Students can go through AP Inter 2nd Year Botany Notes 11th Lesson Biotechnology: Principles and Processes will help students in revising the entire concepts quickly.
AP Inter 2nd Year Botany Notes 11th Lesson Biotechnology: Principles and Processes
→ Herbert Boyer, performed studies on a couple of restriction enzymes of the E.Coli bacterium. He observed that these enzymes have the capability of cutting DNA strands in a particular fashion, which left what has become known as sticky ends on the strands.
→ Stanley Cohen had developed a method of removing the plasmids from the cell and then reinserting them in other cells.
→ Biotechnology is a science which utilizes properties and ages of microorganisms or
exploit cells and the cell constituents at the industrial level for generating useful products essential to life and human welfare.
→ Genetic Engineering includes techniques to alter the Chemistry of Genetic material (DNA and-RNA), to introduce into host organisms and thus change the phenotype of the host organism.
→ Tissue culture involves the growth of only the desired microbe / Eukaryotic Cell in large quantities for the manufacture of biotechnological products like antibiotics, vaccines, enzymes etc.
→ Asexual reproduction preserves genetic information while sexual reproduction permits variation.
→ The cutting of DNA at specific locations became possible by molecular scissors – restriction enzymes.
→ The first restriction endonuclease enzyme is Hind II.
→ Exonucleases remove nucleotides from the ends of the DNA where as endonucleases make cuts at specific positions within the DNA.
→ Most restriction enzymes cut the two £trands of DNA double helix at different locations. Such a cleavage is termed as staggered cut.
→ E coRI recognizes 5′ GAATTC 3′ sites on the DNA and cuts it between G and A, results in the formation of sticky ends.
→ Vectors used for multiplying the foreign DNA sequences are called cloning vectors.
→ Commonly used cloning vectors are Plastmids, Bacteriophages and Cosmids.
→ Artificially restructured Plasmids are PBR322, PUC19,101.
→ The cloning vector should have low molecular weight.
→ R-DNA technology involves isolation of DNA, fragmentation of DNA by restriction endonucleases, Isolation of desired DNA fragment, ligation of the DNA fragment into the vector, transferring the r-DNA into the host, culturing the host cells in a medium at large scale.
→ DNA fragments are separated by Gel Electrophoresis.
→ The separated bands of DNA are cut out from the agarose gel and extracted from the gel piece. This is known as Elution.
→ Source DNA + Vector DNA = r DNA of chimeric DNA.
→ Bioreactor provides the optimal conditions for achieving the desired product by providing optimum growth conditions.