AP State Board Syllabus AP SSC 10th Class Biology Solutions Chapter 10 Natural Resources Textbook Questions and Answers.
AP State Syllabus SSC 10th Class Biology Solutions 10th Lesson Natural Resources
10th Class Biology 10th Lesson Natural Resources Textbook Questions and Answers
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The BP Statistical Review of World Energy in June measured total global oil at 188.8 million tonnes, from proved oil resources at the end of 2010. This is only enough for oil to last for the next 46.2 years. What measures should be taken to conserve oil? What will happen if we do not conserve it?
Measures to be taken to conserve oil are:
- Walk, ride a bike, carpool and use public transportation whenever possible.
- Prefer public transport system like bus or train instead of travelling in personal vehicles.
- Choose materials other than plastic which uses crude oil for household items.
- Use cloth or paper bags instead of plastic bags when shopping.
- Use organic fertilizers for agriculture and gardening because fossil fuels are used in making chemical fertilizers.
- Produce renewable biofuels to power cars and trucks.
- Vehicle owners should keep their vehicles serviced i.e., correct amount of air in fires, oil change, spark plug/fuel injector checks, often-at least quarterly.
- Drive in the correct gear. Incorrect gear shifting can lead to as much as 20% increase in fuel consumption.
- Consider a hybrid vehicle or an electric vehicle.
If we do not conserve oil, we never get oil after 46-47 years. So all the industries that depend on the oil for energy will break down. Facilities linked with oil will be hampered. So the future generations will suffer.
Here is a news strip, read it carefully and answer the following questions.
Villagers oppose sand mining project Santhabommali (Srikakulam):
People of more than 20 villages in two mandals of Srikakulam have raised a banner of revolt against the proposed beach sand mining project by o private company and threatened to intensify their agitation if the government does not cancel the project. The sand mining is being taken up to extract rich minerals from the area. The villages are located around the forest belt were mining was initiated.
i) Do you think the villagers are doing the right thing to agitate? Why?
Yes, the villagers are doing a right thing to agitate. Because beach sand mining leads to certain problems such as –
- Destruction of natural beaches and ecosystems.
- Habitat loss for globally important species such as turtles, shore birds, etc.
- Destruction of nearshore marine ecosystems.
- Increased shoreline erosion rates.
- Reduced protection from storms, tsunamis and wave events.
- Economic losses through tourist abandonment.
- Loss of coastal aesthetics and
- Increased saline water intrusion.
The threats posed by sand mining are made even more critical given the prospect of a significant rise in global sea level over the coming decades,
ii) What resources are the villagers trying to save by their agitation?
- Villagers can save the biodiversity of the area by agitating.
- They can save flora like mangroves and fauna like turtles, gharials (a species of crocodiles) etc.
iii) Will the villagers be benefited by the rich minerals extracted from sand?
- No, the villagers will not be benefitted by the rich minerals extracted from sand.
- Extraction of minerals may provide employment for few people in that area but most of the local people who are depending on fishing for their livelihood may lose their livelihood as the sand mining brings some disturbances in the ecosystem.
iv) Why does the private company want to carry out mining in the area?
Private company wants to carry out mining in that area, for the rich minerals like Titanium and Zirconium. That can be extracted from the sand in the beaches.
v) Does the government have any role to play?
- The government’s role is very important in this regard.
- It has to make some laws to protect the beaches and their biodiversity.
- These laws should be implemented very carefully.
- Indiscriminate and unlawful mining should be prohibited strictly.
vi) How will mining in that piece of land affect people of the area?
Mining in that piece of land affects people of the area in many ways.
- People who depend on tourism may lose their livelihood.
- People who depend on fishing and other natural products may also lose their livelihood.
- They may not get proper drinking water due to increased saline water intrusion
- They may get severe loss whenever natural calamities like tsunamis and storms occur due to reduced protection.
- In severe cases they have to leave that place due to increased soil erosion and deepening of seashore.
What is sustainable development? How is it useful in natural resource management?
Sustainable development: When we use the environment in ways that ensure we have resources for the future, it is called sustainable development.
Useful in natural resources management:
- Sustainable development ensures the judicial management of natural resources.
- It helps in optimum utilization of alternative resources and renewable resources.
- Thus it helps in decreasing the ever increasing demand for fossil fuels and non-renewable resources.
- Sustainable development practices will give more scope for planning new methods of natural resource management.
Write a detailed note on management of a natural resource.
- Natural resource management refers to the management of natural resources such as land, water, soil, plants and animals, with a particular focus on how management affects the quality of life for both present and future generations.
- The main goal of natural resource management is sustainability – balancing social, economic and environmental factors to make sure that our children and grandchildren can equally benefit from our natural resources.
- Our social, economic and environmental well-being depends on the sustainable management of natural resources.
- Natural resource management deals with managing the way in which people and natural landscapes interact.
