AP SSC 10th Class Social Studies Solutions Chapter 22 Citizens and the Governments

AP State Board Syllabus AP SSC 10th Class Social Studies Solutions Chapter 22 Citizens and the Governments Textbook Questions and Answers.

AP State Syllabus SSC 10th Class Social Studies Solutions 22nd Lesson Citizens and the Governments

10th Class Social Studies 22nd Lesson Citizens and the Governments Textbook Questions and Answers

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AP SSC 10th Class Social Studies Solutions Chapter 22 Citizens and the Governments

Question 1.
Using the following case study, explain the role of different Departments of the Government and citizens in the context of RTI. Also write how can the the RTI make functioning of the governments more transparent.

Following incident occurred in Chinnashankarampet of Medak district. Members of the Self Help Groups joined in Abhaya Hastam, Aam Aadmi schemes of the Rural Welfare Ministry of the State Government. Under this scheme their children who were students of classes 9 to 12 were eligible for scholarship of Rs. 1200. However for 3 years students have not been receiving the amount for the years during 2008-11. The students went to the IKP (Indira Kranthi Pathakam) office and enquired about it but the officers ignored their requests.

This came to the notice of the local newspapers. Now they applied to the officers concerned for the information with regard to the scholarships sanctioned. They asked about the number of beneficiaries and the amount sanctioned during 2008-09, 09-10 and 10-11. They got rqply in one week. The amount was 7 lakh rupees. It became clear from the RTI records that even though the amount was sanctioned, it was not distributed. When it was published in the newspapers the amount was distributed to 1167 children within 15 days.

Answer:
Following the case study above we can assess the role of the departments handling different schemes like SHG, IKP, Abhaya Hastam and Aam Aadmi, etc.
Having learnt of the knowledge of RTI and applying for information of the scholarships sanctioned helped the beneficiaries.
The RTI can make the functioning of the Government more transparent. Students who did not receive scholarships for 3 long years were given the same within 15 days. Not only that not providing information asks for punishment on the part of PIOs.

AP SSC 10th Class Social Studies Solutions Chapter 22 Citizens and the Governments

Question 2.
How do you think RTI would help in improving and monitoring the work of the governments?
“RTI would help in improving and monitoring the work of the governments”- Do you agree with this? Support your answer.
Answer:

  1. In any democratic system, governments are responsible and accountable to people.
  2. Earlier accountability of government departments and its functionaries were mostly limited to the elected representatives of people.
  3. Enactment of the RTI effectively means that individual government departments now have a responsibility to maintain records and make them available to any citizen who may ask for it.
  4. So, if there are any discrepancies, they will be brought out and who are responsible will be given punishments.
  5. So, in this way government functioning can be bettered and monitored well.

Question 3.
What is identified as information? How is this generated in Government Departments? Would it include oral communication between senior and junior officers?
Answer:

  1. According to RTI Act, information is defined as material in any form, including records, documents, memos, e-mails, opinions, advices, press releases, circulars, orders, logbooks, contracts, reports, papers, samples, models, data material held in any electronic form, and information relating to any private body which can be assessed by a public authority under any other law for the time being in force.
  2. Enactment of the RTI effectively means that individual government departments now have a responsibility to maintain records and make them available to any citizen who may ask for it.
  3. The oral instructions or oral communication between senior and junior officers do not fall in this category.

AP SSC 10th Class Social Studies Solutions Chapter 22 Citizens and the Governments

Question 4.
Why are the State and Central Information Offices given autonomy?
Answer:

  1. Every government offices have a Public Information Officer (PIO) and Assistant Public Information Officer (APIO) and appellate authority in department.
  2. All PIOs and APIOs of all departments and departmental appellate authorities are under autonomous appellate State Public Information Office with a State Public Information Commissioner (SPIC).
  3. If a government department fall under Central government, PIOs are accountable to autonomous Central Information Office with a Central Public Information Commissioner (CPIC).
  4. They are given autonomy because they need to deal with the PIOs who rejected to provide information.
  5. They should not yield under any pressure that is why they must be independent.

Question 5.
This (RTI 2005) Act resembles the true spirit of democracy. How do you justify?
Answer:

  1. In a democracy, it is the people’s money that is used for their welfare and therefore people have every right to know how this is being used.
  2. People can participate in government and ensure just development only if they have sufficient information in the form of official documents.
  3. In situations where information has to be made public, arbitrary decisions by the elected representatives or the officials can be controlled.
  4. Information is crucial to human development, and democratic rights.
  5. Information will make governments more accountable in their functioning and check the possibility of corrupt practices.
  6. Thus, this Act (RTI Act of 2005) resembles the true spirit of democracy.

