SCERT AP Board 10th Class Social Solutions 16th Lesson National Movement in India–Partition & Independence Textbook Questions and Answers.
AP State Syllabus SSC 10th Class Social Studies Solutions 16th Lesson National Movement in India–Partition & Independence
10th Class Social Studies 16th Lesson National Movement in India–Partition & Independence Textbook Questions and Answers
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Make a table and show how different groups, and individuals in India responded to World War II. What dilemmas were faced by these groups?
|Groups/Individuals||Response to World War-ll|
|Congress||1. Demanded a national government immediately.
2. Should they help the British? – dilemma
3. Opposed to Fascist conquering of sovereign nations.
|Maulana Abdul Kalam Azad in 1940||1. As the president of INC decided to start Individual Satyagrahas.|
|Jawaharlal Nehru||1. Against Fascist countries – to join the British.|
|Subhash Chandra Bose||1. To defeat British to seek the help of Japan and Germany.
2. Formed INA to fight British.
3. Fought for 3 years.
|Mahatma Gandhi||1. Gave a mantra ‘Do or Die’.
2. Mass struggle of ‘Quit India’ movement.
Given the brutal manner in which particular communities like Jews and others were treated in Germany, do you think it would have been morally right to support Germany or Japan?
- Hitler propagated Nazism in Germany.
- They killed lakhs of Jews.
- Even though Japan is a small country in Asia, has been competing with powerful European nations and started colonialism in the name of Pan Asianism.
- So, morally it is not right to support Germany or Japan.
Make a list of various reasons for the Partition of the country.
Write a short note on various consequences of partition of India.
- The Muslim League thought of reserved seats for Muslims, where they are the majority.
- Congress accepted this logic, so, from 1909 separate electorates were implemented.
- League pointed out many issues and blamed Congress of insensitivity to the needs of Muslims.
- The fears of League were fueled by British ‘Divide and Rule Policy’.
- League was able to convince Muslim masses of the benefits and need for a separation.
- When Cabinet Mission recommended India was to be united, League opposed it.
- They asked people to come out on the streets and riots and violence and thousands of people were dead.
- So it was inevitable for the partition of India.
What were the different ways in which power sharing among different communities was organised before Partition?
- Before the Partition there were different ways in which power sharing among different communities was organised.
- There were too many organizations like the Muslim League, Congress, Hindu Maha Jana Sabha, Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh, etc. in function in India.
- There were separate electorates for Muslims both provincial assemblies and in central assembly.
- In 1946, Muslim League won all 30 seats in the Centre and 442 out of 509 seats in the provinces.
- It had got more than 86% of the Muslim votes.
- In 1946 the Congress swept the general constituencies, capturing over 91% of the non-Muslim vote.
How did British colonialists practise their ‘divide and rule’ policy in India? How was it similar or different from what you have studied about Nigeria? (OR)
How did the British implement “Divide and rule” policy in India ?
- The British colonialists practised their Divide and Rule Policy in India.
- They encouraged Muslims to set up a separate party Muslim League in 1906.
- They set separate electorate for Muslims from 1909.
- They gave communal electorate to Sikhs also in 1932.
- They also extended separate electorate to Dalits.
- Thus, all the time they wanted to weaken the hold of Congress on people, which is fighting hard against them for Independence.
In Nigeria, in 1939 the British separated the Yoruba and Igbo regions into Western and Eastern Nigeria and encouraged competition and conflict between the three major tribal groups so as to be able to “divide and rule” the country.
- In the Indian context, the basic truth is that the British did rule and, they did try to divide opposition.
- Divide and rule was seen in the following actions :
a) Partition of Bengal
b) Encouraging formation of Muslim League,
c) Separate electorates for Muslims and for SC.
- The idea that ‘Divide and Rule’ was such a set and evil strategy that it actively, logically led on to partition of our country.
- To solve the minority question, the British imperialists, implementing their policy of divide and rule, separated the continent into a Hindu and a Muslim state.
What were the different ways in which religion was used in politics before Partition? (Or)
Trace out role of religion before the Partition of India.
- Religion played a crucial role in politics before Partition.
- To weaken Congress’s hold over the people, the British vigorously followed ‘Divide and Rule’ policy.
- So with support and encouragement of British, Muslim League for Muslims was started.
- Separate electorate and reserved seats for Muslims were there from 1909.
- Hindu Maha Sabha and Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh wished to unite all Hindus overcoming caste divisions.
- As minorities, Muslims made a demand to carve out a new state from regions where they were majorities.
- The League created an impression that Congress was basically a Hindu party.
- There were riots broke out and several thousand people dead after Cabinet Mission plan was rejected.
How were workers and peasants mobilised during the last years of freedom struggle? (Or)
“Peasants were also restless during British rule.” Give your opinion.
