AP State Syllabus SSC 10th Class Social Studies Solutions 8th Lesson People and Migration
10th Class Social Studies 8th Lesson People and Migration Textbook Questions and Answers
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Draw a table with the following items and summarise various examples in the context of migrant labourers.
- Migrant labour
- Reasons for the migration
- Living standards of the migrants
- Economic impact on their lives
- Economic impact on the lives of people from where they migrated.
Compare and contrast the migration from rural to urban areas and rural to rural areas.
|Migration from Rural to Urban Area||Migration from Rural to Rural Area|
|People migrate due to insufficient employment.||People migrate seasonally when there is a lot of work.|
|Hope for higher incomes, better services, more opportunities for family members.||Most tribal and low caste people migrate.|
|Work as labourers and in unorganised sectors.||They are not skilled.|
|Work in industries and service activities.||They work for meagre wages.|
|Greater freedom and less discrimination based on caste and gender.||They live in poor conditions of living.|
|Remittance supplement family income.||They find employment in sugarcane cutting, rice production activities, mining, tea plantations, fish processing etc.|
Which of the following could be considered as seasonal migration? Why?
- Women moving from their parents’ house to husband’s house due to marriage
- Turmeric harvesters moving from one district to another district in Tamil Nadu for three months in a year
- Cycle rickshaw pullers in Delhi coming from rural parts of Bihar for six months a year
- Women from Nalgonda district come to work as domestic maids in Hyderabad
- This could not be considered as a seasonal migration. In accordance with our social norms wife is supposed to live permanently in the house of her husband.
- This could be considered as a seasonal migration. Because duration of the season is three months, which is below the 6 months norm.
- This could be considered as a seasonal migration as it is not more than 6 months and the migration is done every year.
- This could not be considered as seasonal migration as the domestic maids need to serve
throughout the year.
Do you think migrants are trouble makers/trouble shooters in their destinations? Justify your answer.
- I think migrants are trouble shooters.
- In almost all examples from our lesson, migrants served the purpose.
- They were nowhere trouble makers.
- But for them, most works cannot be easily completed.
- Though they lived in inhumane conditions, they worked hard.
- Apart from these, they eke out a living.
The following are migrants of different types. Classify th into internal and international migrants.
a) People going from India to Saudi Arabia to work as technicians
b) Agricultural labourers going from Bihar to Punjab
c) Brick workers going from Odisha to Andhra Pradesh
d) Teachers going from China to India to teach Chinese to Indian children
‘Most children of migrant families become dropouts.’ Do you agree with this statement? Justify your answer.
- Most children of migrant families become dropouts.
- I do agree with this statement.
- Children accompanying their parents do not have creche facilities.
- Grown-up children are not able to continue their studies at their parents’ new work places.
- Schools in their native place refuse to take them again when they come back.
- They finally become dropouts.
- Young girls in such families are required to take care of siblings and many of them become dropouts.
How does rural to urban migration increase the purchasing power of people in rural areas?
How does migration affect the purchasing power of people?
- Rural to urban migration increases the purchasing power of people in rural areas.
- Remittances are an important means of supplementing or generating additional income for the rural families.
- Migration allows households to meet debt and other obligations without having to sell assets.
- The majority of migrants either remit or bring back savings.
- Migrant families buy house, land, agricultural machinery and consumer durables.
- Thus, their purchasing power increases.
Why are only professionals able to go to developed countries? Why cannot unskilled workers migrate to these countries?
- Professionals are able to go to developed countries.
- Unskilled workers cannot migrate to these countries.
- Developed countries depend a lot on industries and service sector.
- They require people with technical skills and professionals.
- So, the unskilled workers cannot serve the purpose.
- Thus, there is no scope for unskilled workers to migrate to developed countries.
Why are only unskilled workers from India wanted in West Asian countries?
- Only unskilled workers from India are wanted in West Asian countries.
- Semi-skilled workers also migrate to these countries.
