TS 10th Class Social Study Material 17th Lesson Independent India (The First 30 years – 1947-77)

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TS 10th Class Social 17th Lesson Questions and Answers – Independent India (The First 30 years – 1947-77)

Question 1.
What measures were taken to bring In socio-economic change during the initial years after Independence?
Measures that were taken to bring in socio-economic change:
1. The Constituent Assembly had called tar social, economic and political justice arid equality of status and opportunity as its agenda.
2. For that the Planning Commission was set up within a month. The First Five year plan focussed on agriculture.

3. The strategy favoured by Nehru and finally adopted included three components:

  • Landforms,
  • Agricultural cooperatives,
  • Local self-government

4. Three types of land reforms were contemplated: abolition of zamindari system, tenancy reform and land ceilings.
5. Co-operatives were to bring economies of scale and also provide valuable inputs.
6. Local self-government would ensure that the land reforms were carried out and the co-operatives run according to the collective interests of the village.
7. Dams were constructed and were useful to both the agriculture and Industrial sectors.
8. The Second Five Year Plan shifted emphasis to Industries. As a result, the service sector also would develop.

Question 2.
What do you understand about one-party dominance? Would you consider It as dominance, only in elections or also in terms of ideology? Discuss with reasons.
From 1951 to 1964 Jawaharlal Nehru made Congress as a dominant party. Later It came into the hands of LB. Sastry and Indira Gandhi. The party won in state and central elections continuously. It was not only dominance in elections but also in terms of ideology.

The working period In India over more than four decades after independence presents us a contrasting picture of partial success, serious shortcomings and huge challenges. It generates mixed or contradictory feelings In us.

TS 10th Class Social Study Material 17th Lesson Independent India (The First 30 years – 1947-77)

Question 3.
Language became a central rallying point in Indian politics on many occasions, either as a unifying force or a. a divisive element Identity these Instances and describe them.

  1. After independence, the demand for reorganisation of states on linguistic basis was raised from different regions.
  2. The JVP Committee rejected languages es the basis for reorganisation of states.
  3. It suggested that the security, unity and economic prosperity of the nation as criteria of reorganisation.
  4. The Congress Working Committee accepted its recommendation In 1949. But the demands for linguistic re-organisation of states persisted in southern states, particularly in Telugu-speaking areas. As the violation took a violent turn in Telugu-speaking areas the state AP. was reorganised in 1953.
  5. The SRC was set up in 1953 and accepted the language as the basis of reorganisation of states. Finally, a bill making changes the Constitution and reorganising states was passed and was Irrçiemented from first November 1956.

Question 4.
What were the major changes in political system after 1967 electIons?
The stability of the Congress-centric “One party dominant system” was shaken in the 1967 general election.
The Congress party for the first time suffered e major setback both in the centre and in
many states.

The possibility of change in the ruling party of the centre grew large. This attracted the interest of many people. The defeated party did not try to power but allowed the victory to form the government. This showed that democracy had taken roots in India and country was moving towards a competitive multi-party system.

Question 5.
Think of the other ways in which states could have been created and how would they be better than language-based reorganisation.

  • I think It would be better if the states are reorganised on the basis of their geographical features.
  • It is becoming clear by the day that the linguistic reorganisation of states has done more harm than good to our country because it encourages the caste system.
  • It Is based on geographical features, there will be the people of many languages and they try to live together.

Question 6.
What measures of Indira Gandhi are called left turn’? How do you think was this different from policies of the previous decades? Based on the knowledge gained from the economics, chapters describe how Ills different from the current policies.
Indira Gandhi charted a new path for hie Congress and herself by introducing new policies and programmes. This policy also helped her get control over the party organisation.
Among the important legislations that were passed during this period ostensibly to achieve the goal of social and economic transformation were the nationalisation of many private banks and abolishing of princely pensions. Both these legislations were challenged in the Courts and this in a way macle the Court appears as if It was coming In the way of the political goals.

I think all these policies are connected with socialism. At that time these policies were introduced to stabilise the Indian economy. The present policies are introduced to strengthen the economy.

TS 10th Class Social Study Material 17th Lesson Independent India (The First 30 years – 1947-77)

Question 7.
In what ways was the Emergency period a setback to the Indian democracy?
On 25th June 1975, Prime Minister Indira Gandhi imposed an emergency in the country. Due to this Emergency-

  1. Fundamental Rights stood suspended,
  2. Censorship was imposed on the press and
  3. Prominent political leaders were arrested.

