AP State Syllabus SSC 10th Class Social Studies Solutions 9th Lesson Rampur: A Village Economy
10th Class Social Studies 9th Lesson Rampur: A Village Economy Textbook Questions and Answers
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Every village in India is surveyed once in ten years during the Census and the details are presented in the following format. Fill up the following based on information on Rampur.
a. Location :
b. Total Area of the Village:
c. Land Use (in hectares):
a. Location: RAMPUR
b. Total Area of the Village: 290 hectares
c. Land Use (in hectares):
Why are the wages for farm labourers in Rampur less than minimum wages?
- Farming requires a great deal of hard work.
- Many landless farm labourers work on daily wages in Rampur.
- They must regularly look for work.
- Their wages are less than what the Uttar Pradesh government has set as minimum wages for labourers.
- There is heavy competition for work among form labourers in Rampur.
- So they agree to work for lower wages.
Talk to two labourers from your region. Choose either farm labourers or labourers working at construction sites. What wages do they get? Are they paid in cash or kind? Do they get work regularly? Are they in debt?
- Raju is a farm labourer.
- He gets wages ₹ 200 per day.
- He is paid in cash.
- He does not get work regularly,
- He is in debt.
- Mohan is labourer at the construction site.
- He is paid ₹ 350 per day.
- He gets work regularly.
- He is paid in cash.
- He is not in debts.
What are the different ways of increasing production on the same piece of land? Use examples to explain.
- There are different ways of increasing production in the same piece of land.
- Multiple cropping i.e., growing more than one crop on the same piece of land is one such thing.
- Modern farming method i.e., use of High Yielding Variety (HYV) seeds, assured irrigation, fertilizers and pesticides is another such technique.
How do the medium and large farmers obtain capital for farming? How is it different from the small farmers?
- The medium and large farmers generally have their own savings from farming for the capital of farming.
- They are able to arrange for seeds, fertiliser, pesticide, payments to labour etc.
- They have tractors, threshers and harvesters as well as tubewells.
- In contrast to this, small farmers have to borrow money to arrange for working capital.
- They borrow money for inputs for cultivation.
- The rate of interest is very high on such loans.
- They are put great distress to repay the loan.
On what terms did Savita get a loan from Tejpal? Would Savita’s condition be different if she could get a loan from the bank at a low rate of interest?
- Savita got a loan from Tejpal.
- He imposed many conditions to give her loan.
- He agreed to give loan at 36% per annum interest rate.
- He also sought a promise from Savita that she should work on his field as a farm labourer during the harvest season at ₹ 100 a day.
Talk to some elderly persons in your region and write a small report on the changes in irrigation and changes in production methods during the last 30 years.
I met Koya Sunil Kumar of Krishna district and Yeluri Rajakumar of Guntur district to conduct the survey.
Changes in irrigation:
- Thirty years back, there were no proper irrigation facilities.
- Canals were not dug completely.
- Not only that there were very few tubewells, that too were owned by the government.
- The system of production was customary and the yield was also not great. All the villages were not completely electrified.
- Last thirty years saw a great improvement.
- Now there were canals dug. Many tubewells were dug by medium and large farmers.
- The system of production also saw few changes.
Changes in production method :
- Modern farm methods like the usage of High Yield Varieties, use of pesticides, fertilizers and water management and machinery for all activities of farming like harvesters, threshers, sowing and weeding machines came into existence.
What are the main non-farm production activities taking place in your region? Write a brief report on any one such activity.
- Many non-farm activities are taking place in this region.
- Shopkeeping, small scale manufacturing, transport and handlooms etc. are famous among them.
- Handloom working involves entire families in looming.
- They work under contractors, who provide them with raw material and collect the finished handlooms.
- He pays them less wages.
- Workers cannot weave for themselves and market their handlooms.
Imagine a situation where labour is the scarce factor of production instead of land. Would the story of Rampur be different? How? Discuss in class.
- Usually land is a scarce factor of production.
- If we imagine labour to be the scarce factor, the story of Rampur would be different.
- The wages for the labourers will be high.
- Not only farm labourers other labourers also get a benefit.
- Government also fixes higher minimum wages.