Question 6.
What steps have been taken to ensure that any citizen can access information from the different government departments in the country?
Answer:
Under the provisions of 2005 Act of RTI, public authorities are obliged to
a) maintain all information in a computerised format
b) publish all detailed information pertaining to the information some of it fbitn the Act as follows:

  1. Every public authority shall
    a) Maintain all its records duly catalogued and indexed.
    b) The authority shall publish the particulars of its organisation, functions and duties.
  2. The powers and duties of its officers and employees to be published.
  3. The procedure followed in the decision making process, including channels of supervision and accountability;
  4. The rules, regulations, instructions, manuals and records, held by it or under its control or used by its employees for discharging its functions.

AP SSC 10th Class Social Studies Solutions Chapter 22 Citizens and the Governments

Question 7.
How do you think the Legal Services Authority would help the people in seeking legal aid?
Answer:

  1. There is a system in our country to provide free legal service to the people.
  2. Under the Legal Services Authority (amendment) Act, 2002, legal services authorities are constituted to provide free and legal services to the weaker sections of the society.
  3. This is to ensure that opportunities for securing justice are not denied to any citizen by reasons of economic or other disabilities and to organize Lok Adalats to ensure that the operation of the legal system promotes justice on an equal opportunity basis.
  4. In this way, Legal Services Authority would help the people in seeking legal aid.

Question 8.
What is the purpose of Lok Adalat?
Answer:

  1. Lok Adalat meahs people’s court.
  2. All are equal before law.
  3. The Article 39A of the Constitution of India contains various provisions for settlement of disputes.
  4. It is an act to constitute legal services, authorities to provide free and competent legal services to the weaker sections of the society.
  5. It is to ensure that opportunities for securing justice or not denied to any citizen by reason of economic or other disabilities.
  6. To organise Lok Adalats to secure that the operation of the legal system promotes justice on a basis of equal opportunity.
  7. This is the purpose of Lok Adalat.

(OR)

  1. The main aim of Lok Adalat is to provide free legal aid to poor and weaker sections and also faster settlement of long pending cases on mutual consent.
  2. Lok Adalat facilitates the peaceful, amicable, compromise or settlement of cases.
  3. It is meant to reduce the burden of the courts.

AP SSC 10th Class Social Studies Solutions Chapter 22 Citizens and the Governments

Question 9.
What do you think on the eligible criteria for free legal services and nature of cases under this Act?
Answer:
i) Persons entitled to get free legal support are

  1. A member of scheduled caste or scheduled tribe.
  2. A victim of trafficking in human being or beggars.
  3. Women and children.
  4. A mentally ill or otherwise disabled person.
  5. Persons who are victims of mass disaster, ethnic violence, caste atrocity, flood, drought earthquake and industrial disaster.
  6. Industrial workers.
  7. Persons in custody.
  8. Persons with annual income of not more than Rs. 1 lakh

ii) Nature of cases under this Act.
Matrimonial disputes, maintenance cases, harassment cases by husbands and in-laws, domestic violence cases, all types of civil cases, land disputes, compoundable criminal cases etc.

Question 10.
Compare and contrast the procedures of conflict/case resolution by the Village Community elders and by courts. Which do you prefer and why?
Answer:

  1. In our country, it is common that conflicts in the villages and in the communities are addressed by the village/community elders.
  2. They settle them in a peaceful and amicable way by discussing the various issues and concerns.
  3. The nature of conflict and disputes and their origin are mostly known to the local people and village elders.
  4. This facilitates to find out amicable solutions in a transparent way.
  5. Now Lok Adalats are functioning to settle disputes/cases in an amicable atmosphere by mutual consent in the presence of legal experts, officials and non-officials, dignitaries.
  6. People are now using it for expeditious and inexpensive justice.
  7. It is an opportunity to settle long pending court cases through Lok Adalat in short time and without any expenses.
  8. It is an old form of dispute/ conflict resolution system valid now also.