- It brings together land use planning, water management, biodiversity conservation and the future sustainability of industries like agriculture, mining, tourism, fisheries and forestry.
- Natural resource management specifically focuses on a scientific and technical understanding of resources and ecology and the life-supporting capacity of those resources.
- The various approaches applied to natural resource management include
a) Command and control
b) Community-based natural resource management
c) Adaptive management
d) Precautionary approach and
e) Integrated natural resource management
- Reduce, Reuse and Recycle are the key concepts for Natural resource management.
Suggest some ways of reusing a resource in your locality.
Reusing of a resource (water) in our locality :
- Washing hands in the garden.
- Washing machine rinse water can be used for toilet flushing and floor cleaning.
- Water from washing of fruits and vegetables can be used to water plants.
- Laundry water can be reused to clean the cars.
- Even the drain water can also be recycled.
- After purification recycled water can be used for agriculture.
- Recycled water can be used to cool down the machinery in the industries.
- Once used water can be used to recharge the ground water.
Once used water can be used again like this to conserve the water resource.
Why should we conserve forests and wildlife?
We should conserve forests and wildlife for the following reasons.
- These are the rich habitat for plants and animals (wildlife).
- Forests are needed for the smooth functioning of biogeochemical cycles.
- Forests are necessary for the formation of humus and for maintaining soil fertility.
- Forests serve as lung for the world. They purify air and protect the earth from greenhouse effect and global warming.
- Many industries such as sport equipment, paper, lac manufacturing, timber and furniture etc., depend on forests.
- Forests and wildlife provide many fruits, medicines, dyes, sandal wood, bamboo, etc.
- Forests provide employment to a large number of people and also help in generating revenue.
- Wildlife act as ‘gene bank’.
- Conservation of wildlife ensuring that all diverse species in an area survive, breed and flourish.
- Conservation of forests and wildlife is vital for the ecological stability of a particular area.
Suggest some approaches towards the conservation of forests.
The approaches towards the conservation of forests.
- Sustainable forestry methods should be adapted.
- Avoiding certain logging techniques such as removing all the high-value trees or all the largest trees from a forest should be avoided.
- There should be proper laws for the exploitation of forest resources.
- People should be made more aware about the importance of forests.
- All possible forest should be announced as the reserve forests.
- Participation of local people and villagers must be taken in the conservation of forests and they should be given proper employment.
- Over exploitation by industrial groups and due to the activities of tourist depart¬ment should be checked.
- There should be incentives and rewards for the efforts made by the people towards the conservation of forests.
- Overgrazing of forest vegetation by the cattle of local people should be prevented.
- Measures should be taken to prevent and control forest fires.
Natural resources are decreased more rapidly. Guess what will be the consequences.
What are the consequences of depletion of natural resources?
The consequences of rapid decrease of Natural resources.
- The resources scarcity will arise shortly and demand for them will increase.
- Future generations may not get these resources.
- Vehicles running with fossil fuels become useless.
- All the industries that depend on these sources will shutdown.
- Electricity production through these sources will be stopped. So we have to stay in dark during night.
- All the utensils and other articles should be made out of recycled materials.
- Balance in the nature will be disturbed due to decrease in these sources like forest and biodiversity.
- We have to search for other sources as the alternative for these resources.
Prepare a questionnaire to conduct interview with petrol filling station personnel about consumption of fossil fuels. (OR)
What questions are you going to ask petrol-filling personnel about consumption of fossil fuels?
Questionnaire to conduct interview with petrol filling station personnel about the consumption of fossil fuels:
- What is the name of the filling station?
- Where is it located (landmark)?
- How many litres of petrol is being imported everyday or week or month?
- How many litres of diesel is being imported?
- How many two wheelers are being filled everyday here?
- How many autos are being filled everyday here?
- How many lour wheelers are being filled everyday here?
- How many litres of petrol is being sold per day in this filling station?
- How many litres of diesel is being sold per day in this filling station?
- What is the total amount of fossil fuel consumed by the people through this filling station per month?
- Why the rates of petrol and diesel changing everyday?
Prepare model for rain water harvesting or energy saving or soil management. That reflect your innovative thoughts.
Rain Water Harvesting:
Procedure to prepare a model for rain water harvesting:
- Make a model of a house with roof little slanting towards one side.
- Connect a tube/pipe to the down end such that the rain water that falls on roof can be collected.
- Connect the other end of this tube to a barrel like structure which can be used as storage tank.
- From the tank arrange a tube towards the garden along with a valve that can be closed and opened.
- Arrange one more tube with valve into a recharge pit or percolation pit arranged at one corner.
- Arrange a tap to the tank that can be opened to collect the water for cleaning floor, vehicles etc.
- During rain, water from roof can be collected into tank and we can utilize it later for gardening or cleaning purposes.
- When water is in excess it can be used to recharge underground water.