- They are oil-exporting countries.
- They employ workers on contract basis.
- They empldy workers on large scale with lower wages.
- They do not nekL^technically skilled or professionals for these jobs.
- Besides, the need to pay handsome perks and emoluments.
- Thus, only unskilled workers are wanted in West Asian countries.
Why are workers from three states able to go to a considerable extent to work in West Asia?
- Unskilled and semi-skilled workers migrate to West Asian countries.
- Nearly three fifths of workers going to West Asia are from Kerala, Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh.
- A considerable section of these are engaged in construction projects, maintenance services, transport and telecommunications.
- Most work in oil exporting work.
- Nearly 30-40 years back many people from these three states went there.
- They are using the contacts and network in West Asia and making to migrate others from their birth places.
Describe the similarities and differences between the impacts of internal and international migration.
People generally migrate to improve their standard of living. Sometimes it is internal and sometimes internationals. The differences are:
|Internal Migration||International Migration|
|1) Due to insufficient employment, inadequate income, with hope of higher incomes, better services people migrate.||1) People with technical skills and professional expertise have migrated to developed countries.|
|2) Work as hawkers, painters, mechanics, rickshaw pullers, construction labour etc.||2) Unskilled and semi-skilled workers migrate to oil exporting countries of the West Asia.|
|3) Engage in industry and service activities.||3) These are engaged in construction projects, maintenance services, transport and telecommunications.|
|4) Remittances are important to families.||4) Families are able to pay back loans, buy assets and standard of life improves.|
|5) They supplement and generate additional incomes.||5) Kerala has recorded a stupendous growth in remittances from other countries.|
|6) These people retain economic ties in rural areas.|
|7) Family decides member to migrate or not.|
10th Class Social Studies 8th Lesson People and Migration InText Questions and Answers
10th Class Social Textbook Page No. 102
Draw a sketch map showing Kurnool district along with Nandyala town. Mark arrow lines linking the names listed in the case study.
Here is a list of a few people. Categorise them as migrant or non-migrant. Indicate the pattern and guess the probable reasons for migration.
10th Class Social Textbook Page No. 103
Read the following table and complete the required information.
10th Class Social Textbook Page No. 105
In the following map, what are the states from which migrant come to Delhi ?
From Bihar, Haryana and Uttar Pradesh, migrants come to Delhi
In the following map, form which states do the people migrate to Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka?
- From Karnataka migrants come to Andhra Pradesh.
- There is no migration from other states to Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh..
In the following map, look at Tamil Nadu, what could be reasons out-migration and in migration?
- People migrate to Tamil Nadu to acquire new skills, to find new jobs, to find job in the film industry and to earn a better salary.
- People migrate from Tamil Nadu to Kerala in the tourism industry.
10th Class Social Textbook Page No. 106
Interview a person who has come to a town to work in the unorganized sector as a labourer or domestic servant and write her story (see the case study of Ramaiah).
Seethamma – a domestic helper in Bengaluru.
I hail from Pedavadlapudi village, Mangalagiri Mandal, Guntur District. I am 56 years old. We have two male children. Both of them are married off. My husband used to pull rickshaw. But his untimely death, a few years ago made my life miserable. We have some debts to be repaid.
A woman of acquaintance introduced me to Mr. and Mrs. Rao. Both of them are software professionals. They hail from our village and are working in Bengaluru. They were married two years back. Recently Mrs. Rao gave birth to a male child. As they couldn’t afford to foster him in time, I was asked to take care of the child and work as a domestic helper.
They cleared our debts in advance and deduct them from my wage. I go to my place for some festivals.
If you live in a rural area, interview a person who has come on a vacation from working in a town in the unorganized sector, write his story (see the case study of Ramaiah).
Suresh – a salesman in a readymade shop.
I was a resident of Pedakonduru village of Duggirala Mandal in Guntur District. I studied up to 5th class in Pedakonduru elementary school and later up to 10th class in Pedapalem, a 2 km journey upwards. Later I could not continue my studies.