In the above ways, the Emergency period was a setback to the Indian democracy.

Question 8.
What were the Institutional changes that came up after the Emergency?
Soon after the withdrawal of the emergency, general elections were declared in the country. The Congress was reduced to just 153 seats in the Lok Sabha and the Janata Party led by Morarji Desai came to power. It was the first time a non-Congress government that assumed leadership of the country.

Question 9.
Locate the following on the map of India.
a) Maharashtra
b) Gujarat
c) Bihar
d) Utter Pradesh
e) Jammu-Kashmir
f) Nagaland
g) Punjab
h) Meghalaya
TS 10th Class Social Study Material 17th Lesson Independent India (The First 30 years – 1947-77) 1

Question 10.
Analyse the advantages and problems faced by the people done to the Multi-party system in India.

  1. Up to 3 general elections in India after independence, there was only one party system. i.e., Congress.
  2. The personal connection between readers led to a multi-party system.
  3. Opposition to Congress party was also split into many parties
  4. A few groups tied up and become pressure groups.
  5. The absence of political parties is an undemocratic situation,
  6. When single party was there, whatever they feel, will be implemented.
  7. A multi-party system leads to a free and open co4’npelition.
  8. Indian politics developed divergent Ideologies.
  9. People change the government when it is not liked by them.
  10. The multi-party system strengthens democracy.

Question 11.
Read the para 2 of page 239 and comment on it.
The early year’s her independence are arguably the defining period in India’s post. independent history. The main challenge before the leadership was me need to maintain unity and integrity, bring about a social and economic transformation and to ensure the successful working of the democratic system. These challenges are interrelated and great care had to be taken to ensure that the system did not get unbalanced. For Instance, developmental goals, unity and integrity should not come at the cost of democracy.
The given paragraph says that the post-independent India needs to maintain unity and integrity. Social and economical changes are to be brought in. Care is to be taken In the sense of imbalance.

Under the British rule, dividing the community was started. They encouraged instability in India so as to continue their rule. Development, unity and integrity were not encouraged. After independence, it has become compulsory to work for imbalance maintenance.

Agriculture and industries are to be increased and improved. Caste, religion, language, region related imbalances are to be set right. After independence in our country, it has been going on. Gradually India is reaching such a position. Still there we can see a few imbalances. They should be addressed and solved.

TS 10th Class Social Study Material 17th Lesson Independent India (The First 30 years – 1947-77)

TS 10th Class Social 17th Lesson Independent India (The First 30 years – 1947-77) Intext Questions

Page No. 239

Question 1.
In your opinion, have we been able to achieve social equality: think of Instances that you would Identify as examples of social equality and inequality.
Social equality is linked to racial equality, gender equality and wealth equality. As these three equalities are not prevailed in the Indian society, in my opinion, we have not been able to achieve social equality.

Page No. 240

Question 2.
How do you think does illiteracy affect elections, especially when It comes to exercising the choice of voting? How do you think this problem can be solved?

  1. Illiteracy keeps people chained to ignorance and superstition and is an obstacle in choosing the right choice In the election.
  2. The contesting candidates are attracting them with ‘Utopian’ promises.
  3. This problem can be solved by bringing awareness in the people through literacy and logical thinking.

Question 3.
Could we have considered that our country was democratic If all the people did not have voting rights?

  1. We could riot have considered that our country was democratic if all people did not have voting rights.
  2. All eligible people shall be given franchise and elections at definite intervals are the tenets of democracy
  3. It Universal Adult Franchise was not accepted, then we cannot say ourselves as a democracy.

Question 4.
Given the literacy rate of women being low, if women were not allowed to vote how would It affect our policies?
It would turn the policies upside down.

Question 5.
Being able to conduct regular elections can be considered a clear sign of being able to establish democracy. Do you agree with this statement? Give reasons.
Yes. I agree with the statement.
Reasons: ElectIons are the key point to the democracy. It there is no chance of conducting elections, there are no signs of democracy.

Page No.242

Question 6.
Summarize the features that could explain the Congress was able to dominate the political system.