List out names of villages, farmers and procedure followed to the restoration of any natural resource in your area.
How villagers and farmers of your village restore natural resources in your area?
|S.No.||Village name||Farmer’s name||Procedure followed to restoration of natural resources|
|1.||Kandlagunta||Ch. Ramaiah||Constructed recharge pits to restore under – ground water.|
|2.||Kotappakonda||B.Bangar Raju||Constructed check dams to restore under – ground water.|
|3.||Reddy Palem||T. Ranganadh||Recharged the well by building dykes in the nalla.|
|4.||Uppalapadu||R. Sundaram||Motivated the villagers to construct percolation pits.|
|5.||Nagaram Palem||D. Raja Reddy||Removed silt from the tank.|
You might have heard the Natural Gas drillings near Kakinada by ONGC (Oil and Natural Gas Corporation). Collect information and prepare a note on the status of Gas production at the basin.
- Presently ONGC producing gas at the rate of 3.05 MMM3 / day to 4.0 MMM3 / day.
- ONGC, GSPC, Reliance Industries are companies exploring oil and natural gas in this region.
- GAIL is marketing and distributing the natural gas through gas collection station.
- ONGC is associated with GAIL, in planning the additional facilities and technical inputs needed for the future enhanced gas supplies.
- ONGC has established mini oil refinery at Tatipaka.
- Total allocation of natural gas from K.G. area is 8.5 MMM3 / day.
- ONGC has already projected a production potential of 6.5 MMM3 / day of availability of which entire quantity has been allocated to the industrial consume of the area.
- 16 Industries are actively using Natural gas investing Rs. 5500 crores are working well for power generation, steel re-rolling, producing fertilizers, etc. and some power projections are almost invested Rs. 4000 crores and waiting for a supply of Natural gas.
Does your village or nearest city have a mechanism in place for recycling these waste materials? Find out how it is done and write in detail.
Near to our village, there is a center that recycles paper waste. Here the waste paper is recycled in the following way.
- Waste paper is collected from various sources.
- This paper is taken to the recycling plant where it is separated into types and grades.
- The separated paper is then washed with soapy water to remove inks, plastic film, staples and glue.
- The paper is put into a large holder where it is mixed with water to create slurry.
- By adding different materials to the slurry different paper products can be created, such as cardboard, newsprints or office paper.
- The slurry is spread using large rollers into large thin sheets.
- The paper is left to dry.
- Then it is rolled up, ready to be cut and sent to the shops.
Plastic Recycling process:
Stage – 1: Plastic needs to collected by the recycling company. Once plastic arise recycling plant, the first stage is to sort the plastic into specific types because plastic recycling is more complex than of other metals like glass or paper. Due to many different types of plastic, mixed plastic cannot be used in manufacturing without delivering poor quality products.
Stage – 2: Once the waste plastic is identified and separated, the cleaning process will begin. This starts with washing to remove paper labels, adhesives and other impurities to be completely removed as this lowers the quality of recyclic plastic.
Stage – 3: The shredding stage is when the plastic is taken and loaded on to conveyor belts or directly into huge hoppers, that funnel the clean scrap towards rotating metal teeth that rip the plastic into small pellets which are bagged up and ready for testing.
Stage – 4: Identify and classify the plastic: Once the shredded plastic has been bagged, it is then chemically tested and labelled as to it’s exact specification. This grade plastic can be used as it is by adding to a mix of vergin plastic in a manufacturing run alternatively the grade plastic can be further recycled.
Stage – 5: Extruding: This is the final stage in recyclic plastic. This involves cleaning and melting, shredded plastic and extruding the form of pellets which then go on to manufacture the next lot of plastic products.
Reasons to recyclic plastic:
Millions of tons of waste plastic end up in land fill. When the vast majority of it can be recycled, it is too easy to throw away rubbish without second thought.
But we need to take care of our planet and not just reducing the amount of rubbish we bury but also given that plastic is derived from oil, a natural product with ever depleting resource, it makes sense to recycling as much as possible.
Collect any graph that shows oil (petroleum) consumption in India.
i) Does the production meet consumption in India?
ii) During which period of time shows highest increase in consumption rate?
iii) What will you say happened to production from past ten years, for example, 2004 to 2014?
iv) Suggest some ways to bring down the consumption of petroleum.
i) No, the production of oil doesn’t meet the consumption in India.
ii) During 2009 to 2011, there is highest increase in consumption rate.
iii) There was a gradual increase in production from 2001 to 2011. 139.94 million bbl more petroleum was produced in 2011 than 2001. But it does not meet the increased consumption. 1242.27 million bbl more petroleum was consumed in 2011 than 2001. This is nearly nine times more than growth in production.
- Using public transport.
- Walking, using car pool whenever possible.
- Using hybrid vehicles/electric bikes.
- Planning alternate source of energy like biofuel.