Later I went to Vijayawada, a 17 km distant city in nearby district Krishna. I joined ‘Step-n- Style’ a readymade garment shop at Patamata in Vijayawada. Except salary they do not provide me with any other facility. It is the work under unorganized sector. Our shop works 7 days a week. Each one is allowed to take a weekly off on a different day of the week.
I have been working there for the last 17 years. I had pleasure working there for that much time. At times, we aren’t even given off on festival days. Most of the customers are of friendly nature and we don’t usually have any tensions.
Compare and contrast these two situations.
- Both of them do not work in any organised sector.
- Both of them are paid low.
- Both of them are denied of good health and family care programmes.
- Domestic helper’s life took different turn after facing many difficulties.
- Salesman was unable to get well educated.
- He was contented and did not attempt to improve his education.
- Both of them work in different working conditions.
10th Class Social Textbook Page No. 107
Why are contacts and networks essential for getting jobs in urban areas?
- Contacts and networks are crucial for getting jobs in urban areas.
- Migration is the survival strategy for many families.
- Villagers pre-arrange their jobs from rural areas.
- They come to urban areas through their contacts or networks.
- Migrants also pass on the urban opportunities to the rural masses.
- So that potential migrants can engage in rural-based job research.
Calculate the total number of persons added to urban population for each period and percentage of each group. Write sentences for each bullet point.
- During 1961-71, there were 31 million (20 + 5 + 6) people added in the urban population. In terms of percentage, 65% increase was due to natural increase, 16% was due to expansion of urban areas and 19% was due to migration.
- During 1971-81, there were 50 million people added in the urban population. In terms of percentage, 52% increase was due to natural increase, 28 was due to expansion of urban areas and 20 was due to migration.
- During 1981-1991 there were 56 million people added in the urban population. In terms of percentage, 63% increase was due to natural increase, 14% was due to expansion of urban areas and 23% was due to migration.
- During 1991-2001, there were 67 million people added in the urban population. In terms of percentage, 60% increase was due to natural increase, 19% was due to expansion of urban areas and 21% was due to migration.
10th Class Social Textbook Page No. 108
Observe the graph given on page 107 in Textbook and answer the following questions.
a) How would you construct a table to show the effect of migration for the entire period 1961 – 2011?
b) When people move out of rural areas which sector of the economy in the rural area loses the most number of people? Why?
- When people move out of rural areas primary sector of economy in the rural area loses the most number of people.
- Had they not been moved out of rural areas, they would have taken part in agriculture and allied activities.
- So, primary sector is losing the most number of people.
c) In urban areas, what are the common sector(s) of the economy in which migrants from the rural areas find employment? What are the reasons for this?
- Most urban migrants find employment in the unorganised sector.
- They work as hawkers, painters, mechanics, rickshaw pullers, construction labour etc.
- They come to work in industries and other service activities.
- They have opportunities for education and acquiring skills.
- Urban areas also appear to offer greater freedom and somewhat less discrimination based on caste and gender.
- They want to increase their income and they desire better family prospects.
10th Class Social Textbook Page No. 109
Why is there a shortage of sugarcane cutters in western Maharashtra ?
- There is a shortage of sugarcane cutters in western Maharashtra.
- Maharashtra produces about 70 % of sugar in the country.
- It has about 186 cooperative sugar factories.
- Large scale sugarcane cultivation began here in the early 1970s after the Koina dam was built.
- Sugarcane cutting requires a lot of workers.
- It needed to be transported to mills at the earliest.
- As many of the western Maharashtra farmers are growing sugarcane, there is a shortage of sugarcane cutters.
- On the contrary, central Maharashtra, i.e., Vidharbha region is less cultivated, so there is scope of migration.
What would happen to children who come with their parents? Is it possible to bring these children to schools? Are there any provisions in the government laws for educating these children?