- On Feb. 22,1946,3 lakh mill workers put down their tools in Bombay and fought violently for two days.
- Small and poor peasants agitated in Bengal for 2/3 of the crop for them instead of 1/2 crop then.
- This was called ‘Tebhaga’ movement and was led by Provincial Kisan Sabha.
- In Telangana farmers opposed land owners and demanded their debts to be cancelled.
- They also demanded that bonded labour should be stopped and land be distributed to those who worked on it.
- Peasants took up arms to fight against the rulers and their armies.
- Armed revolt of peasants took place in Travancore in Punnapra-Vayalar.
How did Partition affect the lives of ordinary people? What was the political response to mass migration following Partition?
Read the following paragraph and answer the question given below.
Gandhiji moved amongst riot hit people, in camps and hospitals, spreading the message of peace and brotherhood. This was not the freedom and Swaraj he had worked so hard to achieve. The Father of the Nation fasted and did not celebrate on the first Independence Day.
Comment on the conditions that the people had to face on both sides of the newly drawn border with the creation of Pakistan.
- They felt anger and hatred against each other for being forced to move out of their homes, villages and cities.
- Around 1-5 crore people both Hindus and Muslims were displaced.
- They were killed, looted and burnt.
- Between 2 to 5 lakh both Hindus and Muslims were killed.
- They became refugees, lived in relief camps and hospitals, moved out in trains to find new homes.
- Gandhiji moved amongst riot hit people, in camps and hospitals, spreading the message of peace and brotherhood.
- The Congress now passed a resolution on the rights of minorities.
- Thus, while the nation was celebrating its first independence day, the father of the nation was on fasting.
Integration of various Princely states into the new Indian nation was a challenging task. Discuss.
How were the princely states integrated?
“Integration of various princely state in newly independent India was a challenging task”.
- At the time of withdrawal of British from India, there were around 550 princely states in Indian territory.
- They become independent after the British rule.
- They were asked by the British to decide if they wanted to join India, Pakistan or remain independent.
- In Hyderabad and Travancore peasants were revolting with arms against the ruling Zamindars.
- Sardar Vallabhai Patel was given charge of this matter of merging Princely states into Indian Union in July 1947.
- He began discussing with princes the necessity to join India.
- All Princely States agreed to join Indian Union except Kashmir, Hyderabad and Junagadh.
- In Hyderabad and Junagadh, the rulers were Muslims and majority of population were Hindus, rulers want to join Pakistan people want to Join India, a conflict.
- In Kashmirthe ruler was a Hindu and majority population were Muslims, so a difficulty in consensus.
- Thus it was difficult, but thr^e states were also made to join in the next two years.
- Junagadh was merged after conducting referendum.
- Kashmir was merged after receiving a letter from the ruler.
- But Hyderabad was merged after a police action.
- With great efforts of Patel, this challenging task was completed by merging these states.
- The 550 princely states were given freedom to decide their future. The ordinary people did not want princely states to continue.
- They started movements and revolts.
- Guided by the masterful diplomacy of Sardar Patel, the home minister, most of them acceded to India.
- However, the Nawab of Junagadh, the Nizam of Hyderabad and the Maharaja of Jammu & Kashmir did not accept to unite with India.
- Sardar Patel made it clear that if they do not join India, the army would have to be sent to complete the process of unification.
- With the military action on these, the work of integration of princely states had been completed.
10th Class Social Studies 16th Lesson National Movement in India–Partition & Independence InText Questions and Answers
10th Class Social Textbook Page No. 218
Do you think Indians should have felt grateful to the British government for the powers given by the Act of 1935 ?
- The Government of India Act was passed in 1935 by the British parliament.
- According to this right to vote was given to a small section of population.
- Winning Prime Minister should work under the supervision of a British Governor.
- Indians made a pledge to have complete swaraj in the Lahore session of INC in 1929.
- So, they may not be greatful to British, but they grabbed the opportunity with eagerness.
- It is our country, so we need to elect our representatives.
Do you think the rise of Hitler was such a big threat to the freedom of humanity that Indians should have set aside their fight for freedom from the British and concentrated on the fight for a free world ?
- The rise of Hitler was a big threat to the freedom of humanity.
- He believes in his ‘Nordic’ racial supremacy.
- He was the root cause of the deaths of lakhs of Jews.
- He has the attitude of vengeance. He also hates Communism.
- Indians should have set aside their fight for freedom from the British.
- Indians should have concentrated on the fight for a free world.
According to you, what would be the reasons for and against supporting the British in the World War II ?
Reason for supporting the British:
- Most congress leaders were opposed to Hitler, Mussolini and the ideology of fascism.