- Using products free from petrochemicals like organic fertilizers instead of chemical fertilizer, cloth or paper bags instead of plastic bags etc., can bring down consumption of petroleum.
Proper utilization of natural resources is the way to show gratitude to our nation. Can you support this statement? Give your argument.
Yes, I support this statement for the following reasons.
- Natural resources are our natural wealth which is very essential for our well-being and economic growth.
- The growth and development of any nation depend on its natural resources and their proper utilisation.
- We are enjoying the fruits of these resources which is provided by our nation to us.
- In return, it is our responsibility to safeguard our nation’s wealth.
- For this it is very essential to utilise these natural resources in such a way that they will remain in our nation and available for the future generations.
- If we don’t utilize them in proper way there will be crisis for these resources and we have to depend on other nations for it.
- Such a situation will damage our economy and life standard, for which we are the responsible persons.
- So, proper utilisation of natural resources is surely the way to show gratitude to
Crop selection and cultivation should be based on the availability of water. Prepare a slogan to make aware of farmers about this.
- See the water availability – Choose the crop.
- Use micro irrigation – Save water for future.
- Use less water – Get more productivity.
- Need based irrigation – Best production.
- Less water availability – Use dry land crops.
- Drop by Drop – Grow and grow.
- Sprinkle water on crop – Crop feels happy.
- See the water – Grow the crop.
- Today’s rain water to tomorrow’s life saver.
- No matter your occupation – Water conservation is your obligation.
Fill in the blanks.
- ———– plants are used for production of biofuels.
- Biodiversity is important for more than just food and for ———– also.
- Example for non-renewable resource is ———–
- ———– is the alternative method to prevent groundwater depletion.
- Cultivation of paddy is suitable for ———– areas.
- Jatropha curcas
- coal, petroleum
- Water storage structure
- water rich
Choose the correct answer.
- Percolation tanks helps to [ ]
A) Supply water for agriculture
B) Increase ground water level
C) Preserve rain water
D) Prevent overflow water from tanks during rainy season
- Which of the following practices is suitable to farmer at less water resources? [ ]
i) select short term crops
ii) cultivate commercial crops
iii) adapt drip system
iv) crop holiday
A) i, iii
B) i, ii, iii
C) i, iv
D) iii, iv
- Which of the fossil fuel reserves decrease more rapidly in India? [ ]
A) natural gas
- Huge amount of toxic chemicals leak into the surrounding ecosystem because of [ ]
D) modern technology
- Sustainable development means [ ]
A) prevention of wastage
B) stable growth
C) development without damaging
D) high yielding in less time
10th Class Biology 10th Lesson Natural Resources InText Questions and Answers
Table-1: Area under irrigation
|Village||Total Area (acres)||Percentage Area Irrigated||Number of Wells||Sample Size|
|Village – 2||2970||15%||175||25|
a) What is the total irrigated area in acres, in Village – 1?
The total irrigated area in Village -1 is 947.75 acres.
b) If one needs to irrigate all the land in Village -1 how many wells would be required?
Number of wells required to irrigate all the land in Village -1 are 620.
c) Though the number of wells is less in Village -1, the area under irrigation is more as compared to Village – 2. How is this possible?
The area under irrigation is more in Village -1 when compared to Village – 2 because the farmers in Village – 1 use water resource jointly and follow micro irrigation techniques.
d) Do you think the area under irrigation will change due to rise in population?
No, the area under irrigation will not change due to rise in population.
Table 2: Status after five years
|Village||Percentage Change in area under irrigation||Percentage decline in number of wells||Percentage change in area under crops|
|Village – 2||-30||-68||-22||-50||27||138||-05||-50|
K stands for Kharif while R stands for Rabi. Negative values indicate loss/ decline, while positive ones show gain/rise.
a) If the number of wells is 155 now, what was it 5 years back ?
5 years back nearly 215 wells were there.
b) What do you think ‘decline in number of wells’ represents?
Decline in number of wells represents fall of ground water levels due to less rainfall.
c) How would crops be affected due to decline in the number of wells?
The crops do not grow well and the yield is less due to decline in the number of wells.
d) Compare table 1 and 2 and state what they tell us about the area under irrigation in both the villages?
When compared table 1 and 2 the area under irrigation in Table – 2 is decreased.
e) Which village do you think is more affected?
Village – 2 is more affected.
f) What is the change in types of crops grown in the villages?
The crops which need less water and has less duration are grown.
If 45 per cent of wells have dried up in Village -1 and there is 39 per cent decline in number of wells, what percentage of wells do you think have been converted to bore wells?
84% of wells have been.converted to bore wells.
By comparing the two villages, find out where greater number of wells dried up? What methods would have saved the wells in other village?
By comparing the two villages Village – 2 has greater number of wells dried up. Percolation tank in Village -1 saved the wells drying up.
Which type of farmers, those having small land holdings or those with large land holdings are most affected when wells dry up?