  1. The Congress established its government in the centre and many states for many times after independence.
  2. Political competition in one party dominant system took place within the Congress. So the opposition parties therefore only posed a latent and not a real threat.
  3. It created a new social base by identifying with the poor and downtrodden,
  4. Even through it imposed emergency on the nation and caused many problems, t won the elections and established its government many times.

TS 10th Class Social Study Material 17th Lesson Independent India (The First 30 years – 1947-77)

Page No. 244

Question 7.
Do you think that the unity of India would have been better served if linguistic states were not formed?

  1. I don’t think that unity of India would have been better without linguistic states.
  2. Language unites people and it represents the diverse elements of our culture.
  3. There was popular will for linguistic states.
  4. Leaders of national movements also accepted linguistic states.
  5. Moreover, now these states are of great help in consolidating India.

Question 8.
Why do you think were the tribal languages Ignored at this time?
Tribal languages have no scripts. The tribals were scattered In different areas of the nation, So there was a chance of such small stales. So the tribal languages were ignored at that time.

Question 9.
Do you know how many states and union territories are there In India today?
There are 28 States and 9 Union territories In India today.

Question 10.
Which are the newest states of India and when were they created?

  1. The newest states of Inde are 1) Chattisgarh 2) Jharkhand 3) Uttaraktiand 4) Telangana
  2. Chatlisgarti, the 26th state of India was carved out of Madhya Pradesh on Nov. 1 2000.
  3. Uttaranchal, the 27th state of India was carved out of Uttar Pradesh on Nov. 9, 2000.
  4. Jharkhand, the 28th state of India was carved of Bihar on November 15. 2000.
  5. Telangana, the 29th state of India was formed on 2nd June. 2014.

(Later on, the country has 28 states and 9 union territories since Jammu and Kashmir has been converted into union territories.)

Page No. 246

Question 11.
If you live In a rural area, find out If Institutions like cooperatives were established before 1970e and who became members In it?
In our village, there is Agricultural Credit Co-operative Society. The farmers in our village and in our neighbouring villages elect the members in It.

  1. Pendurti Mohana Rao
  2. Gudavalli Prabhakar
  3. Bethi Bliarath Kumar
  4. Ummadi Sudheer
  5. Ch. Tandava Krishna
  6. Gogam Nagaraju
  7. Nailer, Naga Rani
  8. Tabpaka Debora
  9. Sirrvella Suhasini are the mentors in it.

Question 12.
Compare the land reforms carried out in India with that of China or Vietnam.\

Land Reforms
ln India In Vietnam
1. Land reforms were started by communist party. 1. Land reforms were started by the Communist party.
2. Land reforms were introduced by governments and some systems were abolished. 2. Land was redistributed to the peasants.
3. Reforms were carried throughout the country. 3. Reforms were carried In the northern region only.

Page No. 247

Question 13.
How did the language policy help foster national unity and integrity?
India Is land of more than one thousand languages- After independence, the Indian leaders chose Hindi as official language. They hoped that it would facilitate regional communication and encourage national unity and Integrity. But today Hindi and English share their status as official Languages.

Everyone now speaks a common language when they came out of their regio&state. Hindi is taught In schools as a second language. National language acts as a national symbol.
e.g.: ₹
Thus the language policy help foster national unity and integrity.

TS 10th Class Social Study Material 17th Lesson Independent India (The First 30 years – 1947-77)

Question 14.
Is there a need for a national language? Why?

  1. We are such a vast country with many regional languages.
  2. Language policy is of help in fostering national unity and integrity.
  3. The Official Languages Act 1963 could not make Hindi to withstand to be an absolute official language.
  4. So, In these circumstances, there is no need for another national language.

Question 15.
Should all languages have equal status? Why?

  1. In India, there are as many as 1.652 languages.
  2. All languages In India don’t have equal status.
  3. Indian Constitution recognises 22 Languages as statutory.
  4. Many languages have no script,
  5. Some tribal Languages were neglected. Ex: Oravan.
  6. Many languages were spoken by few people.
  7. Taking all things into consideration it will be difficult to accord equal status to all languages.
  8. According to the Constitution, the citizens have the right to protect their language and culture.
  9. If they provide equal status to all languages, we should protect integrity and unity of our country.

1. Yes, all languages should be accorded equal status.
2. No regional language should be ignored.

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