AP SSC 10th Class Social Studies Solutions Chapter 22 Citizens and the Governments

10th Class Social Studies 22nd Lesson Citizens and the Governments InText Questions and Answers

10th Class Social Textbook Page No. 316

Question 1.
Discuss what could be the reason information would not include oral (instruction of a headmaster to a teacher.
Answer:

  1. RTI Act has defined information as the following:
  2. Material in any form, including records, documents, memos, e-mails, opinions, advices, press releases, circulars, orders, logbooks, contracts, reports, papers, samples, models.
  3. Data material held in any electronic form and information relating to any private body which can be assessed by a public authority under any other law for the time being in force.
  4. In this, the oral instructions are not included as they were not in written form.
  5. Thus, the oral instruction of a headmaster to a teacher would not be included in information.

Question 2.
Imagine how would government departments would become more accountable when rules and regulations are followed within prescribed manner.
Answer:

  1. Government departments have the responsibility to use the people’s money for their welfare.
  2. For every department there are rules and regulations that are to be followed within a prescribed manner.
  3. If all the departments follow them, automatically they will be more accountable to people.
  4. Not only that their functioning would become transparent and free from corruption.
  5. Machinery to monitoring them is essential and they must be given applause if they are behaving accountable to people.

10th Class Social Textbook Page No. 318

AP SSC 10th Class Social Studies Solutions Chapter 22 Citizens and the Governments

Question 3.
According to this Act (RTI 2005), if any officer fails to give the specified information, she/he will have to pay the fine. Do you agree with this? Why?
Answer:

  1. According to this Act, if any officer fails to give the specified information she/he will have to pay fine.
  2. I do agree with it.
  3. It prevents corruption.
  4. It provides for accountability and transparency.
  5. It prevents PIOs from shying away of information.
  6. If a fine is imposed on one PIO then it acts as deterrent and most PIOs realise the impact of not giving information.
  7. Apart from making the PIOs responsible in case of not providing information, they should be appreciated.

Question 4.
What type of information is not accessible to the citizens? What is the argument in favour of this?
Answer:

  1. Information that could affect the sovereignty and integrity of India.
  2. Matters that could be of strategic economic on scientific interest of the state in the context of foreign powers.
  3. Most of our armed forces and security agencies are outside the purview of Information Commission.
  4. It is correct on the part of government not to share the information that is vital and affect the country,. . . . ..
  5. If information of strategic importance was disclosed and reached the hands of foreign powers, the damage that could be caused cannot be estimated.
  6. Citizens should also have some self restraint and not to seek the information which causes the worry to National Government.

10th Class Social Textbook Page No. 320

AP SSC 10th Class Social Studies Solutions Chapter 22 Citizens and the Governments

Question 5.
What sort of opportunities are existing in our country for free legal services to the poor people who cannot afford to pay court fees and other related expenses?
Answer:

  1. There is a system in our country to provide free legal service to the people.
  2. Under Legal Services Authority (amendment) Act, 2002 Legal Services Authorities are constituted to provide free legal services to the weaker sections of the society.
  3. This is to ensure that opportunities for securing justice are not denied to any citizen by reason of economic or other disabilities.
  4. To organise Lok Adalats to ensure that the operation of the legal system promotes justice on equal opportunity basis.

Question 6.
What is the nature of cases and conflicts that can be addressed through free legal services?
Answer:

  1. The legal services authority through Lok Adalats settles long pending court cases in short time without any expenses.
  2. Matrimonial disputes, maintenance cases, harassment cases by husband and in-laws, domestic violence cases can be addressed through free legal service.
  3. All types of civil cases, land disputes, compoundable criminal cases, etc. can be settled amicably and permanently by Lok Adalats without any fees or expenses through free legal services.

Question 7.
Is there any mechanism for alternate dispute resolution outside the courts?
Answer:

  1. There is one mechanism for alternate dispute resolution outside the courts.
  2. Conflicts in villages/ communities are addressed by village/ community elders.
  3. They resolute conflicts in a peaceful and amicable way by discussing various issues/ concerns.
  4. The nature of conflicts/disputes and their origin are mostly known to village elders.
  5. This facilitates to find out an amicable solution in a transparent way.
  6. Thus outside the courts the conflicts/disputes are addressed and resoluted by village elders.

AP SSC 10th Class Social Studies Solutions Chapter 22 Citizens and the Governments

Question 8.
Do you support the Lok Adalats? If so, why?
Answer:

  1. I support Lok Adalats because there is no court fee, if paid it will be refunded if the dispute is settled.
  2. It has procedural flexibility and speedy trial of the disputes.
  3. The parties of the dispute can directly interact with the judge through their council.
  4. The Award by Lok Adalat is binding on the parties with a status of decree of civil court.
  5. Provides free legal advice form the advocates.
  6. Provides photocopies of judgements on free of cost.