The farmers having large land holdings are most affected.
If water resource becomes scarce, will it affect the nature of soil in an area?
Yes, it will also affect the nature of the soil in an area.
As wells dry up, how are people in the area dependent on the well affected?
Open wells have dried up, water tables have gone down.
Why do you think water became scarce mainly in Village – 2?
Water is pumped out of wells and bore wells using electricity leads to water scarcity.
Table 3 : Annual expenditure on well irrigation for small and large farmers(2002)
a) Is the availability of water resource same for a small and a large farmer?
Yes the availability of water resource is same for a small and a large farmer.
b) Do you think the availability should be same for everyone in an area?
Availability should be the same as the ground water level is same in all places.
c) A well irrigates more area in Kharif season as compared to Rabi, how is it possible?
A well irrigates more area in Kharif season as compared to Rabi because Kharif occurs in rainy season and Rabi in winter season. So well irrigation is more in Kharif season.
d) How should a farmer utilize such a condition?
Farmer wants to irrigate more land in Kharif season to grow more crop to get more yield.
e) If a well can irrigate 2.5 per cent of cultivable land, how many wells would irrigate whole of the land?
The number of wells required to irrigate whole land in Village -1 are around 1516 wells.
f) Which factor has a greater effect on expenditure, number of wells or depth of a well?
Depth of a well has greater effect on expenditure.
g) What is the total expenditure on a whole cultivable land owned by a small farmer in Village – 2? How do you think a small farmer meets this expenditure?
The total expenditure on a whole cultivable land owned by a small farmer in Village – 2 is around 20,000 – 45,000 rupees per acre per year. The small farmer meets this expenditure through agricultural loans from banks.
h) What could help the small farmer reduce expenditure?
(Hint: Think of crops that require less water)
Cultivating the crops which require less amount of water.
i) Do you think increasing the depth of bore well is a good solution for increasing total land area under irrigation? Why/Why not?
Increasing the depth of bore well is not a good solution for increasing total land area under irrigation. This is because with increasing depth, expenditure also will increase so net profit will decrease. Moreover, groundwater level decreases much more and has to dig more depth.
Table 4: Income on crops
|Village||Type of Farmer||Net income per acre in Rupees||Total income per acre year in rupees|
|Village – 2||Large||10698||5970||4000||3595||24263|
a) Which crop is most profitable for a small farmer in Village – 2?
For a small farmer in Village – 2 paddy in Kharif Is more profitable.
b) What is the difference between a small farmer in Village – 1 and Village – 2?
Small farmer in village -1 is getting more income than farmer in Village – 2.
c) Which crop could replace paddy and the profitable as well for a small farmer in Village – 1?
Cotton crop could replaces paddy, it is more profitable than others.
d) Though we know that paddy consumes maximum water, why do you think farmere still like to grow paddy?
Though paddy consumes maximum water, farmers believe that it is profitable and less risky. It Is a staple food for people. So they still like to grow paddy.
e) What is the impact of a depleting resource upon the farmers?
Depleting resource increases the cost of production. So the farmers are becoming poor and poor as cost increases and profit or income decreases.
f) Do you think the income of a small farmer in Village – 2 is sufficient enough to meet his expenditure?
No, the income of a small farmer in Village – 2 is not sufficient enough to meet his expenditure.
g) What are the major causes of pitiable condition of small farmers at Village – 2?
The major causes of pitiable condition of small farmers at Village – 2 are
- Lack of awareness regarding sustainable use of natural resources like water.
- Not adopting crops suitable to their conditions.
h) Do you think farming as an occupation is profitable for the small farmer in Village – 2?
No. Farming as an occupation is not profitable for the small farmer in Village – 2.
i) Would the farmer have to look for other kind of occupations to meet his needs?
No need to look for other kind of occupations to meet their ends, but has to select proper crops that requires less water, proper methods that increase ground water, proper devices to use water discriminately.
j) How did the availability of water affect a small farmer at Village – 2?
The availability of water affected the average household income at Village – 2 For them farming is not profitable. As their income is less than the life standards of these people will also be less.
How can wells be recharged ?
Percolation pits helped in reacharging dried up bore wells. Dykes or barriers are constructed to build underground streams.
How would recharging dried up wells help farmers of Village – 2?
In Village – 2 the recharged dried up wells build up under ground streams to tap underground water optimally.
What does the case tell us about a water resource and its effect on farmers?
The case tells us that water should not be used indiscriminatly. Every water drop in the ground is important.
How do you think we can use water judiciously?
The amount of fresh water is in small amounts only 2.5 – 2.75%. So we should use water carefully.
Why were farmers at Village – 1 at a better state than those at Village – 2?
Farmers were at Village -1 at a better state than those at Village – 2 because the farmers of Village -1 have plenty of water to grow their crops.
How did farmers of Village – 2 and Village -1 recharge their ground water resources?