- The children who come with their parents are engaged in piling the canes that are cut and removed the leaves if they are of working age.
- As their parents are living in bamboo huts, it is difficult for children to go to school.
- It is a seasonal migration.
- There is no provision of schools.
- It is possible to bring these children to schools.
- It requires a lot of care and interest on the part of the government.
- There are provisions like setting up of Bridge schools and seasonal hostels for children of migrated parents.
Why are sugarcane cutters employed only for six months? What work might they do during the other six months of the year?
- Sugarcane cutters are employed only for six months.
- Because the season ends with it.
- Sugarcane cutters come there due to distress caused in rural areas.
- They might do agricultural works or MNREGA works during the other six months of the year.
How could the living conditions of these workers be improved?
- They live in small conical huts.
- They live together with animals in congested conditions.
- They have to fight exhaustion all the time.
- The living conditions of these workers have to be improved.
- The owners of sugarcane cultivating lands, the government at the state and even local self governments should take initiative to develop their living conditions.
- They should set up health clinics, make shift houses and schools, fix proper wages and work hours.
- See that children are not engaged in work, but sent to schools.
The seven districts in western Maharashtra- Nasik, Ahmadnagar, Pune, Satara, Sangli, Kolhapur and Sholapur – comprise the “sugar belt” which extends into Surat (Gujarat) in the north and Belgaum (Karnataka) in the south. Five districts of the arid Marathwada region – Beed, Jalgaon, Ahmadnagar, Nasik and Jalna – send out labour to this sugar belt for six months every year for sugarcane harvesting.
Draw arrow lines on a map showing districts of origin and destination of migrants.
10th Class Social Textbook Page No. 110
Describe an example of seasonal migration of your region.
- People from our region migrate to Guntur and other towns to work in tobacco barons.
- With the gap in agricultural activities, many of the landless poor and even marginal farmers migrate there in search of employment.
- Leaving the children with grandparents, they migrate to work in barons.
- They bring back their savings.
10th Class Social Textbook Page No. 111
What can be done so that migrants are able to get food, health and family care programmes?
- Migrants should get good food, health and family care programmes.
- It should be made possible for them to get food from fair price shops at their work places.
- Make-shift hospitals with doctors and nurses are to be established at or near the work places.
- Necessary care must be taken to prevent accidents in work places.
- Unorganised sector workers are also to be provided with access to various health and family care programmes.
There are some initiatives taken by government and voluntary agencies. Find out if there is any such initiative in your area. Invite some persons from such agencies for a talk in the school.
National boundaries are protected against migrants. Here are examples of
a) USA on Mexican border
b) South Korea on North Korean border
c) India on Bangladesh border.
What do you think of migrants across the border?
In the above figures the national boundaries of Mexico – the USA, South Korea – North Korea and India – Bangladesh are shown. It is common to arrange a fence between two countries along the border. The soldiers belonging to both the countries always safeguard the borders. But, due to many reasons different people try to cross the borders and enter the neighbouring countries. Some among them are terrorists who resort to violence and destruction in their enemy countries. They are induced and inspired by respective countries. They are called state sponsored terrorists.
In terms of employment and infrastructure, America is more attractive than Mexico. That is the reason why some people enter that country in illegal ways. Both South Korean and North Korean governments have different doctrines. One is communist whereas the other is capitalist. Those who differ with other countries’ doctrines try to cross the borders and go from one country to other for the sake of spying.
In Bangladesh, the rule has been dictatorial and the life of people there has been pathetic for ages. So some people of that country cross the border and enter the democratic country India. The states such as Paschim Banga and Assam are facing a grave problem with these people.
It’s a crime to cross the borders in an illegal way. And these people become a problem to the country they enter.
10th Class Social Textbook Page No. 112
Draw arrow lines on a World Map depicting people from India going to different countries mentioned in the above passages.
- United Kingdom
- Saudi Arabia