Gosaipur and Majauli are two villages in North Bihar. Out of a total of 850 households in the two villages, there are more than 250 men who are employed in rural Punjab and Haryana or in Delhi, Mumbai, Surat, Hyderabad or Nagpur. Such migration is common in most villages across India. Why do people migrate? Can you describe (based on your imagination and previous chapter) the work that the migrants of Gosaipur and Majauli might do at the place of destination?
- Migration is common in most villages in India.
- Usually the distress of rural unemployment drives men to migrate.
- They migrate in search of employment.
- Many urban migrants get employment in the unorganised sector.
- They work as rickshaw pullers, hawkers, daily labour, casual labour in many unorganised sectors
Land is also required for produc&>n of goods in an urban area. In what ways is the use of land different from a rural area?
- Land is required for production of goods in an urban area.
- But the use of land in urban area is different from that of a rural area.
- In urban area land is mostly used for non-farm production activities.
- They are like industrial complexes, commercial complexes, dairies, small, medium and large scale manufacturing units, market yards, shops etc.
- Whereas in the village most land is under land farming activity.
- Thus we can say that land is also required for production of goods in an urban area.
Read again the meaning of “land” in the production process. Give three examples, other than agriculture, where this requirement is most significant in the process of production.
- Land is the most crucial factor necessary for farm production.
- Land is required most significantly in the process of production other than agriculture also.
- Non-farm activities also require land.
- To establish any small scale manufacturing unit, land is required.
- To set up and operate a dairy, land is required.
- To set up any shop or market yard, land is required.
Water, a natural resource for production, particularly agricultural production, now requires greater capital for its use. Can you explain the statement?
- Water is the natural resource required for agricultural production.
- But now it requires greater capital for its use.
- People now use electricity-run tubewells for irrigation.
- The electricity charges are more. ‘
- Farmers are setting up their own tubewells.
- In situations of power cut, they use diesel to run motors to draw water from the tubewell.
So, now it requires greater capital for its use.
10th Class Social Studies 9th Lesson Rampur: A Village Economy InText Questions and Answers
10th Class Social Textbook Page No. 115
What do you know about agriculture? How do crops change in various seasons? Do most people depending on agriculture belong to land owning groups or are laborers?
- Land is the most crucial factor necessary for agriculture.
- Well developed irrigation facilities help us in changing of the crops in various seasons.
- Villages like Rampur has the land where even three crops can be grown during a year’s three seasons.
- Most people that depend on agriculture are landless labourers.
- Majority of the working people are dependent on farming for their livelihood.
- The well-being of these people is closely related to the production on the farms.
10th Class Social Textbook Page No. 117
Looking at your state or district physical map and identify areas that are well irrigated. Does your region fall under this category?
- Well irrigated areas in India are Punjab, Haryana and Uttar Pradesh.
- Moderate to high irrigated areas are Bihar, Tamil Nadu, Jammu & Kashmir, Manipur, Telangana and Andhra Pradesh.
- In our state most of the region is tank irrigated.
- Quite a considerable region is under canal irrigation.
- Our region falls under this category.
The following table shows the land under cultivation in India in units of million hectares. Plot this on the graph provided. What does the graph show? Discuss in class.
- The graph shows that the cultivated area from 1970 to 2010 remained the same.
- New area was not brought under cultivation.
- Even some area was brought, the same amount of area from cultivated land was used as non¬farm area.
- The area of the country is not extending.
- The demand for non-farm land is also increasing.
- So there was no growth recorded in cultivated area for the last 40 years or so.
You have read about the crops gr^nin Rampur. Fill the following table based on information? on the crops grown in your region.
What are the reasons for multiple cropping in cultivation?
- The cultivation which is under multiple cropping has many reasons for it.
- It has a well-developed irrigation system.
- Different crops are grown in three crop seasons.
- It increases the production from the land.
- They may have two main crops and a third crop.
- There is no land that is left idle.
- There is no possibility of expansion in land area under cultivation.
- The plants grown also used as cattle feed.
The factors that contribute to the multiple cropping in village areas.
- Availability of more labour.
- Availability of irrigation facilities.
- Availability of fertile soil.
- Experienced farmers.
10th Class Social Textbook Page No. 118 & 119
In the map given below, shade the small plots of land.
Why do so many families of farmers cultivate such small plots of land?