- The farmers of Village – 2 and Village -1 recharge their ground water resources by construction of soak pits.
- The soak pits to tap rain water and by construction of dykes, they increased the ground water levels.
What other ways of restoration of a resource does the Kothapally case tell us about?
Broad bed furrows land form and contour planting are the other ways of restoration of a resource.
What are some common means of restoration and conservation of water resource that we came across in the cases studied so far?
Planting Gliricidia on field bunds to restrengthen and make soil nitrogen rich. Farmers were encouraged to use water resource jointly and irrigate land using micro irrigation techniques.
What do you think will happen if we do not take care of the sources of water?
If we do not take care of water resources, they get replenished.
How do you think we will meet our requirements in future?
We have to meet our requirements in future by
- Desalenating the sea water
- Restoring of ground water by recharging with rain water.
- Getting cooperation from the neighbouring states and
- Conserve water now for future.
Do you think we would have to depend upon other states or perhaps other countries as well?
Yes, we would have to depend upon other states for water.
Could the amount of water used for irrigation in our state be reduced? How?
The amount of water used for irrigation in our state could be reduced by following micro irrigation techniques like drip irrigation, sprinkles, etc., and by growing crops that require less amount of water.
Does cropping pattern have any role to play in reduction of water utilisation?
(Hint: Think of the case of Village – 2 and Village -1).
Yes, cropping pattern have role to play in reduction of water utilisation. Broad bed furrow, land form and contour planting helps in reduction of water utilisation.
Do you think one needs laws for distribution of water and its use? Why/Why not?
- Yes, laws are needed for distribution of water and its uses.
- Otherwise all the people may not have self discipline to conserve water.
- As water is a key resource for life competition may arise between people or states or countries.
- Laws help to control this kind of disputes and use it judiciously.
How much per cent of area do you think is irrigated by other sources of water?
Five per cent of area in our state is irrigated by other sources of water.
Why is it important to recharge the ground water sources?
- Recharge of the ground water sources is very important.
- This is because nearly 43% of irrigating land is getting water from ground.
- Due to over drilling of bore wells and pulling out the water by using electric motors, the ground water level is decreasing day by day.
- If it goes on without recharging, ground water becomes scarce.
- It shows a vast impact on agriculture and the productivity will decrease.
- Flourine level in ground water will increase.
- Saline water may intrude in to the interior places of land and water becomes unfit for both drinking and agriculture.
- Farmers have to drill the bore wells to the more depths which increase the losses for them.
Why do the rivers fail to benefit the state to an extent they should have?
Rivers fail to benefit the state to an extent they should have. Because
- There are no sufficient structures (dams) to store river water.
- Over usage of water by the other states.
- Geographically our rivers are flowing through the rocky and hill areas in most of the places in our state where it is difficult to make canals.
- The government should plan for proper utilization of river water after scientific study with the help of expert engineers.
Since ground water resources are getting depleted at a fast pace what are the alternatives?
Since ground water resources are getting depleted at a fast pace we have to construct percolation tanks to collect run off water. Water shed management projects should be adopted to renew the ground water levels.
River Godavari fails to provide water for the projects like Sri Rama Sagar in Telangana due to over usage of water by some other state. How should states and countries work to provide enough for all?
States and countries should work to provide enough water for all by allotting water to other states or countries in an emicable atmosphere.
What would you do to motivate others to manage an important resource in your locality?
To motivate others manage an important resource in my locality I will do the following activities:
- I will explain the importance of resource and need for its proper management.
- I will conduct the seminars on this issue.
- With the help of my friends and teachers I will conduct some competitions like debate, essay writing, etc., on this issue.
- I will plan some cultural activities such as songs, skits that explain the importance of managing the resource and exhibit them in the school and the village to motivate the village.
How did the villagers in Kothapally resort to sustainable management
- The villagers in Kothapally resort to sustainable management with the help of ICRISAT.
- ICRISAT educated villagers by large and provided technical support for cost-efficient water storage and soil conservation structures.
- The measures were community as well as individual farmer-based.
- Fourteen water storage structures with the storage capacity of 300 to 2000 m3, 60 mini percolation pits, field bunding on 38 hectares were completed.
- Twenty-eight dry open wells, near Nalla were recharged by building dykes in the Nalla and retaining the run off rain water in it.
- A user group was formed for each water storage structure and the water collected was exclusively used for recharging the ground water to the dried well.
- Broad bed furrow land form and contour planting was implemented to conserve soil and water.
- Gliricidia plants are planted on the field bunds to strengthen the land, make the soil nitrogen rich.
- Farmers were encouraged to use water resource jointly and irrigate land using micro-irrigation techniques.
- Saplings of useful species were planted along the roads, field bunds and Nallas.
Why do you think forests are important?
Forests are important because,
- They are rich habitat for plants and animals.
- They serve as a lung for the world.
- They purify air, decrease carbon dioxide, global warming and green house effect.