- They were determined to resist the Fascist drive to conquer other sovereign nations.
- So India had no other choice it was better to support the British.
Reasons for against the British:
- It is vindicative that they are showing double standards.
- On one side they say they are protecting sovereign nations and on the other, they occupied India.
- They did not even consult Indians before announcing that India would support them.
10th Class Social Textbook Page No. 219
Do you think Congress could have taken some other steps to protest against the attitude of the British?
- A difficult question arose before the Congress leaders.
- Should they support the British in fighting a war against Germany?
- The Congress was torn in its mind over this question.
- The British were willing to give India Dominion Status.
- Congress wanted a promise of full freedom.
- The Congress was upset with the British and walked out of the provincial governments.
- There was no other alternative.
Why did the British not make the promise and win the support of the Indians? After all, in 1939 only a promise was being asked for? Discuss together in class.
- During the Second World War, the British intended to have the support of Indians.
- But Indians demanded full freedom after the War, at least a promise to that effect.
- It was hard for the British to accept that they will really have to dismantle the empire they had built.
- The British objected to this by saying that they have to also protect the interests of several other communities in India.
- With this they implied that congress did not represent all Indians, like Muslims.
- They also implied that congress may be Ignoring the interests of many Indians and the British were required to protect these interests.
When ministers resign, who continues to conduct the day to day affairs of governance ?
When ministers resign, now, the government officials continue to conduct the day to day affairs of governance.
10th Class Social Textbook Page No. 220
Read the passage and answer the following question.
“Through 1940 and 1941, the Congress organised a series of individual satyagrahas to pressure ; the rulers to promise freedom once the war had ended. No major protest was launched.”
Imagine what would happen if Congress leaders stepped up protests against the British government at this point of time ? Would it make the fight for freedom stronger?
- If Congress leaders stepped up protests against the British government at this time, the British would severely punish our leaders and imprison them.
- It would not make the fight form freedom stronger.
10th Class Social Textbook Page No. 221
Discuss the importance of addressing the concerns of minorities. Why is it felt that majority based elections are not enough to help minorities ?
- The traditional notion of democracy has always upheld the voice of the majority over the minority.
- So it is the fundamental importance that the minority is protected against discrimination and exploitation.
- Basically India is a democratic state. In any democracy there is always a danger that the interest of majority conflicts with the interest of minorities. It may not be also.
- If there is such a conflict, it is the interest of majority which will override the interest of the minority even if it happens to an unjust interest.
- So it is felt that majority based elections are not enough to help minorities.
Separate electorate was one method to protect minority interests. Can you think of some other methods that can be helpful for this purpose? For example, would it help if there was a rule that a non Muslim member of a council must consult the Muslim population of his/her constituency before voting on an issue that concerned them? When would such a method work and under what conditions would it fail to be effective ?
- The Indian Constitution paved a way – ‘reservations’ to the minorities. It is a wonderful solution for the problems of minorities.
- It would not help.
- Such a method would work in small village panchayats. In minorities also there may be difference of opinion.
10th Class Social Textbook Page No. 223
How would people assess the possible benefits from the politics of Muslim League? Would they have any doubts? What kind of questions will they have? Discuss.
- League was able to convince the Muslim masses of the benefits and need for a separate nation.
- Peasants could think of a state where Hindu Zamindars and Moneylenders did not exploit them.
- Traders, businessmen and job seekers could think of a state where competition from Hindu traders, businessmen and job seekers would not be there.
- There would be greater religious freedom.
- Muslims had the fears of Hindu domination.
- Their doubt was that it is difficult to protect their interests in an Indian Government.
- i) What about their future in Independent India ?
ii) How would be their conditions as minorities ? etc.
10th Class Social Textbook Page No. 224
Why did the Japanese allow Bose to recruit soldiers whom they had imprisoned?
- Japan and Southeast Asia were major refuges for Indian nationalists living in exile before the start of World War-II.
- Japan has sent an intelligence mission to gain support from the Indian movement.
- These missions were successful in establishing contacts with indian nationalists in exile supporting the establishment and organisation of the indian Independence league.
- At the outbreak of World War – II, in Southeast Asia, 70,000 Indian troups were stationed in Malaya and later imprisoned by Japan after the fall of Malasia and Singapore.
- From these prisoners of war, the first Indian National Army was formed and received considerable Japanese aid and support.
- In 1943 the Japanese invited Bose to lead the Indian Nationalist Movement in East Asia.
- Bose accepted and reached Japan and took the lead.
Why did the Indian soldiers join INA?
- In the beginning, they were soldiers in the British Army.
- They were captured by the Japanese when the British were defeated in Burma and Malaya.
- They were prisoners of war.
- Bose convinced Japan to allow them to form an Army.