- Not all the people engaged in agriculture have sufficient land for cultivation.
- The upper caste families own a majority of the land in the village.
- They have land extending over 10 hectares or more.
- Many families cultivate small plots of land less than 2 hectares.
- Cultivation of such plots doesn’t bring adequate income to the farmer family.
- Even these small plots were divided among sons when their father was dead.
- Thus so many families of farmers cultivate such small plots.
The distribution of farmers in lndj£ and the amount of land they cultivate are in the following table and pie-charts.
What do the arrows indicate? Would you agree that the distribution of cultivated land is unequal in India? Explain. (OR)
a) Who are called small farmers?
b) Would you agree that the distribution of culivated land is unequal in India? Explain.
- The arrows indicate that 87% of the total farmers are cultivating only 48% of the total cultivated land.
- The remaining 13% of the farmers are cultivating the remaining 52% of the land.
- This indicates that there is no equal distribution of land among farmers.
- I would agree that the distribution of cultivated land is unequal in India.
a) The farmers who possess less than 2 hectares of land.
b) Yes. I agree because 87% of farmers are cultivating only 48% of land. On the other hand only 13% of farmers are cultivating 52% of land.
10th Class Social Textbook Page No. 120
Small farmer, Big farmer. After reading next section (Labour for the Farm’ on Text P. 121) write a caption that would describe their relation with the factors of production.
Small farmer should carry the field while the field carries big farmer.
10th Class Social Textbook Page No. 121
Why are farm labourers like Dala poor?
- Dala is a landless farm labourer who works on daily wages in Rampur.
- He must regularly look for work.
- His wages are less that government fixed minimum wages.
- There is heavy competition for work among the farm labourers in Rampur.
- So they agree to work for low wages.
- As machines are increasing, the number of days of work available to a worker is very low.
- Thus farm labourers like Dala are poor.
What do the large and medium farmers in Rampur do to get labour for their farms? Compare with your region.
- Medium and large farmers generally have their own savings from farming.
- They make that money as the working capital needed for farming.
- They agree to give small farmers the loan at 36% per annum interest rate for four months, which is very high.
- They also take promise from the small farmers to work on their lands as farm labourers during the harvest season for ₹ 100/- a day, which is quite low.
- Thus they have the required labour.
- In our region also that is one practice.
- They get landless labourers for less wages.
The large and medium farmers offer lower wages to get labour for their farms.
In our region most of the villagers are job holders in the nearest town. So there is no such competition. The farm labourers are less in number. So they get better wages.
Fill in the following table :
What are the ways of providing labour, in the production of goods or services that you observe in your region?
- In our area farm activities are more prominent.
- Different crops are grown here in different seasons.
- Crops like rice, turmeric, banana, maize, cauliflower, cabbage, jasmine, etc. are grown here.
- Labour is provided to the farmers here.
- Other non-farm activities also are here like Coca-Cola factory where cool drinks are manufactured.
- Many shopkeepers, small manufacturing units, dairies, transport facilities are present which are provided with labour.
10th Class Social Textbook Page No. 122
Read the following table.
- For every activity mentioned above in the farms, daily wages decided by government are less, they seem to be. However, there is a lot of variation across regions.
- For ploughing men get more than the amount mentioned above.
- For sowing and weeding also more earnings will be here.
- Here all activities are charged per acre and distributed among those who worked there.
- So, comparatively they earn more compared to those mentioned wages of government.
Find out the minimum wage and compare with this.
- Minimum wage mentioned above is ₹ 118 for women for threshing.
- Whereas women here is get more than that nearly ₹ 300/- per day when they are doing threshing work.
- So the amount they get here is more than that was listed by government.
Why do you think men receive a higher wage than women for the same job? Discuss.
- There are works in farming like ploughing fixed for men.
- There are several others like transplanting and picking cotton are fixed for women.
- But the remaining farm works can be done by both men and women.
- Among them also more wages were set up by the government for men compared to women.
- Because men are physically strong.
- With that energy they got, they complete the works neatly and quickly.
- Thus men receive higher wage than women.