- Thus provide various valuable things such as wood, medicines etc.
- They are providing raw materials for several industries.
- They maintain ecological balance in nature.
- They preserve the soil fertility.
- They cause rains.
Observe a lawn in your area (if you have one) and see how it is maintained. Find out from the gardener the different types of plants that he removes from time to time. Do you think a farmer does the same thing on his farm?
The gardener removes all the species of plants that grow in the lawn from time to time.
Farmer does the same thing on his farm. But the variation is all the plants are removed from lawn just for pleasant look whereas farmer remove only weed plants that compete with the crop plants for space, nutrients, water and sunlight. This is to increase the productivity of crop plants.
What do fossil fuels provide us?
- Fossil fuels provide us energy.
- This energy can be used for various purposes such as running vehicles, machinery in industries, etc.
- They are also useful in the production of electricity.
- They also provide petrochemicals which are helpful in the manufacturing of several products that include plastics, synthetic rubber, fabrics like nylon, medicines, cosmetics, waxes, cleaning products, medical devices, etc.
- They also provide energy for cooking, lighting, etc.
Why do we need to conserve the fossil fuels?
- Fossil fuels are non-renewable resources.
- If once they are used up, they never replenish again or take several thousands of years to replenish.
- They become integral part of our life, that we cannot live without these.
- So, we need to conserve fossil fuels so that we don’t run out of them.
Collect information about solar, wind, tidal and water power and prepare a scrap book.
Collect information about conventional energy sources from internet and prepare a note on it.
Solar energy: To use solar energy is to generate electricity from sun light. For this purpose special chemical substances which are sensitive to light have been developed.
When light falls on these substances small chemical current is generated in large amounts. This can be stored and used when needed.
Watches, calculators, street lamps have been invented which use the current produced by light falling on light sensitive material.
Wind Energy: Wind mills are in use for centuries especially for pumping water from wells.
In wind mills, wind rotates the blades of windmill and is used to move the piston and lift the water from the well.
Wind energy is being used to pump water and to run turbines for the production of electricity.
Tidal energy (Kinetic energy) : Large amount of energy (Kinetic energy) la stored In the waves especially In seas.
Special devices have been made to rotate as the water passes through them by the wave action.
This Is used to generate electricity.
Water power: Dams are constructed across the rivers water from the reservoir falls from a height on the turbines.
This water falls Is used to drive turbines to generate electricity. These are called hydro electric projects.
Ask your teacher about nuclear energy and its impacts on ecosystem.
Nuclear energy is produced by splitting the nucleus of an atom of elements like uranium or plutonium. This process Is called fission.
Another process for production of nuclear energy Is by fusion. In this process two nuclei of the same elements are fused with one another. In this process more energy is produced than by fission.
The energy Is produced as heat. This Is used to produce steam which runs generators to produce electricity.
Think why disasters like Uttarakhand happened?
- Uttarakhand and Himachal Pradesh are two hill states that were stuck by extreme rains in 2013.
- Heavy rainfall has wrecked havoc on the region because of fragile nature of Himalayan range and poor soil stability in its deep steps. But it is the man made factor that has compounded the scale of the disaster.
- Unabated expansion of hydro power project and construction of roads to accommodate ever-increasing tourism especially religious tourism are also major causes for the unprecendented scale of devastation.
- The valleys of Yamuna, Ganga and Alakananda attract heavy traffic of tourists. For them, government has to construct new roads and widen the existing ones.
- A new mountain range like Himalayas will remain study if not tampered much. But the huge expansion of trade and transport is bringing the mountains in Uttarakhand down.
- Study should be conducted to assess the carrying capacity of the Himalayas and development should be planned accordingly.
Threat from dams: The Ganga in upper reaches has been engineers’ play ground. The central electrical authority and Uttarakhand power department have estimated the rivers hydrolytic potential at some 9000 muc and planned 70 odd projects on its tributaries. In building these, key tributaries have been modified through diversions through tunnels or reservoirs.
Do you think it is necessary to have a lot of lighting for decoration during celebrations?
No, it is not necessary to have a lot of lighting to decorate an occassion of celebration. It is mere waste of electricity and money. We should conserve electricity for proper use.
What other things could you reuse to save our resources?
- Glass, paper, wax, plastic, etc., can be reused to save our resources.
- Recycle: By recycling the waste materials we can reduce pollution.
Ex : Plastic recycling is a tricky process and can cause havoc.
- Plastic needs to be carefully stored before it can be processed.
Why should one sort wastes carefully before discarding them from home?
- Before discarding the waste materials we should sort out the reusable things and recycling things.
- If it is undecayable waste like glass or plastic we can discard them or if they are the decayable waste we can prepare a compost pit to enrich the soil.
Often we keep a plastic bag in our dustbins to discard waste, is it a good practise?
- No, it is not a good practise to discard waste in a plastic bag.