- This army would fight alongside of Japan and against the British.
- The soldiers joined Indian National Army with patriotism and national consciousness.
Why were Indian soldiers not scared of losing the war and falling into the hands of the British? What would the British do to them ?
- The Indian soldiers felt very proud to fight for the country, so they didn’t scare of losing the war and felling into the hands of the British.
- They hope, that if the Britishers were defeated in the war we would get independence.
- But in the war Indian army was defeated and punishments were imposed by British.
Review the period 1942-45. How can you say that the resistance of Indian people to the British rule had become more powerful than ever before?
- Mahatma Gandhi decided to launch ‘Quit India’ campaign in 1942.
- Although he was jailed at once, young activists organised strikes all over the country.
- Students^eft their colleges to go to jail.
- Socialist resistance was very active.
- Independent Governments were formed in several districts.
- Bose waged war for 3 years with his INA against mighty British Army.
- All the masses of the country were active against the British.
- So we can say during 1942-45 resistance to British rule had become more powerful than ever before.
10th Class Social Textbook Page No. 225
Imagine the tragic turn of events and how these must have affected the lives of these people.
The soldiers of INA were imprisoned and the British decided to punish them. A trial of INA soldiers was began – to court martial them for being traitors to the army and hanging them to death in punishment.
Unrest and unhappiness and discontent kept erupting in different parts of India as the INA trails proceeded.
In this popular upsurge of nationalist consciousness, the issue of Hindu-Muslim identity and separatist politics often became unimportant.
People were restless with food shortages, rationing of food, high prices, black marketing and hoarding. Railway and postal employees and other government employees were planning to go on India wide strike against prices.
What horror would the other Indians have felt at the thought that the INA soldiers who were like heroes to them were being tried and hanged as traitors by the British ?
- The INA soldiers were like heroes to other Indians.
- They weret^ing tried and hanged as traitors by the British.
- Unrest and unhappiness and discontent kept erupting in different parts of India as the INA trials proceeded.
- Nationalist consciousness was growing and separatist politics became unimportant.
- The people’s anger and sympathy gave no thought to the religion of the soldiers.
10th Class Social Textbook Page No. 226
Review the actions of ordinary masses in the country. What were they demanding ?
- On 18th February 1946, Royal INDIAN NAVY in Bombay came out from harbour on hunger strike.
- The strike committee demanded better food, equal pay for white and Indian sailors release of INA and other political prisoners, withdrawal of Indian troops from Indonesia.
- In 1946 the workers of factories and mills stoppages their work and demand for better wages and solving their problems.
- CPI and the Socialist parties were active in these movements.
- In Bengal small and poor peasants who took land for rental purpose demanded that their share of harvest should be increased.
- The Telangana farmers demanded that debts of farmers be written off, bonded labour be stopped and land be distributed to those who tilled it.
It was noted that religious divisions were not important in many of these mass movements mentioned above. What could be the reason for the unity of the people in these movements?
- Unrest, unhappiness and discontent kept erupting in different parts of India.
- Popular upsurge of nationalist consciousness did not allow separatist religious politics.
- The people’s anger and sympathy gave no thought to the religion of the soldiers.
- All were taking part in movements unitedly.
What were the demands of the Muslim League that were not acceptable to the Congress? Do you agree with the reasons of the Congress ?
- League should have an absolute right to choose all the Muslim members of the Executive Council.
- The separate nation of Pakistan to be carved out of Punjab, NWFP, Sindh, Baluchistan, Afghan and Kashmir.
- These were the demands that were not acceptable to the Congress made by League.
- Congress was correct as sizable Muslim representatives are there from Congress and other party like Unionist Party of Punjab.
According to you, what did the election results of 1946 indicate about public mood ?
- In 1946, elections were held for the Provincial Governments and Central Assembly.
- Muslim League got more than 86% of Muslim votes.
- Congress captured 91% of non-Muslim vote.
- Public mood is vindicative that there is great hope in the Congress in non-Muslim people and, in Muslim League in Muslim people.
10th Class Social Textbook Page No. 228
Newspaper report on Indian Independance. What different items can you identify in it ? Discuss.
- This was the first page of “The Statesman” Newspaper dated Friday, August 15,1947.
- There is political freedom for the fifth of Human race as Two Dominions are born.
- Nehru’s reply to Mr. Attlee that there will be close friendship with the Britain.
- The excellency MnC. Rajagopalachari Sworn as first Governer of West Bengal.
- We can see joyful sceffnes in Calcutta celebrations by Hindus and muslims.
- First Cabinet of India begins to function headed by Pandit Nehru.
- The meeting of Mahatma was listened without interruption.
- And some ad like OMEGA watch is seen here.