10th Class Social Textbook Page No. 124
Surplus and Capital for Production
Consider three farmers. Each has grown wheat on his field though the production is different as in Column 2. To analyse the situation faced by different farmers we need to assume that some conditions are the same for all. To keep things simple, let us suppose the following conditions:
- The consumption of wheat by each farmer family is the same (Column 3).
- The whole of surplus wheat this year is used as seeds for working capital for the next year’s production by all the farmers. They also have land to do so.
- Also suppose, production output is twice the working capital used in production in all the farms. There is no sudden loss in production.
Complete the table.
a) Compare the production of wheat by the three farmers over the years.
- Farmer 1 will have more surplus over the years.
- Farmer will have surplus which is enough for next year’s capital.
- Farmer 3 will have to borrow the capital from second year onwards.
b) What happens to the Farmer 3 in Year 3? Can he continue production? What will he have to do to continue production?
- The farmer 3 in year 3 will not have any capital.
- He cannot continue production like that.
- He will have to borrow capital for third year.
10th Class Social Textbook Page No. 126
What physical capital did Mishrilal need to set up this process?
- Mishrilal set up the process wherein he can prepare jaggery.
- Earlier sugarcane was crushed by using bullocks.
- But these days people prefer to do it by machines.
- Mishrilal has purchased mechanical sugarcane crushing machine run on electricity.
- That is the physical capital he needed to set up this process.
Who provides the labour in this case?
- The labour in this case is provided by Mishrilal himself.
- At times, he may be supported by his family members.
Why is Mishrilal unable to increase his profit? Think of reasons when he could face a loss.
- Mishrilal prepares jaggery from sugarcane with a machine.
- He sells it to traders at Jahangirabad.
- He uses the sugarcane he has cultivated and also buys sugarcane from others.
- Thus he is making a small profit.
- His production is in small scale, he also buys from others, the sugarcane and there is mechanism to provide him with minimum support price.
- He sells to traders at Jahangirabad which results in transportation expenses.
- So he is unable to increase his profit.
- He could face loss when the prices of jaggery in the marked are decreased sharply.
Why does Mishrilal sell jaggery to traders in Jahangirabad and not in his village?
- Mishrilal sells jaggery to traders in Jahangirabad.
- He cannot sell all the jaggery he has made in Rampur itself.
- So he would sell it to the traders of Jahangirabad.
On whose land is the shop located?
The shop is located on the land of the shopkeeper.
Who supplies labour to these small shops selling eatables?
1) These small shops selling eatables are run by the shopkeepers.
2) They are assisted by the woman and the children in the family.
Guess what working capital would such shops require.
- Shopkeepers buy goods that villagers produce.
- They supply it to shops/markets in bigger villages/towns.
- They sell wide range of small items like rice, wheat, sugar, tea, oil, biscuits, soap, toothpaste, batteries, candles, notebooks, pen, pencil and even some cloth.
- Shopkeepers need working capital to buy and stock all these to sell off.
List the physical capital items.!?
- They need shop set up that is prepared.
- Different almirahs, boxes, weights and measures like balance, stones etc.
From a hawker in your area find out the daily sales. How will you find out if there is some savings? Discuss with your teacher.
- Srinivas is a hawker from our area.
- He has a fruit vending career,
- He invests nearly a thousand rupees to buy fruits like guava, apple or orange etc.
- He sells and makes a profit of nearly ₹ 400 per day.
- It is learnt that he has some savings around ₹ 50,000 after meeting all his family expenditures.
10th Class Social Textbook Page No. 127
What is Kishore’s fixed capital?
- Kishore bought a buffalo.
- He attached a wooden cart to his buffalo.
- Buffalo and cart are the only fixed capital of Kishore.
What do you think would be his working capital?
- He gets the fodder for the buffalo.
- He takes care of the minor repairs of the wooden cart.
- These would be his working capital.
In how many production activities is Kishore involved?
- Kishore is involved in four different production activities.
- With his buffalo and wooden cart he transports various items.
- Once in a week, he goes to Ganges to bring clay for the potter to prepare pots.
- Sometimes he goes to Jahangirabad with a load of jaggery or other commodities.
- Every month he gets some work in transport.
Would you say that Kishore has benefited from better roads in Rampur?
- Kishore has definitely benefited from the better roads in Rampur.
- Because of them he is able to transport various items and people.
- He is able to earn more than what he used to do some years back.