- When we threw the waste along with the plastic bag it takes hundreds of years for the plastic to get destroyed in the soil and the soil gets polluted.
Can international, national or state organisations alone manage a resource? Who are all involved in the whole process of management?
Along with international, national or state organisations there is private organisation named International Union for the Conservation of Nature founded by private groups.
Suggest some ways in which you and your Mends would like to manage a resource.
By practising four R’s-reduce, reuse, recycle and recover the things, preparation of recharging structures for water, protecting the wild life and habitats we can manage the resources.
Are we also an important resources of nature? How?
- Yes, we are also an important resources of nature.
- Human beings, through the labour they provide and the organizations their staff are also considered to be resources.
- The term human resources can also be defined as the skills, energy, talent, abilities, and knowledge that are used for the production of goods or the rendering of service.
- In a project management context, human resources are those employees responsible for undertaking the activities defined in the project plan.
Find out the usage of water in litres per day in your home? Do you actually require that much water and how much water is enough in accordance with National standards?
- In my house 900 litres of water is being used per day at the average of 225 litres for a person per day (4 members family).
- Actually this much water is not required.
- We can conserve at least 400 – 500 litres of water at the average of 100 to 125 litres per head.
- In India, the design of water supply system has been done using certain standards.
- Currently the standard being used is BIS 1179 : 1993, reaffirmed in 1998.
- According to this, for communities with a population between 20,000 to 1,00,000 – 100 to 150 litres per head per day can be considered.
- For communities with population over 1,00,000 – 150 to 200 litres per head per day can be considered.
- On the whole, at an average of 150 litres per head per day is enough in accordance with National standards.
10th Class Biology 10th Lesson Natural Resources Activities
Activity – 1
Study the different ways in which water is used, misused and recycled in the area where you stay. Prepare a questionnaire with the help of your friends and teacher and study at least five households in your locality for the same. Also explore and discuss ways to provide water for all.
Ways in which water is used:
- Washing clothes
- Cleaning utensils
- For plants in garden and agriculture, etc.
Ways in which water is misused:
- Not closing the taps after using.
- Contaminating the water.
- Brushing near open taps.
- Getting bath under shower.
- Playing with water.
Ways in which water is recycled:
- Allowing the water used in kitchen for garden.
- Using the once used water to wash vehicles.
- Using the water from bathing for toilet flush.
- Washing hands in plant pots.
- For what purposes water is being used in your home?
- From where this water is being collected?
- Are you using water only for the needed things?
- Are you closing taps properly after using?
- Are you getting shower bath?
- Are you using more water than required for cleaning, bathing etc?
- Are there any leaks in your water pipelines?
- Are you recycling the once used water?
- In what way are you recycling the water?
- What measures do you suggest to conserve water and make it available for all?
Ways to provide water for all:
- Wastage of water should be strictly minimised.
- Washing hands in the plant pots.
- Rain water should be directed into recharge pits.
- Care should be taken to prevent leakage of water from pipes and taps.
- Wash clothes in running water canals if possible.
- Direct the kitchen water free from soap and detergents to the garden.
- Use the soap and detergent water for toilet flush or cleaning vehicles.
- Recycling of water can be done on large scale in towns and cities and can be utilised again.
- Cooperation between the states through which a river passing is very essential for providing water for all.
- People should be motivated in such a way that each drop of water is life and should conserve it.
Activity – 2
i) Find out how many different types of insects are present in and around your house.
We find different types of insects present in and around our house.
ii) Do you find the same type of insects in all seasons ?
No. We find different types of insects in different seasons.
iii) Make a chart of insects and note their occurrence for at least a week in each season.
Ants – All seasons particularly in summer for collection of food.
Butterflies – Winter, summer – Collecting nectar
Honeybee – Winter, summer – Collection of honey.
Beetles – Winter, summer – Collection of food grains
Cockroaches – All seasons – Food and shelter
Activity – 3
Nowadays people are revolt against mining. Collect any such’ incident of our state or neighbouring states from your school library or newspapers and conduct seminar on it’s impact.
- People living in hill top hamlets in seven mandals of Visakhapatnam and East Godavari districts are up in arms against laterite mining in Nagulakonda hill range.
- Laterite is a raw material used by cement factories.
- Huge deposits of laterite worth hundreds of crore rupees are found in Nathavaram and Kowur mandals in Visakhapatnam and Pratthipadu, Yeleswaram, Sankhavaram, Routulapudi and Kotananduru in East Godavari.
- All these mandals are technically coming under scheduled areas.
- If the mining continues here, it will badly threaten the ecology of that area.
- The tribal people in that area will lose their livelihood.
- To reach the mining area road should be laid in the reserve forest area.
- This leads to depletion of forest resources also.
- Health of the local people will be badly affected due to the dust spread during mining.
- Keeping all these in mind the tribal people are opposing the mining in that area.