaningful cooperation and friendship?
- After the 1962 Indo-Chinese war, it took more than a decade to restore diplomatic normalcy.
- Being rising powers of Asia, both have strategic as well as economic advantages.
- Both are ambitious to be major world economic and political powers.
- They also see each other as economic and political competitors.
- Both have taken measure to maintain peace and tranquility at the borders.
- So they have to forget about their post conflicts over borders and develop meaningful friendship and cooperation.
10th Class Social Textbook Page No. 296
What steps do you think both India and Pakistan should take to build lasting peace between the two countries?
- First India and Pakistan should leave the conflicts behind which were perpetual right from the partition.
- They should seek the help of UN over the issue of Kashmir and agree for mutual amicable settlement.
- Pakistan should stop her religious terrorism and trained militant infiltration into India.
- Pakistan should keep herself away from theocratic rule and military coups and belief should be kept in elections and democracy.
- Both countries should continue with all present trade, economic, cultural, sports, film, etc. relations. In addition to, help each other in combating terrorism, eradication of poverty, assistance in technology, medicine, etc.
Why is peace between India and Pakistan necessary for the development of both the countries?
Why the peace between India and Pakistan is necessary for the development of both the countries? Explain, keeping in view the recent developments.
- Peace between India and Pakistan is necessary for the development of both the countries.
- Both of them are spending huge amounts on defence and strategic nuclear arsenal.
- The division of the country itself created mistrust among the countries and it is mounted now.
- For social, political and economical development of the both the countries, peace should be established between them.
Many small countries feel that their larger neighbours act like ‘big brothers’. What do you think is meant by this?
- Many small countries feel that their neighbours act like ‘big brothers’.
- They meant that larger neighbours are trying to control them.
- They feel that neighbours are doing this to pretend that they are doing it for the benefit of small country.
- They meant that ‘Big brother’ is watching them i.e., Big brother knew what small countries did.
- Thus, small countries treat their larger neighbours as’Big brothers’.
This means the larger neighbouring countries will work for the good of the small countries as a family members.
Look at the map of India and Bangladesh and see why cooperation between the two countries is of vital importance to both.
- Bangladesh is surrounded by Indian states.
- In between many Indian states there is Bangladesh.
- So there should be cooperation between the two countries.
- It is of vital importance for both the countries.
10th Class Social Textbook Page No. 297
Compare the support of India to Bangladesh and its role in Sri Lanka – Do you think the situation was similar or different?
- Bangladesh, erstwhile East Pakistan is physically distant from parent West Pakistan.
- The people led a liberation movement nearly for 8 months and then India supported her cause.
- Thus, Bangladesh was formed as new nation.
- Whereas the situation in Sri Lanka is different.
- Indian Tamils, an integral part of Sri Lanka but were meted out injustice based on their language and race.
- The interference of India was not appreciated by both Sri Lanka government and the Tamils fighting for their rights.
- So, the situation in Sri Lanka is different from that of Bangladesh.